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1.
Frontiers in Surgery ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2109898

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare seeking behavior has been widely impacted due to the restricted movements of individuals during the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aims to perform risk stratification in patients requiring timely intervention during the recovery periods. Methods: Operation notes of acute appendicitis (AA) patients within a hospital were analyzed during three six-month periods (23 January-23 July in 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively). Patient data were collected retrospectively including demographics, pre-emergency status, perioperative information, postoperative outcomes, and follow-up results. Results: 321 patients were included in this study, with 111, 86, and 124 patients in 2019, 2020, and 2021 groups, respectively. The median age of patients decreased by 4 years in 2020 as compared to that in 2019. The proportion of pre-hospitalization symptoms duration of more than 48 h in the 2020 group was higher (36.05% in 2020 vs. 22.52% in 2019). Length of hospital stay (LOS) in 2020 was shorter than it was during the same period in 2019 (4.77 vs. 5.64) and LOS in 2021 was shorter than in 2019 (4.13 vs. 5.64). Compared to the lockdown period, the proportion of patients with recurrent AA was higher in the post-lockdown period (15.1% vs. 27.4%). The median age was 34 years (vaccinated) vs. 37 years (unvaccinated). Logistic regression suggests that elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR = 1.018, CI = 1.010-1.028), white cell count (WBC) (OR = 1.207, CI = 1.079-1.350), female (OR = 2.958, CI = 1.286-6.802), recurrent (OR = 3.865, CI = 1.149-12.997), and fecalith (OR = 2.308, CI = 1.007-5.289) were associated with complicated appendicitis (CA). Conclusion: The lockdown measures during the COVID-19 epidemic are shown to be correlated with a reduction in the proportion of AA patients who underwent surgery, particularly in older adults. Risk factors for CA include elevated CRP, WBC, female, recurrent, and fecalith.

2.
Frontiers in Political Science ; 4, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2109831

ABSTRACT

Community-based social models of care for seniors promote better outcomes in terms of quality of life, managing chronic illness and life expectancy than institutional care. However, small rural areas in high income countries face an ongoing crisis in coordinating care related to service mix, workforce and access. A scoping review was conducted to examine initiatives that promoted integrated models of multisectoral, collaborative aged care in rural settings which could help respond to this ongoing crisis and improve responses to emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic database search, screening and a two-stage full text review was followed by a case study critical appraisal. A content analysis of extracted data from included papers was undertaken. Integrated care services, activities and facilities were identified that helped guide the review process and data synthesis. The three included case studies all emphasized key principles that crucially underpinned the models related to collaboration, cooperation and innovation. Challenges to effective care included fiscal and structural constraints, with underlying social determinant impacts. Based on these findings, we describe the genesis of a “toolkit” with components of integrated models of care. Effective care requires aging to be addressed as a complex, interconnected social issue rather than solely a health problem. It demands a series of coordinated system-based responses that consider the complex and heterogeneous contexts (and needs) of communities. Such models are underpinned by leadership and political will, working with a wide breadth of stakeholders across family, community and clinical domains in private and public sectors. Copyright © 2022 Vaughan, Carson, Preston, Mude and Holt.

3.
Advances in Global Health ; 1(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2109393

ABSTRACT

More importantly, most poverty alleviation and food security programs are not developed with improving health or health equity as a key objective, and as a result, improvements in health are not optimized with traditional development approaches. The effects of infectious diseases like COVID-19 on economic outcomes serve as yet another illustration of the strong positive correlation established between health and wealth over decades of economics research. [...]a vibrant literature in economics has demonstrated a strong bidirectional relationship between health and economic outcomes in both low- and high-income countries [8]. [...]in the field of economics, the past two decades have witnessed a revolution in scientific methods for learning how to end poverty and improve well-being in low- and middle-income countries. Engendered by different crises and challenges, these matters play out differently in unique cultural and social environments. Since the 1950s and 1960s, humans have been transforming and disrupting most of our planet’s natural systems at a much-accelerated pace, from the deep oceans to the upper atmosphere, causing loss of biodiversity, overexploitation of fisheries, rising carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, acidification of oceans, and loss of tropical forests.

4.
Advances in Global Health ; 1(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2109392

ABSTRACT

Adolescent mental health is increasingly recognized as a critical concern. Globally, suicide is among the top 5 causes of death for 15–19-year-olds (girls and boys). In the Middle East and North Africa, the prevalence of mental disorders (17.3% for girls and 16.8% for boys) is the second highest in the world. The Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated adolescents’ vulnerabilities, particularly through the impacts of lockdowns and school closures. This article explores adolescent experiences in Gaza, drawing on mixed-methods research carried out in late 2020 in refugee camps (29%) and urban settings (71%). The sample involved phone surveys with 505 adolescent girls and boys (12–19 years) and their caregivers, in-depth interviews with a subsample of 77 adolescents, and 9 key informant interviews with service providers. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-8, 9% of adolescents show signs of moderate-to-severe depression, and 19% reported moderate-to-severe anxiety, according to the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, with older adolescents (15–19 years) more vulnerable overall, and older girls more prone to self-harm ideation. However, older boys were significantly more likely to turn to substance use as a coping mechanism than older girls (18% vs. 6%). The drivers of these negative mental health impacts during the pandemic include deepening household economic vulnerabilities, heightened intra-family tensions (boys and men spending more time at home, increasing domestic work burdens on girls and women), and isolation from peer networks, especially for girls. We conclude by discussing implications for policy and programming, in line with Sustainable Development Goal 3, to promote mental health and well-being for all. Measures include investing in age- and gender-responsive interventions (including social protection) to support positive coping repertoires among adolescents, mitigating risks of substance abuse, investing in counseling services (online and in-person), and paying particular attention to the most disadvantaged adolescents, especially those out of formal education.

5.
Society and Mental Health ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2108671

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, a COVID-19 outbreak occurred in Hubei Province of China. Exploiting the geographic concentration of China's COVID-19 cases in Hubei (the initial epicenter), we compare Hubei and non-Hubei residents to examine the medium-term effect of exposure to the COVID-19 outbreak on mental well-being. We examine flourishing-a comprehensive assessment of well-being that is not merely the absence of mental illness-and investigate a broad set of psychosocial and economic mediators that may link initial outbreak exposure to subsequent flourishing. We use ordinary least squares regression models to analyze national panel data collected in early 2020 and late 2021 (N = 3,169). Results show that flourishing scores remain lower for Hubei than non-Hubei residents almost two years following the early 2020 COVID-19 outbreak. Mediation analysis reveals that Hubei residents' lower incidences of job promotion and lower sense of control are the two most important mediators accounting for their lower flourishing relative to non-Hubei residents. Combined, this study provides the first evidence of the medium-term psychological vulnerability borne by individuals who lived in the initial epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings on the intervening mechanisms shed light on the policy initiatives needed for post-pandemic mental well-being recovery in China and other countries.

6.
International Migration Review ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2108528

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has extracted a substantial toll on immigrant communities in the United States, due in part to increased potential risk of exposure for immigrants to COVID-19 in the workplace. In this article, we use federal guidance on which industries in the United States were designated essential during the COVID-19 pandemic, information about the ability to work remotely, and data from the 2019 American Community Survey to estimate the distribution of essential frontline workers by nativity and immigrant legal status. Central to our analysis is a proxy measure of working in the primary or secondary sector of the segmented labor market. Our results indicate that a larger proportion of foreign-born workers are essential frontline workers compared to native-born workers and that 70 percent of unauthorized immigrant workers are essential frontline workers. Disparities in essential frontline worker status are most pronounced for unauthorized immigrant workers and native-born workers in the secondary sector of the labor market. These results suggest that larger proportions of foreign-born workers, and especially unauthorized immigrant workers, face greater risk of potential exposure to COVID-19 in the workplace than native-born workers. Social determinants of health such as lack of access to health insurance and living in overcrowded housing indicate that unauthorized immigrant essential frontline workers may be more vulnerable to poor health outcomes related to COVID-19 than other groups of essential frontline workers. These findings help to provide a plausible explanation for why COVID-19 mortality rates for immigrants are higher than mortality rates for native-born residents.

7.
Annual Review of Law and Social Science ; 18:1-26, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2108353

ABSTRACT

Although epidemics are generally understood as lying within the domain of biomedicine, legal and social arrangements play crucial roles in determining whether or not infectious disease outbreaks grow into epidemics and even pandemics. Yet epidemics are challenging terrain for legal regulation. Because epidemics cross political borders and span jurisdictional boundaries, funding for epidemic prevention, preparedness, and response is always inadequate and coordination is difficult. Because epidemics require rapid and nimble responses, governments and international organizations often declare states of emergency, thereby evading some of the usual strictures of law. And because they involve massive uncertainty and rapidly evolving health crises, they require legal actors to work more quickly and with lower standards of proof than is common in law and to intrude on the turf of medical and scientific professionals. Legal contributions to pandemic management could be improved if legal measures such as global treaties and domestic public health law took account of these special features of epidemics.

8.
BMJ Innovations ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2108272

ABSTRACT

Across various industries, the right to repair (RTR) movement has gained momentum as more than 20 states have proposed RTR laws to expand access to repair of consumer products. Medical device equipment shortages during the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated that stronger repair mechanisms are necessary for the US health system to become more efficient, affordable and sustainable. We propose a 5-point SAFER framework including safety and security, adaptability, fiscal, environmental and regulatory factors for consideration in implementing medical device RTR. The healthcare community can help advance RTR legislation in a manner that serves our patients and healthcare system best.

9.
Restoration Ecology ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2108156

ABSTRACT

Landscape change caused by ecological restoration projects in the karst rocky desertification area of southwestern China has presented ecological benefits, yet the visual aesthetic perception of the restored landscape has received less attention. Meanwhile, given the unpredictable worldwide health emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, it inspired us to be concerned about will citizens' aesthetic perceptions and attitudes to the change of restored landscape from pre-COVID-19 to during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Organizing an online survey, we explored citizens' visual aesthetic perceptions and attitudes to natural restored landscape (NRL) and managed restored landscape (MRL) on 757 citizens in Shilin Geopark (in Kunming, China), as well as how citizens' sociocultural backgrounds influence visual aesthetic preference. The results indicated that before the COVID-19 pandemic, the professionals preferred NRL, while the nonprofessionals presented a higher preference for MRL. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, both two groups showed a higher preference for NRL, which implied that the experience of lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic might awaken most citizens' preference for the NRL. Among different kinds of restored plant communities, the landscape dominated by shrubs was the most popular. Furthermore, gender, age, career type, education, region, and citizens' visit frequency were significantly correlated with visual aesthetic perceptions before the COVID-19 pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, professional background, gender, and age did not show significant impacts on visual aesthetic perceptions anymore. These results highlight the necessity of understanding visual aesthetic perceptions in different sociodemographic groups to encourage natural succession and create a nature-based restored landscape in the karst area.

10.
Journal of Tourism Futures ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107774

ABSTRACT

Purpose The construct of psychological capital or PsyCap (consisting of the positive psychological resources of hope, self-efficacy, optimism and resilience) has been demonstrated to relate to employees' attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of positive psychological capital on mental health, readiness for organizational change, and job insecurity in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 567 hotel employees working in hotels in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A quantitative approach was used and employees were requested to fill the questionnaires. Findings Results show that psychological capital enhances an employee's mental health and readiness for the organizational change. Moreover, PsyCap is found to negatively impact the perceptions of job insecurity among hotel employees. The study has useful managerial implications for hoteliers, especially, in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value This is the first study of its kind to link hotel employees' positive psychological capital with their perceptions about job insecurity and mental health. COVID-19 pandemic has hit the world fiercely and new normal expects employees to be ready to embrace changes in organizations. This study contributes to the literature on hospitality management by linking psychological capital with hotel employees' readiness for organizational change in the context of Coronavirus.

11.
Information Technology & People ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107758

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study explored whether the critical incident management systems (CIMS) model can predict the EMS performance in the COVID-19 context. Past research has established the significance of early detection and response (ER) in the context of Ebola virus disease (EVD), prompting a question of whether the model can also be helpful in the COVID-19 context. Consequently, the authors assessed whether ER influences the impact of communication capacity (CC), reliable information channel (RC) and environment (EN) on COVID-19 EMS performance. Assessing these relationships will advance emerging infectious disease (EID) preparedness. Design/methodology/approach The authors employed standardized measurement instruments of the CIMS model (CC, ER, RC and EN) to predict the performance of COVID-19 EMS using structural equation modeling (SEM) in a study of 313 participants from frontline responders. Findings The results show that the relationship of ER and EN with COVID-19 EMS performance is positive, while that of EN on CC is negative. The relationship between EN and COVID-19 EMS performance was insignificant. Contrary to the hypothesis, CC was negatively significant to COVID-19 EMS performance due to poor communication capacities. Research limitations/implications The authors acknowledge some limitations due to challenges faced in this study. First, Data collection was a significant limitation as these questionnaires were built and distributed in June 2020, but the response time was prolonged due to the recurring nature of the pandemic. The authors had wanted to implore the inputs of all stakeholders, and efforts were made to reach out to various Ministry of Health, the local CDC and related agencies in the region via repeated emails explaining the purpose of the study to no avail. The study finally used the frontline workers as the respondents. The authors used international students from various countries as the representatives to reach out to their countries' frontline workers. Second, since the study was only partially supported using the CIMS model, future studies may combine the CIMS model with other models or theories. Subsequent research reassesses this outcome in other contexts or regions. Consequently, further research can explore how CC can be improved with COVID-19 and another future EID in the region. This may improve the COVID-19 EMS performance, thereby expanding the lesson learned from the pandemic and sustaining public health EID response. Additionally, other authors may combine the CIMS model with other emergency management models or theories to establish a fully supported theoretical model in the context of COVID-19. Practical implications The findings have practical implications for incident managers, local CDCs, governments, international organizations and scholars. The outcome of the study might inform these stakeholders on future direction and contribution to EID preparedness. This study unfolds the impact of lessons learned in the region demonstrated by moderating early detection and responses with other constructs to achieve COVID-19 EMS performance. The findings reveal that countries that experienced the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak, were not necessarily more prepared for an epidemic or pandemic, judging by the negative moderating impact of early detection and response. However, these experiences provide a foundation for the fight against COVID-19. There is a need for localized plans tailored to each country's situation, resources, culture and lifestyle. The localized plan will be to mitigate and prevent an unsustainable EID management system, post-epidemic fund withdrawals and governance. This plan might be more adaptable and sustainable for the local health system when international interventions are withdrawn after an epidemic. Public health EID plans must be adapted to each country's unique situation to ensure sustainability and constantly improve EID management of epidemics and pandemics in emergency response. The high to moderate importation risk in African countries shows Africa's largest wind w of vulnerability to be West Africa (Gilbert et al., 2020). Therefore, they should be in the spotlight for heightened assistance towards the preparedness and response for a future pandemic like COVID-19. The West African region has a low capacity to manage the health emergency to match the population capacities. The COVID-19 outbreak in West Africa undoubtedly inflicted many disruptions in most countries' economic, social and environmental circumstances. The region's unique challenges observed in this study with CC and reliable information channels as being negatively significant highlight the poor maintenance culture and weak institutions due to brain drain and inadequate training and monitoring. This outcome practically informs West African stakeholders and governments on aspects to indulge when trying to improve emergency preparedness as the outcomes from other regions might not be applicable. Originality/value This study explored the relevance of the CIMS model in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, revealing different patterns of influence on COVID-19 EMS performance. In contrast to the extant literature on EVD, the authors found the moderating effects of ER in the COVID-19 context. Thus, the authors contribute to the COVID-19 EMS performance domain by developing a context-driven EMS model. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications.

12.
International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107750

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of organizational readiness (OR) dimensions (organizational culture, climate and capability) on three types of innovations (INs) (service, process IN and entering new markets) in telecommunication companies. The study also tests the mediating role of employee engagement (EE) in the causal relationship between OR and IN. Design/methodology/approach In the theoretical framework, a deep and broad review of the literature was presented to determine the study variables and hypotheses that were tested in the field study. The study sample consisted of 306 respondents distributed to the headquarters of the three companies (Zain, Orange and Umniah) working in the Jordanian telecommunications sector. The number of questionnaires retrieved and valid for analysis was 255 (83%). Findings Results indicate a positive effect of organizational climate and organizational capacity on process IN and entering new markets. While organizational culture had no significant effect on the three types of IN EE did not have a mediating role in the relationship between OR and IN. Research limitations/implications The results of this study are related to the telecommunications sector as a highly competitive service sector and more able to work remotely with regard to customers, so its results cannot be generalized to other sectors such as the industry sector, which has suffered in recent years from the epidemic more than other sectors. Practical implications The study of OR as a concept, dimensions and effects provides great experience for leaders and managers facing the challenges of competition and threats posed by the Covid-19 pandemic. This study also helps researchers to study OR in new areas and in relation to other concepts. Social implications The OR covers a wide field that includes the individual, the group and the company. Therefore, readiness includes a social experience that can extend from the company to the community. Originality/value The study gains an important value by revealing that organizational culture as a dimension of readiness does not have a significant impact on IN. With the readiness to respond quickly to challenges, culture can be more inclined to the status quo and the prevailing routine than to IN and change.

13.
British Food Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107727

ABSTRACT

Purpose To study the consumption pattern, attitude and knowledge of the general population about dietary supplements (DS) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design/methodology/approach A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data on knowledge, attitude and consumption pattern related to the use of DS. Participants aged = 18 years were asked to complete a self-administered online questionnaire that included demographic characteristics, health and lifestyle information, consumption patterns, attitudes and knowledge levels regarding the use of DS. Findings A total of 207 individuals participated in the study, and 117 (56.5%) participants reported using DS products as influenced by the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), of which 63 (53.8%) participants had been using DS for more than one month but less than one year. The majority of the participants was females (64.7%), non-UAE nationals (60.9%) and employed (51.7%). Multivitamins (77.8%) were the most commonly used DS. Use of DS was more prevalent among older participants (n = 78 (61.9%), p = 0.006), non-UAE nationals (n = 79 (62.7%), p = 0.025) and employed (n = 69 (64.5%), p = 0.023). Improving general health (76.1%) and immune booster (47%) were the most frequently identified reasons for using DS, which is relatable to the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of study participants (72.12%) reported knowing relatively little about the use of DS. About 154 participants (74.4%) did not know that DS products do not treat diseases. Research limitations/implications Further studies with a larger sample size need to be conducted to examine the association between gender or chronic disease and the consumption and type of DS products used to fill the gap in the literature and overcome the limitations identified in this study. Originality/value This study highlights the need for community education programs and strategies that can raise awareness of the health benefits and risks of using DS. Further studies with a larger sample size need to be conducted to examine the association between gender or chronic disease and the consumption and type of DS products used to fill the gap in the literature and overcome the limitations identified in this study.

14.
Can J Psychiatry ; : 7067437211004881, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108543

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: New coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic socioeconomically affected the world. In this study, we measured the perceived stress in response to the COVID-19 pandemic among Iranians to determine the groups at both extremes of the spectrum followed by identifying the stressors and coping mechanisms. METHODS: This study was a mixed-methods study. We distributed a web-based 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS-10), to measure perceived stress score (PSS), through social networks from March 12 to 23, 2020. Then, we interviewed 42 students, 31 homemakers, 27 healthcare providers, and 21 male participants to identify the sources of stress and coping mechanisms. RESULTS: Finally, 13,454 participants completed the questionnaires. The median and interquartile range (IQR) of the participants' PSS was 21 (15-25). Students, homemakers, and healthcare workers (HCWs) showed a higher median (IQR) of PSS compared to other groups (23 [18 to 27], 22 [16 to 26], and 19 [14 to 24], respectively). Male participants showed a lower median (IQR) PSS (17 [12 to 23]). Content analysis of 121 participants' answers showed that the most common stressors were school-related issues mentioned by students, family-related issues mentioned by homemakers, and COVID-19-related issues mentioned by healthcare providers. Male participants' coping mechanisms were mostly related to the perception of their abilities to cope with the current crisis. CONCLUSION: Our participants clinically showed a moderate level of PSS. The main stressors among students, homemakers, and HCWs were related to their principal role in this period, and male participants' coping mechanisms were inspired by the self-image retrieved from the social perspectives.

15.
Korean J Pain ; 35(4): 458-467, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109722

ABSTRACT

Background: Few studies have investigated unspecified or idiopathic pain associated with COIVD-19. This study aimed to provide the incidence rates of unspecified pain and idiopathic pain in patients with COVID-19 for 90 days after COVID-19 diagnosis. Methods: A propensity score matched cohort was used, including all patients with COVID-19 in South Korea, and analyzed their electronic medical records. The control group consisted of those who had not had tests for COVID-19 at all. Unspecified pain diagnoses consisted of diagnoses related to pain included in the ICD-10 Chapter XVIII. Idiopathic pain disorders included fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint disorders, headaches, chronic prostatitis, complex regional pain syndrome, atypical facial pain, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis. Results: After matching, the number of participants in each group was 7,911. For most unspecified pain, the incidences were higher in the COVID-19 group (11.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0-12.5) than in the control group (6.5%; 95% CI, 6.0-7.1). For idiopathic pain, only the headaches had a significantly higher incidence in the COVID-19 group (6.6%; 95% CI, 6.1-7.2) than in the control group (3.7%; 95% CI, 3.3-4.1). However, using a different control group that included only patients who visited a hospital at least once for any reasons, the incidences of most unspecified and idiopathic pain were higher in the control group than in the COVID-19 group. Conclusions: Patients with COVID-19 might be at a higher risk of experiencing unspecified pain in the acute phase or after recovery compared with individuals who had not had tests for COVID-19.

16.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109667

ABSTRACT

A cancer diagnosis is life altering and frequently associated with both acute and long-lasting psychosocial and behavioral distress for patients. The impact of a diffuse glioma diagnosis on mental health is an important aspect of the patient experience with their disease. This needs to be understood by neurosurgeons so these concerns can be appropriately addressed in a timely fashion and integrated into the multidisciplinary care of neuro-oncology patients. The relatively grave prognosis associated with diffuse gliomas, the morbidity associated with treatment, and the constant threat of developing a new neurological deficit all can negatively affect a patient's mental ability to cope and ultimately manifest in mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression. The objective of this systematic review was to describe the variety of behavioral health disorders patients may experience following a glioma diagnosis and discuss possible treatment options. The PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched through July 1, 2022, using broad search terms, which resulted in 5028 studies that were uploaded to Covidence systematic review software. Duplicates, non-English-language studies, and studies with irrelevant outcomes or incorrect design were removed (n = 3167). A total of 92 articles reporting behavioral health outcomes in brain tumor patients were categorized and extracted for associations with overall mental health, anxiety, depression, distress, stress, pharmacology, interventions, and mental health in caregivers. The authors identified numerous studies reporting the prevalence of mental health disorders and their negative influence in this population. However, there is a paucity of literature on therapeutic options for patients. Given the strong correlation between patient quality of life and mental well-being, there is a considerable need for early recognition and treatment of these behavioral health disorders to optimize everyday functioning for patients.

17.
Euro Surveill ; 27(44)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109635

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSince the roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines in late 2020 and throughout 2021, European governments have relied on mathematical modelling to inform policy decisions about COVID-19 vaccination.AimWe present a scenario-based modelling analysis in the Netherlands during summer 2021, to inform whether to extend vaccination to adolescents (12-17-year-olds) and children (5-11-year-olds).MethodsWe developed a deterministic, age-structured susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model and compared modelled incidences of infections, hospital and intensive care admissions, and deaths per 100,000 people across vaccination scenarios, before the emergence of the Omicron variant.ResultsOur model projections showed that, on average, upon the release of all non-pharmaceutical control measures on 1 November 2021, a large COVID-19 wave may occur in winter 2021/22, followed by a smaller, second wave in spring 2022, regardless of the vaccination scenario. The model projected reductions in infections/severe disease outcomes when vaccination was extended to adolescents and further reductions when vaccination was extended to all people over 5 years-old. When examining projected disease outcomes by age group, individuals benefitting most from extending vaccination were adolescents and children themselves. We also observed reductions in disease outcomes in older age groups, particularly of parent age (30-49 years), when children and adolescents were vaccinated, suggesting some prevention of onward transmission from younger to older age groups.ConclusionsWhile our scenarios could not anticipate the emergence/consequences of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, we illustrate how our approach can assist decision making. This could be useful when considering to provide booster doses or intervening against future infection waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Child, Preschool , Netherlands/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e42839, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the Riyadh Declaration, digital health technologies were prioritized in many countries to address the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. Digital health apps for telemedicine and video consultations help reduce potential disease spread in routine health care, including follow-up care in orthopedic and trauma surgery. In addition to the satisfaction, efficiency, and safety of telemedicine, its economic and environmental effects are highly relevant to decision makers, particularly for the goal of reaching carbon neutrality of health care systems. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide the first comprehensive health economic and environmental analysis of video consultations in follow-up care after knee and shoulder interventions in an orthopedic and trauma surgery department of a German university hospital. The analysis is conducted from a societal perspective. We analyze both economic and environmental impacts of video consultations, taking into account the goal of carbon neutrality for the German health care system by 2030. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing follow-up care with digital health app video consultations (intervention group) to conventional face-to-face consultations in the clinic (control group). Economic impact included the analysis of travel and time costs and production losses. Examination of the environmental impact comprised the emissions of greenhouse gases, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulates, and the calculation of environmental costs. Sensitivity analysis included calculations with a higher cost per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent, which gives equal weight to the welfare of present and future generations. RESULTS: Data from 52 patients indicated that, from the patients' point of view, telemedicine helped reduce travel costs, time costs, and production losses, resulting in mean cost savings of €76.52 per video consultation. In addition, emissions of 11.248 kg of greenhouse gases, 0.070 kg of carbon monoxide, 0.011 kg of volatile hydrocarbons, 0.028 kg of nitrogen oxides, and 0.0004 kg of particulates could be saved per patient through avoided travel. This resulted in savings of environmental costs between €3.73 and €9.53 per patient. CONCLUSIONS: We presented the first comprehensive analysis of economic and environmental effects of telemedicine in the follow-up care of patients in orthopedic and trauma surgery in Germany. Video consultations were found to reduce the environmental footprint of follow-up care; saved travel costs, travel time, and time costs for patients; and helped to lower production losses. Our findings can support the decision-making on the use of digital health during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, providing decision makers with data for both economic and environmental effects. Thanks to the pragmatic design of our study, our findings can be applied to a wide range of clinical contexts and potential digital health applications that substitute outpatient hospital visits with video consultations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00023445; https://tinyurl.com/4pcvhz4n.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Greenhouse Gases , Mobile Applications , Telemedicine , Humans , Aftercare , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Monoxide , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Telemedicine/methods , Germany , Environment
20.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(11): e41689, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the general public was concerned about the mental health impacts of unemployment due to COVID-19 and the stress essential workers experienced during this time. Several reports indicated that people in distress were turning to digital technology, but there was little evidence about the impact of these tools on mitigating distress. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to determine the acceptability, feasibility, usability, and effectiveness of mobile mental health apps for decreasing mental health symptoms in essential workers and unemployed individuals with suicide risk. METHODS: We recruited participants who indicated that they were unemployed because of COVID-19 or were COVID-19-designated essential workers. Participants were randomized to 1 of 4 free commercial mobile apps for managing distress that were (1) highly rated by PsyberGuide and (2) met the criteria for intervention features these participants indicated were desirable in a previous survey. Participants used the apps for 4 weeks and completed baseline and 4-week self-assessments of depression, anxiety emotional regulation, and suicide risk. RESULTS: We found no differences between the apps in any outcome but did find significant changes in depression and anxiety over time (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]-9: estimate=-1.5, SE 0.2, 95% CI -1.1 to -1.8, P<.001; Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale [GAD]-7: estimate=-1.3, SE 0.2, 95% CI -1.0 to -1.6, P<.001). We found no significant changes in suicidal behavior (Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised [SBQ-R]) or emotional regulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale - Short Form [DERS-SF]) for the 4 weeks. We did find a significant dose-response pattern for changes in depression and anxiety. Using the app at least once a week resulted in greater improvements in treatment conditions over time on depression (estimate=-0.6, SE 0.2, 95% CI 1.0-0.2, P=.003) and anxiety (estimate=0.1, SE 0.2, 95% CI 0.4-0.6, P=.78). There was no association between app frequency and changes in suicidal behavior (SBQ-R) or emotional regulation (DERS-SF). We further found a significant difference between the conditions with regard to app usability, with the control app being the most usable (meanBeautiful Mood 72.9, SD 16.7; meanCOVID Coach 71.2, SD 15.4; meanCalm 66.8, SD 17.3; mean7 Cups 65.2, SD 17.7). We found no significant differences for app acceptability or appropriateness. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have evaluated prospectively the utility and usability of commercial apps for mood. This study found that free, self-guided commercial mobile mental health apps are seen as usable, but no one app is superior to the other. Although we found that regular use is indicated for effects on depression and anxiety to occur in those who are more symptomatic, regression to the mean cannot be ruled out. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04536935; https://tinyurl.com/mr36zx3s.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Humans , Mental Health , Unemployment , Pandemics
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