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1.
BMJ Innovations ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1879131

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify and summarise the digital health interventions (DHIs) implemented for non-communicable disease (NCD) management for COVID-19. Design: Rapid scoping review. Three reviewers jointly screened titles-s and full texts. One reviewer screened all excluded records. Data were mapped to WHO DHI Classification and narratively summarised. Data sources: PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: Peer-reviewed primary research published between 1 November 2019 and 19 September 2021 on DHI for NCD management during the COVID-19 pandemic. Reviews, editorials, letters, commentaries, opinions, conference s and grey literature were excluded. Results: Eighty-three studies drawn from 5275 records were included. A majority of the studies were quantitative in design. Forty per cent of the DHIs were implemented in the Americas. Nearly half of these DHIs targeted mental health conditions. A majority of the interventions were delivered remotely and via telephones. Zoom (26.5%), email (17%) and WhatsApp (7.5%) were the top three platforms for care delivery. Telemedicine, targeted client interventions, personal health tracking and on-demand information services for clients were the most frequently implemented interventions. Details regarding associated costs, sustainability, scalability and data governance of the DHI implementations were not described in the majority of the studies. Conclusion: While DHIs supported NCD management during the COVID-19 pandemic, their implementation has not been equitable across geographies or NCDs. While offering promise towards supporting the continuum of care during care delivery disruptions, DHIs need to be embedded into healthcare delivery settings towards strengthening health systems rather than standalone parallel efforts to overcome system level challenges. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

2.
Digit Health ; 8: 20552076221102253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869013

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on population mental health has highlighted the potential for digital mental health to support the needs of those requiring care. This study sought to understand the digital mental health experiences and priorities of Canadians affected by mental health conditions (i.e. seekers, patients, and care partners). Methods: A national cross-sectional electronic survey of Canadians was administered through a market research firm's survey panel. Seekers, patients, and care partners were asked about their digital mental health experiences (e.g. uptake, barriers to access) and priorities. Survey responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results: Overall, 1003 participants completed the survey. 70.2% of participants routinely use digital mental health supports to support themselves or those they care for; however, only 28.6% of participants are satisfied with the available digital mental health supports. Most participants (73.3%) have encountered some barriers when accessing digital mental health supports. Awareness of digital mental health supports was a top barrier identified by participants. The top digital mental health priorities consisted of digital mental health curation, navigation, and a digital mental health passport. Conclusions: Most participants use digital mental health supports for themselves or others, however, many are unaware of digital mental health supports available. Efforts to improve navigating access to digital and in-person mental health services are seen as a top priority, highlighting the need to enable seekers, patients, and care partners to find the appropriate support and make decisions on how to best improve their mental health.

3.
eClinicalMedicine ; : 101433, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1867081

ABSTRACT

Summary Background The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought racial and ethnic inequity into sharp focus, as Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic people were reported to have greater clinical vulnerability. During the pandemic, priority was given to ongoing, reconfigured maternity and children's healthcare. This study aimed to understand the intersection between race and ethnicity, and healthcare provision amongst maternity and children's healthcare professionals, during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods A qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews (N = 53) was undertaken with maternity (n = 29;August-November 2020) and children's (n = 24;June-July 2021) healthcare professionals from an NHS Trust in ethnically-diverse South London, UK. Data pertinent to ethnicity and race were subject to Grounded Theory Analysis, whereby data was subjected to iterative coding and interpretive analysis. Using this methodology, data are compared between transcripts to generate lower and higher order codes, before super-categories are formed, which are finally worked into themes. The inter-relationship between these themes is interpreted as a final theory. Findings Grounded Theory Analysis led to the theory: An ‘Imperfect Mosaic’, comprising four themes: (1) ‘A System Set in Plaster’;(2) ‘The Marginalised Majority’;(3) ‘Self-Discharging Responsibility for Change-Making’;and (4) ‘Slow Progress, Not No Progress’. The NHS was observed to be brittle, lacking plasticity to deliver change at pace. Overt racism based on skin colour has been replaced by micro-aggressions between in-groups and out-groups, defined not just by ethnicity, but by other social determinants. Contemporaneously, responsibility for health, wellbeing, and psychological safety in the workplace is discharged to, and accepted by, the individual. Interpretation Our findings suggest three practicable solutions: (1) Representation of marginalised groups at all NHS levels;(2) Engagement in cultural humility which extends to other social factors;and (3) Collective action at system and individual levels, including prioritising equity over simplistic notions of equality. Funding This service evaluation was supported by the King's College London King's Together Rapid COVID-19 Call, successfully awarded to Laura A. Magee, Sergio A. Silverio, Abigail Easter, & colleagues (reference:- 204823/Z/16/Z), as part of a rapid response call for research proposals. The King's Together Fund is a Wellcome Trust funded initiative.

4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(Suppl 1)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Government of Lesotho has prioritised health investment that aims to improve the health and socioeconomic development of the country, including the scaling up of the health workforce (HWF) training and improving their working conditions. Following a health labour market analysis, the paper highlights the available stock of health workers in Lesotho's health labour market, 10-year projected supply versus needs and the financial implications. METHODS: Multiple complementary approaches were used to collect data and analyse the HWF situation and labour market dynamics. These included a scooping assessment, desk review, triangulation of different data sources for descriptive analysis and modelling of the HWF supply, need and financial space. FINDINGS: Lesotho had about 20 942 active health workers across 18 health occupations in 2020, mostly community health workers (69%), nurses and midwives (17.9%), while medical practitioners were 2%. Almost one out of three professional nurses and midwives (28.43%) were unemployed, and nearly 20% of associate nurse professionals, 13.26% of pharmacy technicians and 24.91% of laboratory technicians were also unemployed. There were 20.73 doctors, nurses and midwives per 10 000 population in Lesotho, and this could potentially increase to a density of 31.49 doctors, nurses and midwives per 10 000 population by 2030 compared with a need of 46.72 per 10 000 population by 2030 based on projected health service needs using disease burden and evolving population size and demographics. The existing stock of health workers covered only 47% of the needs and could improve to 55% in 2030. The financial space for the HWF employment was roughly US$40.94 million in 2020, increasing to about US$66.69 million by 2030. In comparison, the cost of employing all health workers already in the supply pipeline (in addition to the currently employed ones) was estimated to be US$61.48 million but could reach US$104.24 million by 2030. Thus, a 33% gap is apparent between the financial space and what is required to guarantee employment for all health workers in the supply pipeline. CONCLUSION: Lesotho's HWF stock falls short of its population health need by 53%. The unemployment of some cadres is, however, apparent. Addressing the need requires increasing the HWF budget by at least 12.3% annually up to 2030 or prioritising at least 33% of its recurrent health expenditure to the HWF.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Health Workforce , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Lesotho , Occupations
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(5)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854319

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically identify and describe approaches to prioritise primary research topics in any health-related area. METHODS: We searched Medline and CINAHL databases and Google Scholar. Teams of two reviewers screened studies and extracted data in duplicate and independently. We synthesised the information across the included approaches by developing common categorisation of relevant concepts. RESULTS: Of 44 392 citations, 30 articles reporting on 25 approaches were included, addressing the following fields: health in general (n=9), clinical (n=10), health policy and systems (n=10), public health (n=6) and health service research (n=5) (10 addressed more than 1 field). The approaches proposed the following aspects to be addressed in the prioritisation process: situation analysis/ environmental scan, methods for generation of initial list of topics, use of prioritisation criteria, stakeholder engagement, ranking process/technique, dissemination and implementation, revision and appeal mechanism, and monitoring and evaluation. Twenty-two approaches proposed involving stakeholders in the priority setting process. The most commonly proposed stakeholder category was 'researchers/academia' (n=17, 77%) followed by 'healthcare providers' (n=16, 73%). Fifteen of the approaches proposed a list of criteria for determining research priorities. We developed a common framework of 28 prioritisation criteria clustered into nine domains. The criterion most frequently mentioned by the identified approaches was 'health burden' (n=12, 80%), followed by 'availability of resources' (n=11, 73%). CONCLUSION: We identified and described 25 prioritisation approaches for primary research topics in any health-related area. Findings highlight the need for greater participation of potential users (eg, policy-makers and the general public) and incorporation of equity as part of the prioritisation process. Findings can guide the work of researchers, policy-makers and funders seeking to conduct or fund primary health research. More importantly, the findings should be used to enhance a more coordinated approach to prioritising health research to inform decision making at all levels.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Public Health , Delivery of Health Care , Health Services , Humans , Stakeholder Participation
7.
Actas Dermosifiliogr ; 113(5): T467-T480, 2022 May.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: No recent data on health care resources and medical and surgical activity in Spanish dermatology departments are available in the literature. The aim of this study was to compile this information for 2019. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on an online survey sent to the heads of dermatology departments at public hospitals in Spain. RESULTS: Of the 162 department heads contacted, 59 answered the survey (participation rate, 36.4%). General findings included a shortage of staff, especially dermatologists, in hospitals of low and medium complexity. The main reason given for the shortage of dermatologists was a lack of interested applicants. Large hospital complexes had more infrastructure and equipment. Over 50% of the departments surveyed used a combination of in-person and virtual visits. Psoriasis units were the most common specialized care units. Approximately 75% of the hospitals had operating rooms with an anesthetist. More complex procedures such as sentinel lymph node biopsy and Mohs micrographic surgery were performed more often in large hospital complexes. Hospitalization and the presence of dermatology residents working call shifts were also more common in these hospitals. Teaching and research activity differed according to hospital complexity. CONCLUSIONS: We have mapped health care resource availability and medical and surgical activity in Spanish dermatology departments prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings could be useful for improving clinical management and defining future actions and areas for improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Pandemics
8.
Portuguese Journal of Public Health ; : 26-34, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846590

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed greater financial pressure on health systems and institutions that had to respond to the specific needs of COVID-19 patients while ensuring the safety of the diagnosis and treatment of all patients and healthcare professionals. To assess the financial impact of COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals, we have characterized the cost of COVID-19 admissions, using inpatient data from a Portuguese Tertiary Care University Centre. Methods: We analysed inpatient data from adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were admitted between March 1, 2020 and May 31, 2020. Admissions were eligible if the ICD-10-CM principal diagnosis was coded U07.1. We excluded admissions from patients under 18 years old, admissions with incomplete records, admissions from patients who had been transferred to or from other hospitals or those whose inpatient stay was under 24 h. Pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium admissions were also excluded, as well as admissions from patients who had undergone surgery. Results: We identified 223 admissions of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Most were men (64.1%) and aged 45-64 years (30.5%). Around 13.0% of patients were admitted to intensive care units and 9.9% died in hospital. The average length of hospital stay was 12.7 days (SD = 10.2) and the average estimated cost per admission was EUR 8,177 (SD = 11,534), which represents more than triple the inpatient base price (EUR 2,386). Human resources accounted for the highest proportion of the total costs per admission (50.8%). About 92.4% of the admissions were assigned to Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) 723, whose inpatient price is lower than COVID-19 inpatient costs for all degrees of severity. Conclusion: COVID-19 admissions represent a substantial financial burden for the Portuguese NHS. For each COVID-19 hospitalized patient it would have been possible to treat three other hospitalized patients. Also, the price set for DRG 723 is not adjusted to the cost of COVID-19 patients. These findings highlight the need for additional financial resources for the health system and, in particular, for hospitals that have treated high volumes of hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel on behalf of NOVA National School of Public Health.

9.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High-quality antenatal care is important for ensuring optimal birth outcomes and reducing risks of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the usual provision of antenatal care, with much care shifting to remote forms of provision. We aimed to characterise what quality would look like for remote antenatal care from the perspectives of those who use, provide and organise it. METHODS: This UK-wide study involved interviews and an online survey inviting free-text responses with: those who were or had been pregnant since March 2020; maternity professionals and managers of maternity services and system-level stakeholders. Recruitment used network-based approaches, professional and community networks and purposively selected hospitals. Analysis of interview transcripts was based on the constant comparative method. Free-text survey responses were analysed using a coding framework developed by researchers. FINDINGS: Participants included 106 pregnant women and 105 healthcare professionals and managers/stakeholders. Analysis enabled generation of a framework of the domains of quality that appear to be most relevant to stakeholders in remote antenatal care: efficiency and timeliness; effectiveness; safety; accessibility; equity and inclusion; person-centredness and choice and continuity. Participants reported that remote care was not straightforwardly positive or negative across these domains. Care that was more transactional in nature was identified as more suitable for remote modalities, but remote care was also seen as having potential to undermine important aspects of trusting relationships and continuity, to amplify or create new forms of structural inequality and to create possible risks to safety. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers a provisional framework that can help in structuring thinking, policy and practice. By outlining the range of domains relevant to remote antenatal care, this framework is likely to be of value in guiding policy, practice and research.

11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(5)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840574

ABSTRACT

Mathematical modelling has been a helpful resource for planning public health responses to COVID-19. However, there is a need to improve the accessibility of models built within country contexts in the Global South. Immediately following the overwhelming 'second wave' of COVID-19 in India, we developed a user-friendly, web-based modelling simulator in partnership with the public health experts and health administrators for subnational planning. The purpose was to help policy-makers and programme officials at the state and district levels, to construct model-based scenarios for a possible third wave. Here, we describe our experiences of developing and deploying the simulator and propose the following recommendations for future such initiatives: early preparation will be the key for pandemic management planning, including establishment of networks with potential simulator users. Ideally, this preparedness should be conducted during 'peace time', and coordinated by agencies such as WHO. Second, flexible modelling frameworks will be needed, to respond rapidly to future emergencies as the precise nature of any pandemic is impossible to predict. Modelling resources will, therefore, need to be rapidly adaptable to respond as soon as a novel pathogen emerges. Third, limitations of modelling must be communicated clearly and consistently to end users. Finally, systematic mechanisms are required for monitoring the use of models in decision making, which will help in providing modelling support to those local authorities who may benefit most from it. Overall, these lessons from India can be relevant for other countries in the South-Asian-Region, to incorporate modelling resources into their pandemic preparedness planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , India/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Public Health
12.
13.
BJGP Open ; 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first wave of lockdown measures to control the covid-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom (UK) resulted in suspension of "non-essential" services including contraception. AIM: To examine women's perceptions and experiences of contraceptive care in the UK during the first lockdown. DESIGN & SETTING: Cross-sectional survey during lockdown period from March to June 2020. METHOD: We designed an online questionnaire asking women aged 16-54 their experiences of contraceptive care during lockdown. Questions were based on Maxwell's evaluation framework on access, acceptability, relevance, and equity. It was promoted on social media from 27th May to ninth June 2020. We conducted descriptive analysis of quantitative data and thematic analysis of free text data. RESULTS: 214 responses were analysed. General practice was the source of contraception for 43% and 52% of respondents before and during the lockdown respectively. 55% (118/214) of respondents including regular and new users were uncertain where or how to get contraception during the pandemic. Respondents reported reduced access to contraception during lockdown, some thought sexual health clinics and general practices were closed.Remote consultations and electronic prescriptions facilitated contraceptive access for some respondents. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) was unavailable in some areas due to restrictions, alternatives were not acceptable to those who used methods for non-contraceptive benefits to treat medical conditions e.g., menorrhagia. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted the need for better information and signposting for contraception during lockdown. Contraception including LARC should be reframed as an essential service with robust signposting for pandemic planning and beyond.

14.
JDR Clin Trans Res ; 7(3): 307-314, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833252

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In April 2020, the Japanese government declared a state of emergency owing to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which resulted in reduced workforce and job losses. Furthermore, income is one of the most consistent predictors of dental visits. Therefore, this study examined the association between income changes and dental clinic visits during the COVID-19 state of emergency in Japan. METHODS: An online, self-reported cross-sectional survey about health activities including dental visits during the first COVID-19 state of emergency was conducted in Osaka, Japan (June 23 to July 12, 2020). Among participants with toothaches, the assessment for the association between "refrained from visiting a dentist despite wanting treatment for toothache during the state of emergency (refrained treatment)" and income changes before and after the state of emergency using a multivariate Poisson regression model adjusted for sex, age, self-rated health, frequency of regular dental visits, and employment status. RESULTS: Among 27,575 participants, 3,895 (14.1%) had toothaches, and 1,906 (6.9%) reported refrained treatment. Among people with decreased income (n = 8,152, 29.6% of overall participants), the proportions of the refrained treatment group were 8.0% (income decreased by 1%-49%), 9.9% (50%-99% decreased), and 9.1% (100% decreased). Among participants with toothache, after adjusting for all variables, compared with participants with no income change, we observed significantly higher prevalence ratios (PRs) for refrained treatment in those who experienced a decreased income owing to COVID-19 (1%-49% decrease: PR = 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.005-1.17; 50%-99% decrease: PR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.32; 100% decrease: PR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04-1.33). CONCLUSION: Decreased income was associated with refrained dental treatment during the COVID-19 state of emergency in Osaka, Japan. The economic damage related to the COVID-19 pandemic could lead to oral health inequalities. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: Our study found that individuals with decreased income owing to COVID-19 before and after the state of emergency showed significantly higher prevalence ratios for refraining from visiting a dentist despite wanting treatment for toothache. We believe that our study makes a significant contribution because it provides novel, basic data that economic damages related to the COVID-19 pandemic might expand to oral health inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Toothache , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Income , Pandemics , Toothache/epidemiology
15.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(8): 798, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832375
16.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(6): 601, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832374
17.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with bipolar disorders (BDs) are at an increased risk of mortality. We aimed to establish whether health outcomes and care differed between patients infected with COVID-19 with BD and patients without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of all patients with identified COVID-19 and respiratory symptoms who were hospitalized in France between February and June 2020. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We used propensity score matching to control for confounding factors. RESULTS: In total, 50 407 patients were included, of whom 480 were patients with BD. Patients with BD were 2 years older, more frequently women and had more comorbidities than controls without a diagnosis of severe mental illness. Patients with BD had an increased in-hospital mortality rate (26.6% v. 21.9%; p = 0.034) and similar ICU admission rate (27.9% v. 28.4%, p = 0.799), as confirmed by propensity analysis [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (OR, 95% CI) for mortality: 1.30 (1.16-1.45), p < 0.0001]. Significant interactions between BD and age and between BD and social deprivation were found, highlighting that the most important inequalities in mortality were observed in the youngest [OR, 95% CI 2.28 (1.18-4.41), p = 0.0015] and most deprived patients with BD [OR, 95% CI 1.60 (1.33-1.92), p < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with BD were at an increased risk of mortality, which was exacerbated in the youngest and most deprived patients with BD. Patients with BD should thus be targeted as a high-risk population for severe forms of COVID-19, requiring enhanced preventive and disease management strategies.

18.
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice ; 30(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812569

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 66 papers. The topics discussed include: exploring elderly patients? perspectives on deprescribing: a qualitative study interim analysis;supporting safe and gradual reduction of long-term benzodiazepine receptor agonist use: development of the safeguarding-BZRAs toolkit using a co-design approach;a feasibility study of a pharmacist led proton pump inhibitor deprescribing intervention in older patients in an Irish hospital;using risk prediction to case-find frail older people at risk of anticholinergic burden for structured medication reviews: a qualitative study exploring the views and perspectives of primary care professionals;routinely implementing safe deprescribing in primary care: a scoping review;and antimicrobial consumption in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

19.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 31(5): 409-414, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807445
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remote care and telehealth have the potential to expand healthcare access, and the COVID-19 pandemic has called for alternative solutions to conventional face-to-face follow-up and monitoring. However, guidance is needed on the integration of telehealth into clinical care of people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD). OBJECTIVE: To develop EULAR points to consider (PtC) for the development, prioritisation and implementation of telehealth for people with RMD. METHODS: A multidisciplinary EULAR task force (TF) of 30 members from 14 European countries was established, and the EULAR standardised operating procedures for development of PtC were followed. A systematic literature review was conducted to support the TF in formulating the PtC. The level of agreement among the TF was established by anonymous online voting. RESULTS: Four overarching principles and nine PtC were formulated. The use of telehealth should be tailored to patient's needs and preferences. The healthcare team should have adequate equipment and training and have telecommunication skills. Telehealth can be used in screening for RMD as preassessment in the referral process, for disease monitoring and regulation of medication dosages and in some non-pharmacological interventions. People with RMD should be offered training in using telehealth, and barriers should be resolved whenever possible.The level of agreement to each statement ranged from 8.5 to 9.8/10. CONCLUSION: The PtC have identified areas where telehealth could improve quality of care and increase healthcare access. Knowing about drivers and barriers of telehealth is a prerequisite to successfully establish remote care approaches in rheumatologic clinical practice.

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