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1.
Frontiers in Surgery ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2109898

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare seeking behavior has been widely impacted due to the restricted movements of individuals during the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aims to perform risk stratification in patients requiring timely intervention during the recovery periods. Methods: Operation notes of acute appendicitis (AA) patients within a hospital were analyzed during three six-month periods (23 January-23 July in 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively). Patient data were collected retrospectively including demographics, pre-emergency status, perioperative information, postoperative outcomes, and follow-up results. Results: 321 patients were included in this study, with 111, 86, and 124 patients in 2019, 2020, and 2021 groups, respectively. The median age of patients decreased by 4 years in 2020 as compared to that in 2019. The proportion of pre-hospitalization symptoms duration of more than 48 h in the 2020 group was higher (36.05% in 2020 vs. 22.52% in 2019). Length of hospital stay (LOS) in 2020 was shorter than it was during the same period in 2019 (4.77 vs. 5.64) and LOS in 2021 was shorter than in 2019 (4.13 vs. 5.64). Compared to the lockdown period, the proportion of patients with recurrent AA was higher in the post-lockdown period (15.1% vs. 27.4%). The median age was 34 years (vaccinated) vs. 37 years (unvaccinated). Logistic regression suggests that elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR = 1.018, CI = 1.010-1.028), white cell count (WBC) (OR = 1.207, CI = 1.079-1.350), female (OR = 2.958, CI = 1.286-6.802), recurrent (OR = 3.865, CI = 1.149-12.997), and fecalith (OR = 2.308, CI = 1.007-5.289) were associated with complicated appendicitis (CA). Conclusion: The lockdown measures during the COVID-19 epidemic are shown to be correlated with a reduction in the proportion of AA patients who underwent surgery, particularly in older adults. Risk factors for CA include elevated CRP, WBC, female, recurrent, and fecalith.

2.
Open Heart ; 9(2)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108308

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic and therapeutic arsenal for heart failure with preserved ejection (HFpEF) has expanded. With novel therapies (eg, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors) and firmer recommendations to optimise non-cardiac comorbidities, it is unclear if outpatient HFpEF models can adequately deliver this. We; therefore, evaluated the efficacy of an existing dedicated HFpEF clinic to find innovative ways to design a more comprehensive model tailored to the modern era of HFpEF. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective analysis of 202 HFpEF outpatients was performed over 12 months before the COVID-19 pandemic. Baseline characteristics, clinic activities (eg, medication changes, lifestyle modifications, management of comorbidities) and follow-up arrangements were compared between a HFpEF and general cardiology clinic to assess their impact on mortality and morbidity at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Between the two clinic groups, the sample population was evenly matched with a typical HFpEF profile (mean age 79±9.6 years, 55% female and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic comorbidities). While follow-up practices were similar, the HFpEF clinic delivered significantly more interventions on lifestyle changes, blood pressure and heart rate control (p<0.0001) compared with the general clinic. Despite this, no significant differences in all-cause hospitalisation and mortality were observed. This may be attributed to the fact that clinic activities were primarily cardiology-focused. Importantly, non-cardiovascular admissions accounted for >60% of hospitalisation, including causes of recurrent admissions. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that existing general and emerging dedicated HFpEF clinics may not be adequate in addressing the multifaceted aspects of HFpEF as clinic activities concentrated primarily on cardiological measures. Although the small cohort and short follow-up period are important limitations, this study reminds clinicians that HFpEF patients are more at risk of non-cardiac than HF-related events. We have therefore proposed a pragmatic framework that can comprehensively deliver the modern guideline-directed recommendations and management of non-cardiac comorbidities through a multidisciplinary approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , Stroke Volume/physiology , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy , State Medicine , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Ambulatory Care Facilities
3.
Arch Dis Child ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the increased policy attention on ethnic health inequities since the COVID-19 pandemic, research on ethnicity and healthcare utilisation in children has largely been overlooked. OBJECTIVES: This scoping review aimed to describe and appraise the quantitative evidence on ethnic differences (unequal) and inequities (unequal, unfair and disproportionate to healthcare needs) in paediatric healthcare utilisation in the UK 2001-2021. METHODS: We searched Embase, Medline and grey literature sources and mapped the number of studies that found differences and inequities by ethnic group and healthcare utilisation outcome. We summarised the distribution of studies across various methodological parameters. RESULTS: The majority of the 61 included studies (n=54, 89%) identified ethnic differences or inequities in paediatric healthcare utilisation, though inequities were examined in fewer than half of studies (n=27, 44%). These studies mostly focused on primary and preventive care, and depending on whether ethnicity data were aggregated or disaggregated, findings were sometimes conflicting. Emergency and outpatient care were understudied, as were health conditions besides mental health and infectious disease. Studies used a range of ethnicity classification systems and lacked the use of theoretical frameworks. Children's ethnicity was often the explanatory factor of interest while parent/caregiver ethnicity was largely overlooked. DISCUSSION: While the current evidence base can assist policy makers to identify inequities in paediatric healthcare utilisation among certain ethnic groups, we outline recommendations to improve the validity, generalisability and comparability of research to better understand and thereby act on ethnic inequities in paediatric healthcare.

4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110002

ABSTRACT

Access to psychotherapy is still limited by various barriers, and little is known about the facilitating circumstances. This study aims to assess self-reported barriers and facilitators to psychotherapy utilisation in private practice and how these access factors relate to psychotherapy goals as formulated by patients. The dataset consists of 21 face-to-face semi-structured interviews with patients treated by psychotherapists in private practice in Austria. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, including a frequency count of the number of codings to analyse relations between categories. A critical external barrier theme was unaffordable psychotherapy and confusion about how the Austrian funding system works. A negative experience with psychotherapy prior to the current one, such as not being understood and answered well enough by one's therapist, was a frequently reported internal barrier. Individuals who faced more internal barriers and more external facilitators in seeking therapy, such as moral support from significant others and professionals, formulated less elaborate treatment goals. Although the study was carried out amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the pandemic played a minor role in patients' self-reported barrier and facilitator themes.

5.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103850

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly affected the utilization of mental health services. Existing evidence investigating this issue at the nationwide level is lacking, and it is uncertain whether the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of psychiatric services differs based on psychiatric diagnosis. METHODS: Data from the claims database between October 2015 and August 2020 was obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment agency in South Korea. Based on the main diagnostic codes, psychiatric patients were identified and categorized into diagnostic groups (anxiety disorders, bipolar and related disorders, depressive disorders, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders). We calculated the number of psychiatric inpatients and outpatients and the medication adherence of patients for each month. We compared the actual and predicted values of outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic and performed interrupted time-series analyses to test the statistical significance of the impact of the pandemic. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of inpatients and admissions to psychiatric hospitals decreased for bipolar and related disorders and depressive disorders. In addition, the number of patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals for schizophrenia spectrum disorders decreased. The number of psychiatric outpatients showed no significant change in all diagnostic groups. Increased medication adherence was observed for depressive, schizophrenia spectrum, and bipolar and related disorders. CONCLUSIONS: In the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a trend of a decreasing number of psychiatric inpatients and increasing medication adherence; however, the number of psychiatric outpatients remained unaltered.

6.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 84(1-B):No Pagination Specified, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2102067

ABSTRACT

Background: Many high school students struggle with mental illness, especially since the isolation of the COVID-19 pandemic. Educating high school faculty/staff with basic information to recognize and refer students for mental health concerns may improve faculty/staff knowledge, confidence, and trust in the mental health referral process, which may then increase referrals and subsequent treatment of at-risk youth. Methods: A Quality Improvement Project was conducted by a Hawaiece[yen]i Keiki Nurse Practitioner at a Hawaiece[yen]i public high school to determine if educating high school faculty and staff on identification and referral of high school students displaying signs of mental health distress improves staff knowledge, confidence, and trust in the overall process. The project was conducted by delivering an asynchronous webinar intervention to the faculty and staff. Data was collected via a pre-test, post-test, and a one-month follow-up test by means of a questionnaire. Results: Of the 47 total participants, 37 completed the post-survey, and 25 completed the one-month follow-up survey. Results from the one-month follow-up indicate participant level of confidence (measured on a 5-point Likert scale) in identification of students improved from mean score m = 2.96 (pre-test) to m = 4.12 (1-month follow-up), level of confidence in knowledge of the process improved from m = 2.65 (pre-test) to m = 4.11 (1-month follow-up), and level of trust in the process improved from m = 2.21 (pre-test) to m = 3.20 (1-month follow-up). Conclusion: The intervention was successful in increasing faculty/staff level of confidence in identification of students who may need mental health referrals, level of confidence in the process for referral, and level of trust in the referral process. Participants' scores between the immediate post-test and the one-month follow-up remained relatively consistent over time, indicating effective retention of the material. Recommended future research includes studying the number of referrals made after the intervention, and studying actual outcomes of those referrals among students in order to determine if the intervention improves student mental health outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2101705

ABSTRACT

Currently, there is minimal research regarding the impact of the current Covid-19 health crisis on Latinx immigrant families. This study explores overall parenting stress and parenting stress directly related to the current Covid-19 health crisis in Latinx immigrant mothers with children currently receiving mental health services. Additionally, it examines how Immigrant Latinx families are being impacted and their needs during the Covid-19 health crisis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on twenty Latinx immigrant mothers currently experiencing parenting stress and have children currently receiving mental health services. Participant responses were considered using the Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis method. An analysis showed themes such as overall negative impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic, negative impact on mental/emotional health, and overall need during the Covid-19 Pandemic. The findings showed that Latinx immigrant families currently receiving mental health services experienced an overall negative impact on their lives. The principal findings also demonstrated that Latinx immigrant families' mental/ emotional health was negatively impacted and had significantly experienced higher levels of parenting stress. Findings further revealed a need for basic needs, more mental health support/ professional help, and school support to help address areas of impact in the lives of Latinx immigrant families. Clinical implications include providing culturally sensitive care to Latinx immigrant families and a better sense of how the Covid-19 health crisis affected Latinx families, including their overall experiences and needs related to the pandemic that mental health clinicians are serving. Further research is needed to study the experiences of all immigrant Latinx family members, Latinx immigrant families who only have one parent, Latinx immigrant mothers from various Latin American countries, and Latinx immigrant families with diverse acculturation levels and coping practices. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

8.
Anales de la Facultad de Medicina ; 83(3):209-216, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2100503

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Isolation and social distancing strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic probably had a negative impact on physicians' lifestyles. Objective. To design and validate a questionnaire to assess physicians' lifestyle before and during the pandemic. Methods. We carried out a psychometric study. A total of 204 medical specialists from a national hospital in Lima-Peru were admitted to the study and answered the questionnaire virtually. Results. Content validity was carried out with a committee of experts, with a Cochran's Q of 7 and p of 0.50. In the relevance, representativeness and clarity of the items, the global Aiken's V was 0.97. The pilot test showed adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.842). For construct validity, overall sample adequacy was assessed by Bartlett's test of sphericity, before (X2 = 4235.75, p < 0.01) and during (X2 = 4328, p < 0.01) the pandemic. In addition, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test had an overall value before and during the pandemic of 0.78 and 0.76 respectively. Exploratory Factor Analysis structured five domains. Factor loadings (polychoric correlations and Oblimin rotation) were estimated, and the correlation between domains was adequate. Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated adequate model fit. Conclusion. The instrument shows adequate psychometric properties, so it can be considered as a useful, valid, and reliable instrument to assess the lifestyle of physicians before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 35(2): 144-154, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101108

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze oral health actions in four municipalities in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic according to a theoretical framework model on oral healthcare management. It was a qualitative study carried out in two stages. A theoretical-empirical model on the significance of oral healthcare management was developed, following the Grounded Theory method. Fourteen dentists and five healthcare managers participated, through open interview. Subsequently, collaborative research was performed, and the model was applied to analyze the documents produced to address the pandemic by each of four municipalities in Santa Catarina State. The model provided a framework for analyzing actions for coping with the pandemic regarding oral health services. Actions were identified in all dimensions of the model: reduction in supply of dental care due to restricted access to elective services; search for biosafety care standards; dissemination of standardized science-based guidelines; attempt to maintain comprehensive dental assistance through re-adaptation of specialized services and collective actions; and relocation of oral health professionals to assist in other sectors. The oral health care management framework can serve as a reference for redesigning oral health actions and services in other municipalities during the COVID-19 pandemic, in a broader perspective.


Analisar as ações de saúde bucal em quatro municípios brasileiros durante a pandemia de COVID-19, segundo um modelo de referencial teórico sobre gestão da atenção à saúde bucal. Estudo qualitativo realizado em dois momentos. Foi desenvolvido um modelo teórico-empírico sobre o significado da gestão do cuidado em saúde bucal, seguindo o método da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Participaram 14 dentistas e cinco gestores de saúde, por meio de entrevista aberta. Posteriormente, no segundo momento, foi realizada uma pesquisa colaborativa, e o modelo foi aplicado para analisar os documentos produzidos em cada município para o enfrentamento local da pandemia, em quatro municípios do Estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. O modelo forneceu uma estrutura para analisar as ações de enfrentamento da pandemia nos serviços de saúde bucal. Foram identificadas ações em todas as dimensões do modelo: redução da oferta de atendimento odontológico devido à restrição de acesso aos serviços eletivos; a busca por padrões de assistência à biossegurança; disseminação de diretrizes padronizadas e com base científica; a tentativa de manter a assistência odontológica integral por meio da readaptação de serviços especializados e ações coletivas; e realocação de profissionais de saúde bucal para atendimento em outros setores. O referencial de gestão da atenção à saúde bucal pode servir de referência para redesenhar as ações e serviços de saúde bucal em outros municípios em período de pandemia de COVID-19, em uma perspectiva mais ampla.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , United States , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cities , Grounded Theory , COVID-19/prevention & control
10.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(9), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2098668

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may indirectly impact hospitalizations for other natural causes. Belo Horizonte is a city with 2.5 million inhabitants in Brazil, one of the most hardly-hit countries by the pandemic, where local authorities monitored hospitalizations daily to guide regulatory measures. In an ecological, time-series study, we investigated how the pandemic impacted the number and severity of public hospitalizations by other natural causes in the city, during 2020. We assessed the number and proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and in-hospital deaths for all-natural causes, COVID-19, non-COVID-19 natural causes, and four disease groups: infectious, respiratory, cardiovascular, and neoplasms. Observed data from epidemiological week (EW) 9 (first diagnosis of COVID-19) to EW 48, 2020, was compared to the mean for the same EW of 2015-2019 and differences were tested by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The five-week moving averages of the studied variables in 2020 were compared to that of 2015-2019 to describe the influence of regulatory measures on the indicators. During the studied period, there was 54,722 hospitalizations by non-COVID-19 natural causes, representing a 28% decline compared to the previous five years (p<0.001). There was a concurrent significant increase in the proportion of ICU admissions and deaths. The greater reductions were simultaneous to the first social distancing decree or occurred in the peak of COVID-19 hospitalizations, suggesting different drivers. Hospitalizations by specific causes decreased significantly, with greater increase in ICU admissions and deaths for infectious, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases than for neoplasms. While the first reduction may have resulted from avoidance of contact with healthcare facilities, the second reduction may represent competing causes for hospital beds with COVID-19 after reopening of activities. Health policies must include protocols to address hospitalizations by other causes during this or future pandemics, and a plan to face the rebound effect for elective deferred procedures.

11.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(9), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2098660

ABSTRACT

Despite efforts to increase the proportion of individuals diagnosed with HIV who receive anti-retroviral therapy, 28% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged 15 years and older in eastern and southern Africa and 42% in western and central Africa were not receiving anti-retroviral therapy in 2019. Therefore, improving access to health care services is key to reduce HIV incidence and prevalence. The main aim of this study was to generate high-resolution maps of underserved areas where people cannot access the closest health care facilities within appropriate travel time in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Main sources of data for this study were the estimated number of PLHIV for adults aged 15-49 years in 47 countries in SSA and the global map of travel time to the nearest health care facility by motorized and non-motorized transportation. These data were used to estimate and map the number of PLHIV in underserved areas at a travel distance of 10, 30, and 60 minutes from the nearest healthcare facility. We identified and mapped more than 7 million PLHIV in the areas with a lack of access to health care within 10-minute travel time and 1.5 million PLHIV in the areas with a lack of access to health care within 60-minute travel time. The identified locations of underserved areas are an indicator of the challenge faced by PLHIV in accessing health services in SSA, a situation that is likely worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings can contribute to developing cost-effective geospatial policies for interventions aimed at underserved areas at a finer resolution for communities that have usually been identified in aggregated spatial areas. Further development and implementation of tailored intervention and treatment programs, especially in areas identified as underserved for PLHIV, should be explored. Geospatial analyses could complement the decision-making process with stakeholders to enhance healthcare access for PLHIV in SSA.

12.
Afrika Focus ; 34(2):323-342, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2098095

ABSTRACT

Background: Management of patients with covid-19 needing hospitalisation is challenging worldwide. However, little or no information has been gathered regarding the experiences of healthcare workers (hcw s) involved in the care of patients with covid-19 in poorly resourced settings. This study explored the experiences of hcw s managing hospitalised patients with covid-19 in a treatment centre in Kano, Nigeria. Methods: hcw s directly or indirectly involved in managing patients with covid-19 in one of the two treatment centres in Kano, Nigeria, were sampled based on being information-rich cases. The study participants were interviewed individually via telephone using a semi-structured interview guide. Data collection was stopped when content saturation was attained. Data was analysed using thematic synthesis. Results: Eleven hcw s, comprising two medical doctors, five nurses, a laboratory staff member, a community health extension worker, an environmental health officer and a cleaner, participated in this study. Four major themes were generated: (i) the profile and readiness of hcw s prior to being engaged to work in a covid-19 treatment centre, (ii) the experience of hcw s while working in the covid-19 treatment wards, (iii) challenges with working in covid-19 treatment wards, and (iv) post-treatment support for covid-19 patients. The participants had variable prior experience in managing patients with infectious diseases. Interventions offered were mainly antiviral therapy, nursing care, counselling, nutritional interventions and toilet hygiene. Challenges encountered included insufficient cooperation from patients, poor personnel welfare, lack of human resources/equipment and issues interfering with wellbeing (stigma). Conclusion: The studied population exhibited professional competence and success in managing hospitalised patients with covid-19 during hospitalisation, despite existing challenges.

13.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips20220281, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098126

ABSTRACT

In 2021, the British Columbia (BC) Interior experienced a series of unprecedented disasters, ranging from extreme heat and wildfires to catastrophic flooding and evacuations. Along with these severe weather events, BC was affected by COVID-19 outbreaks and public health restrictions. Despite these challenges, communities worked to ensure that youths who are at risk for increased mental health challenges continued to have access to services that promote well-being, such as individual placement and support programs for supported employment and education. This Open Forum presents program considerations and adaptations in Foundry Penticton, one of 12 province-wide integrated youth hubs, to ensure service delivery during acute and chronic disasters.

14.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e065709, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The association between impaired digital provision, access and health outcomes has not been systematically studied. The Wolverhampton Digital ENablement programme (WODEN) is a multiagency collaborative approach to determine and address digital factors that may impact on health and social care in a single deprived multiethnic health economy. The objective of this study is to determine the association between measurable broadband provision and demographic and health outcomes in a defined population. DESIGN: An observational cross-sectional whole local population-level study with cohorts defined according to broadband provision. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Data for all residents of the City of Wolverhampton, totalling 269 785 residents. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Poor broadband provision is associated with variation in demographics and with increased comorbidity and urgent care needs. RESULTS: Broadband provision was measured using the Broadband Infrastructure Index (BII) in 158 City localities housing a total of 269 785 residents. Lower broadband provision as determined by BII was associated with younger age (p<0.001), white ethnic status (p<0.001), lesser deprivation as measured by Index of Multiple Deprivation (p<0.001), a higher number of health comorbidities (p<0.001) and more non-elective urgent events over 12 months (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Local municipal and health authorities are advised to consider the variations in broadband provision within their locality and determine equal distribution both on a geographical basis but also against demographic, health and social data to determine equitable distribution as a platform for equitable access to digital resources for their residents.


Subject(s)
Economics, Medical , Ethnicity , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geography , Social Support
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(10)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097968

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic reversed much of global progress made in combatting tuberculosis, with South Africa experiencing one of the largest impacts on tuberculosis detection. The aim of this paper is to share our experiences in applying learning health systems (LHS) thinking to the codevelopment of an intervention improving an integrated response to COVID-19 and tuberculosis in a South African district. A sequential partially mixed-methods study was undertaken between 2018 and 2021 in the district of Amajuba in KwaZulu-Natal. Here, we report on the formulation of a Theory of Change, codesigning and refining proposed interventions, and piloting and evaluating codesigned interventions in primary healthcare facilities, through an LHS lens. Following the establishment and formalisation of a district Learning Community, diagnostic work and a codevelopment of a theory of change, intervention packages tailored according to pandemic lockdowns were developed, piloted and scaled up. This process illustrates how a community of learning can generate more responsive, localised interventions, and suggests that the establishment of a shared space of research governance can provide a degree of resilience to facilitate adaption to external shocks. Four main lessons have been gleaned from our experience in adopting an LHS approach in a South African district, which are (1) the importance of building and sustaining relationships, (2) the utility of colearning, coproduction and adaptive capacity, (3) the centrality of theory-driven systems strengthening and (4) reflections on LHS as a framework.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Learning Health System , Tuberculosis , Humans , South Africa , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists across the United States has been described. However, these studies focused on reproductive-age patients and did not assess the growing demand for services to the advanced-age female population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists who serve the US Medicare population per 100,000 female Medicare beneficiaries, over time and by state and region. STUDY DESIGN: The supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists was extracted from the Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File database of Medicare Part B claims submitted to the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Data were only available from 2012 to 2019. The supply of providers was divided by the number of original female Medicare beneficiaries obtained from the Kaiser Family Foundation; all values reported are providers per 100,000 female beneficiaries by state. Trends over time were assessed as the difference in provider-to-beneficiary ratio and the percentage change from 2012 to 2019. All data were collected in 2021. All analyses were performed with SAS, version 9.4. This study was exempt from institutional review board approval. RESULTS: In 2019, the average number of obstetrician-gynecologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries across all states was 121.32 (standard deviation±33.03). The 3 states with the highest obstetrician-gynecologist-to-beneficiary ratio were the District of Columbia (268.85), Connecticut (204.62), and Minnesota (171.60), and the 3 states with the lowest were Montana (78.37), West Virginia (82.28), and Iowa (83.92). The average number of gynecologic oncologists was 4.48 (standard deviation±2.08). The 3 states with the highest gynecologic oncologist-to-beneficiary ratio were the District of Columbia (11.30), Rhode Island (10.58), and Connecticut (9.24), and the 3 states with the lowest were Kansas (0.82), Vermont (1.41), and Mississippi (1.47). The number of obstetrician-gynecologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries decreased nationally by 8.4% from 2012 to 2019; the difference in provider-to-beneficiary ratio from 2012 to 2019 ranged from +29.97 (CT) to -82.62 (AK). Regionally, the Northeast had the smallest decrease in the number of obstetrician-gynecologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries (-3.8%) and the West had the largest (-18.2%). The number of gynecologic oncologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries increased by 7.0% nationally during the study period; this difference ranged from +8.96 (DC) to -3.39 (SD). Overall, the West had the smallest increase (4.7%) and the Midwest had the largest (15.4%). CONCLUSION: There is wide geographic variation in the supply and growth rate of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists for the female Medicare population. This analysis provides insight into areas of the country where the supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists may not meet current and future demand. The national decrease in the number of obstetrician-gynecologists is alarming, especially because population projections estimate that the proportion of elderly female patients will grow. Future work is needed to determine why fewer providers are available to see Medicare patients and what minimum provider-to-enrollee ratios are needed for gynecologic and cancer care. Once such ratios are established, our results can help determine whether specific states and regions are meeting demand. Additional research is needed to assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the supply of women's health providers.

18.
Revista de Salud Publica ; 24(1), 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2091056

ABSTRACT

Primary health care is the central strategy defined by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to achieve the goal of "Health for All" proposed since 1978 by Alma Ata. In the region of the Americas, this strategy has been included within health systems and has been interpreted and adapted to the political, cultural, social and economic contexts of developing countries. In Colombia this setting has been immersed and some regula-tions define and limit it for development in the municipalities. Bogotá has included this position for several years now, and in each change of government it is given a particular connotation according to the proposals of the territorial health plans and the proposals in the development plans, with or not greater emphasis on its postulates. This article shows the approach that is given from primary care in the last periods of government and how it interacts in a pandemic such as the one presented by COVID-19. © 2022, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved.

20.
BJGP Open ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Changes in primary care provision during the COVID-19 pandemic could have affected patient experience of primary care both positively and negatively. AIM: To assess the experiences of patients in primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN & SETTING: A qualitative study of patients from regions with high and low COVID-19 prevalence in the Netherlands. METHOD: A qualitative study using a phenomenological framework was performed among purposively sampled patients. Individual semi-structured interviews were performed and transcribed. Data were thematically analysed by means of an inductive approach. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were interviewed (13 men and 15 women, aged 27-91 years). After thematic analysis, two main themes emerged: accessibility and continuity of primary care. Changes considered positive during the pandemic regarding accessibility and continuity of primary care included having a quieter practice, having more time for consultations, and the use of remote care for problems with low complexity. However, patients also experienced decreases in both care accessibility and continuity, such as feeling unwelcome, the GP postponing chronic care, seeing unfamiliar doctors, and care being segregated. CONCLUSION: Despite bringing several benefits, patients indicated that the changes to primary care provision during the COVID-19 pandemic could have threatened care accessibility and continuity, which are core values of primary care. These insights can guide primary care provision not only in this and future pandemics, but also when implementing permanent changes to care provision in primary care.

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