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2.
Science ; 379(6629):220-220, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2207288

ABSTRACT

The article reports that China's government abandoned its zero-COVID policy on a major departure from previous assertions, with tally includes hospitalized patients for whom COVID-19 was either the direct cause of death or a contributing factor, as reported by National Health Commission.

3.
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 8(1):38, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2216875

ABSTRACT

The Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus spread primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. Zika cases have been detected throughout the mosquito's range, with an epidemic occurring from 2015 to 2017 in Brazil. Many Zika cases are mild or asymptomatic, but infections in pregnant women can cause microcephaly in children, and a small percentage of cases result in Guillan–Barré syndrome. There is currently little systematic information surrounding the municipal spread of the Zika Virus in Brazil. This article uses coarsened exact matching with negative binomial estimation and ordinary least squares estimation to assess the determinants of Zika incidence across the ~280,000 cases confirmed and recorded by Brazil's Ministry of Health in 2016 and 2017. These data come from Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests in Brazil and have not been published. We use data on the universe of individual Zika cases in Brazil and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to examine the virus at the municipal level across 5570 municipalities and construct a unique, unusually rich dataset covering daily Zika transmission. Additionally, our dataset includes corresponding local data on democratic governance, mosquito control efforts, and environmental conditions to estimate their relationship to Zika transmission. The results demonstrate that the presence of subnational democratic, participatory policymaking institutions and high levels of local state capacity are associated with low rates of Zika contraction. These models control for local healthcare spending and economic conditions, among other factors, that also influence Zika contraction rates. In turn, these findings provide a better understanding of what works for local health governance and mosquito control and makes important data public so that scholars and practitioners can perform their own analyses. Stronger models of Zika transmission will then inform mosquito abatement efforts across the Global South, as well as provide a blueprint for combatting Dengue fever, which is also transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.

4.
American Journal of Public Health ; 113(2):182-184, 2023.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2214969

ABSTRACT

The author comments on the essay "Health Justice: A Framework for Mitigating the Impacts of HIV and COVID-19 on Disproportionately Affected Communties, published in the issue, which proposes a health justice framework, specific to HIV and COVID-19, in the context of health and human rights. Topics covered include relationships between health and human rights identified in the early work of Jonathan Mann and colleagues, the structural interventions proposed and inequities in healthcare access.

5.
BMJ Leader ; 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2213990

ABSTRACT

Correspondence to Dr Thomas Handley, Department of Health Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, USA;thandley@stanford.edu The COVID-19 pandemic tested how healthcare organisations allocate economic, staffing and infrastructural resources, demonstrating that we operate in a resource-constrained environment. Quality improvement, on the other hand, refers to the process of making something better, often within a rigid structure, for example, ‘Plan, Do, Study, Act': generating a stepwise process to identify an issue, test an intervention, collect data and adjust the process as needed.7 There are specific subtypes of quality improvement, such as ‘LEAN', developed in the manufacturing industry to improve process efficiency by removing extraneous steps.8 Still, each differs from the mathematical ‘maximise or minimise' approach that defines optimisation techniques. Applying these techniques can lead to better staff satisfaction, more efficient service delivery, and ultimately, better patient outcomes.Table 1 Worked example giving components required to optimise the number of patients seen in an emergency department Elements Plain language description Mathematical description Decision Variables How many staff to hire? How many nurses to staff? N (nurses) How many doctors to staff? D (doctors) Parameters Cost of shift A nurse shift costs £400 Cost=400N A doctor Shift costs £500 Cost=500D Expected patients 200 patients are expected P (patients) = 200 Speed A nurse sees 4 patients per hour Speed=4N A doctor sees 2 patients per hour Speed=2D Constraints Budget The total cost of doctors plus nurses must be less than 20 000 (400N+500D) <20 000 Staff ratio Patient to nurse ratio must be less than 4 P/N<4 Patient to doctor ratio must be less than 8 P/D<8 Objective Speed Maximise the rate of seeing patients Max (speed)=max (4N+2D) Express Checkout Optimisation is a mathematical technique to aid healthcare leaders in making decisions about resource allocation.

6.
BMJ Open ; 13(1), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2213953

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThis study assesses the role of social capital among people and communities in response to the first wave of the pandemic in 2020.DesignQualitative study using focus group discussions.SettingCapital city (Bangkok) and the four regions (north, northeast, south and central) of Thailand.Participants161 participants of 19 focus groups with diverse backgrounds in terms of gender, profession, education and geography (urban/rural;regions). They are selected for different levels of impact from the pandemic.FindingsThe solidarity among the Thai people was a key contributing factor to societal resilience during the pandemic. Findings illustrate how three levels of social capital structure—family, community and local networks—mobilised resources from internal and external social networks to support people affected by the pandemic. The results also highlight different types of resources mobilised from the three levels of social capital, factors that affect resilience, collective action to combat the negative impacts of the pandemic, and the roles of social media and gender.ConclusionSocial capital plays significant roles in the resilience of individuals, households and communities to respond to and recover from the impacts of the pandemic. In many instances, social capital is a faster and more efficient response than other kinds of formal support. Social capital can be enhanced by interactions and exchanges in the communities. While face-to-face social contacts are challenged by the need for social distancing and travel restrictions, social media steps in as alternative socialisation to enhance social capital.

7.
British Journal of Political Science ; : 1-22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2211826

ABSTRACT

International solidarity is indispensable for coping with global crises;however, solidarity is frequently constrained by public opinion. Past research has examined who, on the donor side, is willing to support European and international aid. However, we know less about who, on the recipient side, is perceived to deserve solidarity. The article argues that potential donors consider situational circumstances and those relational features that link them to the recipients. Using factorial survey experiments, we analyse public support for international medical and financial aid in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results show that recipient countries' situational need and control, as well as political community criteria, namely, group membership, adherence to shared values and reciprocity, played a crucial role in explaining public support for aid. Important policy implications result: on the donor side, fault-attribution frames matter;on the recipient side, honouring community norms is key to receiving aid.

8.
Lifestyle Medicine ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173275

ABSTRACT

This essay offers a critical assessment and reflection on the field of public health based on policy directions and themes gleaned from the historical story of John Snow and the Broad Street pump in 19th century London and recent international responses to Covid-19. Dominant public health strategies, especially for infectious disease emergencies, demonstrate a persistent tendency towards authoritarian claims about science that marginalise concerns about human rights, showing disregard for interprofessional and partnership working, antipathy toward critical voices and a retreat into old ideas about death and dying as medical failure. There is also neglect of the fundamental importance of social relationships as a primary source of health and well-being. Recommendations for a more positive approach for the future of public health are made. These include restoration of, and recommitment to, partnership working with communities, experiential literacy, the prioritising of social support and incentives over negative sanctions, and the acknowledgement and support of end-of-life experiences as a focus for special and overdue public health attention. These suggestions advocate for the application of ‘new' public health priorities to address and rebalance the limitations of the old, usual approach. © 2023 The Authors. Lifestyle Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

10.
Academic Pediatrics ; 22(8):1375-1383, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2167847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic prompted health sys-tems to rapidly adopt telehealth for clinical care. We examined the impact of demography, subspecialty characteristics, and broadband availability on the utilization of telehealth in pediat-ric populations before and after the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Outpatients scheduled for subspecialty visits at sites affiliated with a single quaternary academic medical center between March-June 2019 and March-June 2020 were included. The contribution of demographic, socioeco-nomic, and broadband availability to visit completion and telehealth utilization were examined in multivariable regression analyses.RESULTS: Among visits scheduled in 2020 compared to 2019, in-person visits fell from 23,318 to 11,209, while telehealth visits increased from 150 to 7,675. Visits among established patients fell by 15% and new patients by 36% (P < .0001). Multivariable analysis revealed that completed visits were reduced for Hispanic patients and those with reduced broadband;high income, private non-HMO insurance, and those requesting an interpreter were more likely to complete visits. Those with visits scheduled in 2020, established patients, those with reduced broadband, and patients older than 1 year were more likely to complete TH appointments. Cardiology, oncology, and pulmonology patients were less likely to complete scheduled TH appointments.CONCLUSIONS: Following COVID-19 onset, outpatient pedi-atric subspecialty visits shifted rapidly to telehealth. However, the impact of this shift on social disparities in outpatient utili-zation was mixed with variation among subspecialties. A growing reliance on telehealth will necessitate insights from other healthcare settings serving populations of diverse social and character.

11.
Ubiquitous Learning ; 16(1):55-67, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2204664

ABSTRACT

This two-year study involved two graduate student participants enrolled in an online masters' program. The two participants were enrolled in classes while also teaching full time in public school classrooms during the onset of the COVID-19 crisis as well as throughout the following academic year. Adopting a qualitative framework, the narrative study traveled the journey of the two participants as they navigated, adapted, and survived the US public school classroom during the pandemic. Specifically, the study attempted to delve into the lived reality of teaching during a pandemic and to create meaning, share insights, and offer suggestions through the expression of "pandemic stories.” The study examined specific themes that were organized chronologically and further emerged as the two-year research period progressed. This article details the narrative story of how each participant coped, struggled, and succeeded as they navigated the challenges of teaching during a pandemic while dealing with health issues, lack of resources and training, student issues, and overall lessons learned in order to offer insight that may assist colleagues and fellow school personnel.

12.
Journal of Iranian Medical Council ; 5(2):334-337, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2204596

ABSTRACT

Medical errors are an important concern in medical practice and may occur throughout the processes of diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and rehabilitation. Despite the use of modern technology in health care, these errors remain one of the most challenging issues that medical management seeks to minimize. © 2022 Seventh Sense Research Group®

13.
International Journal of Public Health Science ; 12(1):239-251, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2203624

ABSTRACT

To record the experience of caregivers for neurologically impaired children during the lockdown periods. Data from 286 children's caregivers were collected through an administered questionnaire to record: access to care services during the lockdown periods, causes underlying loss of access to care, mitigations adopted by caregivers and patients' outcomes. The mean age of children was 8.11 years-old and sex ratio (F/M) was 0.66. They were mainly followed-up for epilepsy or epileptic encephalopathy (53%) and cerebral palsy (21%). During the lockdown periods, caregivers reported that 45% of children had no access to healthcare majorly for neurorehabilitation (76.7%) and medicines (70.7%). Most caregivers (36%) related limitations in access to fear from catching the virus. The majority resorted to continuation of the same treatment via primary healthcare facilities (41%) and postponement of their appointments (24%). Our results show that access to healthcare for children with neurological disorders was deeply disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The already precarious health systems' infrastructures might have been the main causes for this and should be thus considered in the health policy and planing. © 2023, Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama. All rights reserved.

14.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(12), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2203422

ABSTRACT

Introduction Limited evidence suggests there were substantial amounts of payments from the healthcare industry to diabetologists and endocrinologists in the United States before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic period. However, there is no study on how these industry payments changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate trends in non-research industry payments to physicians specializing in diabetology and endocrinology in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Using the open payments database between 2013 and 2021, we examined trends in general payments made to physicians whose primary specialty was diabetology and endocrinology by the healthcare industry in the United States. Trends in industry payments during the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated by interrupted time series analysis with generalized estimating equation models. Results Of 7965 active endocrinologists and diabetologists, 6991 (87.8%) received one or more general payments from the healthcare industry in the United States between August 2013 and December 2021. Median per -physician payments were $116.68 (interquartile range (IQR): $41.66-$390.00) before the COVID-19 pandemic period and $97.91 (IQR: $32.81-$314.04) during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Monthly per -physician payments, the number of per-physician payments, and the number of physicians receiving payments decreased by 61.0% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 58.1%-63.7%, p<0.001), 59.2% (95% CI: 57.9%-60.4%, p<0.001), and 39.7% (95% CI: 38.3%-41.0%, p<0.001) at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020), compared to those before pandemic period, respectively. Conclusion The non-research payments to endocrinologists and diabetologists from the healthcare industry sharply decreased by about 60% in payment amounts due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.

15.
Canadian Journal of Bioethics-Revue Canadienne De Bioethique ; 5(4), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2203082

ABSTRACT

Bioethics experts played a key role in ensuring a coherent ethical response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the fields of healthcare, public health, and scientific research in Canada. In the province of Quebec, a group of academic and practicing bioethicists met periodically in the early months of the pandemic to discuss approaches and solutions to ethical dilemmas encountered during the crisis. These meetings created the opportunity for a national survey of bioethics practitioners from different fields. The survey, in which forty-five Canadian bioethics practitioners (clinical ethicists, ethicist members of REBs and government health policy ethicists, or any bioethicist practicing outside of academia) participated, explored their concerns, challenges and opportunities during the first wave of the pandemic, with the objective of informing bioethics research about the difficulties experienced by bioethicists "in the field". Participants reported increased stress levels, increased workloads, and a greater proportion of their work being devoted to public health ethics. Most of their concerns focused on groups other than themselves, such as health professionals, patients, research participants, and people in vulnerable socio-economic situations. An optimism about the future of bioethics was noted due to an increased awareness of the importance of bioethics by the public and by health and research institutions.

16.
Journal of Global Health ; 12:05056, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203065

ABSTRACT

Background: Governmental interventions have been important tools for mitigating COVID-19 transmission, but they have also negatively impacted different gender-related components. We aimed to answer the following questions: What is the scope of the gender approach in the literature analysing health and social protection policies promoted during the COVID-19 pandemic? What are the challenges and recommendations for gender-sensitive policies for the post-pandemic and future crises?

17.
Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 17(6) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2202893
18.
Asian Journal of Social Health and Behavior ; 5(3):108-+, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2202116

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To investigate the intention of older Brazilian adults to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, to find out their perception of the older adults' fragility to the virus, and to know their opinion on the progress of the national immunization plan against COVID-19. Methods: An exploratory qualitative study was carried out through semi-structured telephone calls with 32 participants (aged 60-89), between February and March 2021. Data were analyzed thematically, emerging three major themes. Results: Most participants expressed concern about the vulnerability of their immune system to the coronavirus, and dissatisfaction with the organization of the national immunization plan. Strong criticism was leveled at the leadership of the President of the Republic due to his resistance to vaccination and encouraging the use of hydroxychloroquine. Conclusion: The vast majority of respondents reported an intention to receive the vaccine. The short time for the production of vaccines generated distrust with its effectiveness. All expressed dissatisfaction with the organization of the national immunization plan, and agreed that after the pandemic, their lives and the world will no longer be as before.

19.
American Journal of Critical Care ; 32(1):42-42, 2023.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2201341

ABSTRACT

The article discusses the advantages of safe visitation policy during the COVID-19 pandemic to patients and health care personnel. Topics mentioned include the role of visitors in providing support to health care team through effective communication with the patient, some symptoms of continued visit restrictions that health care personnel may experience, and some recommendations on how to develop and implement a safe visitation policy in hospitals during the pandemic.

20.
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering ; 20(2):4006-4017, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2201226

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 epidemic, mathematical and simulation models have been extensively utilized to forecast the virus's progress. In order to more accurately describe the actual circumstance surrounding the asymptomatic transmission of COVID-19 in urban areas, this research proposes a model called Susceptible-Exposure-Infected-Asymptomatic-Recovered-Quarantine in a small-world network. In addition, we coupled the epidemic model with the Logistic growth model to simplify the process of setting model parameters. The model was assessed through experiments and comparisons. Simulation results were analyzed to explore the main factors affecting the spread of the epidemic, and statistical analysis that was applied to assess the model's accuracy. The results are consistent well with epidemic data from Shanghai, China in 2022. The model can not only replicate the real virus transmission data, but also anticipate the development trend of the epidemic based on available data, so that health policy-makers can better understand the spread of the epidemic. ©2023 the Author(s)

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