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Journal of Hypertension ; 41:e216, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2244111


Objective: There is a scarcity of data on the factors that influence home blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) variability. This study was undertaken to determine the factors that influence home BP and HR fluctuation post COVID infection in the urban Indian population. Designs and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1000 patients between the ages of 30 and 80 who were previously infected with COVID- 19 infection, but not hospitalized. These patients were guided and trained to measure BP at home. BP and HR readings were taken at home twice a day, in the morning and evening, for seven days (28 measurements). The SD of morning minus evening, and first minus second readings was used to calculate BP and HR variability. Results: Old age, cardiovascular illness, diabetes, and high home blood pressure were all found to be independent predictors of an increased morning than evening home blood pressure variability. Old age, and high home blood pressure were all independent determinants of greater day-to-day home blood pressure variability, while old age, female sex, cardiovascular disease, and high home blood pressure were all independent determinants of greater first versus second home blood pressure variability. Young age, and high home HR, on the other hand, were all independent drivers of increased morning vs evening variability. Young age, female sex, and a high home HR were also independent predictors of first versus second home HR variability. Conclusion: Considering home BP and HR fluctuation have prognostic value, it is critical for clinicians to understand the underlying reasons for these variables. Doctors should focus on alcohol, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease prevention counseling for their high-risk patients. (Table Presented).

Neurologic Clinics ; 41(1):193-213, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2241541
J Clin Med ; 12(1)2022 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243302


BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability is a non-invasive, measurable, and established autonomic nervous system test. Long-term COVID-19 sequelae are unclear; however, acute symptoms have been studied. OBJECTIVES: To determine autonomic cardiac differences between long COVID-19 patients and healthy controls and evaluate associations among symptoms, comorbidities, and laboratory findings. METHODS: This single-center study included long COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. The heart rate variability (HRV), a quantitative marker of autonomic activity, was monitored for 24 h using an ambulatory electrocardiogram system. HRV indices were compared between case and control groups. Symptom frequency and inflammatory markers were evaluated. A significant statistical level of 5% (p-value 0.05) was adopted. RESULTS: A total of 47 long COVID-19 patients were compared to 42 healthy controls. Patients averaged 43.8 (SD14.8) years old, and 60.3% were female. In total, 52.5% of patients had moderate illness. Post-exercise dyspnea was most common (71.6%), and 53.2% lacked comorbidities. CNP, D-dimer, and CRP levels were elevated (p-values of 0.0098, 0.0023, and 0.0015, respectively). The control group had greater SDNN24 and SDANNI (OR = 0.98 (0.97 to 0.99; p = 0.01)). Increased low-frequency (LF) indices in COVID-19 patients (OR = 1.002 (1.0001 to 1.004; p = 0.030)) and high-frequency (HF) indices in the control group (OR = 0.987 (0.98 to 0.995; p = 0.001)) were also associated. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with long COVID-19 had lower HF values than healthy individuals. These variations are associated with increased parasympathetic activity, which may be related to long COVID-19 symptoms and inflammatory laboratory findings.

Children (Basel) ; 10(2)2023 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228407


BACKGROUND: Dysautonomia seems to be important for the pathophysiology of psychosomatic diseases and, more recently, for long COVID. This concept may explain the clinical symptoms and could help open new therapeutic approaches. METHODS: We compared our data from an analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in an active standing test in 28 adolescents who had developed an inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST, n = 13) or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS, n = 15) after contracting COVID-19 disease and/or vaccination with 64 adolescents from our database who developed dysautonomia due to psychosomatic diseases prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. We prove the effects of our treatment: omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (O3-FA, n = 18) in addition to propranolol (low dose, up to 20-20-0 mg, n = 32) or ivabradine 5-5-0 mg (n = 17) on heart rate regulation and heart rate variability (HRV). RESULTS: The HRV data were not different between the adolescents with SARS-CoV-2-related disorders and the adolescents with dysautonomia prior to the pandemic. The heart rate increases in children with POTS while standing were significantly lower after low-dose propranolol (27.2 ± 17.4 bpm***), ivabradine (23.6 ± 8.12 bpm*), and O-3-FA (25.6 ± 8.4 bpm*). The heart rate in children with IST while lying/standing was significantly lower after propranolol (81.6 ± 10.1 bpm**/101.8 ± 18.8***), ivabradine (84.2 ± 8.4 bpm***/105.4 ± 14.6**), and O-3-FA (88.6 ± 7.9 bpm*/112.1/14.9*). CONCLUSIONS: The HRV data of adolescents with dysautonomia after COVID-19 disease/vaccination are not significantly different from a historical control of adolescents with dysautonomia due to psychosomatic diseases prior to the pandemic. Low-dose propranolol > ivabradine > omega-3 fatty acids significantly decrease elevated heart rates in patients with IST and the heart rate increases in patients with POTS and may be beneficial in these children with dysautonomia.

NeuroRegulation ; 9(4):198-199, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2226321
International Journal of Psychophysiology ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2220809
34th European Association for Aviation Psychology, EAAP 2022 ; 66:49-56, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2211564
J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28462, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173230


One of the effective ways to minimize the spread of COVID-19 infection is to diagnose it as early as possible before the onset of symptoms. In addition, if the infection can be simply diagnosed using a smartwatch, the effectiveness of preventing the spread will be greatly increased. In this study, we aimed to develop a deep learning model to diagnose COVID-19 before the onset of symptoms using heart rate (HR) data obtained from a smartwatch. In the deep learning model for the diagnosis, we proposed a transformer model that learns HR variability patterns in presymptom by tracking relationships in sequential HR data. In the cross-validation (CV) results from the COVID-19 unvaccinated patients, our proposed deep learning model exhibited high accuracy metrics: sensitivity of 84.38%, specificity of 85.25%, accuracy of 84.85%, balanced accuracy of 84.81%, and area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) of 0.8778. Furthermore, we validated our model using external multiple datasets including healthy subjects, COVID-19 patients, as well as vaccinated patients. In the external healthy subject group, our model also achieved high specificity of 77.80%. In the external COVID-19 unvaccinated patient group, our model also provided similar accuracy metrics to those from the CV: balanced accuracy of 87.23% and AUROC of 0.8897. In the COVID-19 vaccinated patients, the balanced accuracy and AUROC dropped by 66.67% and 0.8072, respectively. The first finding in this study is that our proposed deep learning model can simply and accurately diagnose COVID-19 patients using HRs obtained from a smartwatch before the onset of symptoms. The second finding is that the model trained from unvaccinated patients may provide less accurate diagnosis performance compared with the vaccinated patients. The last finding is that the model trained in a certain period of time may provide degraded diagnosis performances as the virus continues to mutate.

COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Humans , Heart Rate , ROC Curve , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
Ieee Access ; 10:131656-131670, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2191671
Hypertension Research ; 46(1):231-235, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2185799
Clinical Neurophysiology ; 141(Supplement):S178, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2177670
Clinical Autonomic Research ; 32(5):370, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128750
Clinical Autonomic Research ; 32(5):369, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2128740
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical ; 349:114058, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122809
Psychophysiology ; 59:S110-S110, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2122042
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(6): H1206-H1211, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108360


Emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 may affect cardiac autonomic function; however, the limited findings in young adults with COVID-19 have been equivocal. Notably, symptomology and time since diagnosis appear to influence vascular health following COVID-19, but this has not been explored in the context of cardiac autonomic regulation. Therefore, we hypothesized that young adults who had persistent symptoms following COVID-19 would have lower heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) compared with those who had COVID-19 but were asymptomatic at testing and controls who never had COVID-19. Furthermore, we hypothesized that there would be relationships between cardiac autonomic function measures and time since diagnosis. We studied 27 adults who had COVID-19 and were either asymptomatic (ASYM; n = 15, 6 females); 21 ± 4 yr; 8.4 ± 4.0 wk from diagnosis) or symptomatic (SYM; n = 12, 9 females); 24 ± 3 yr; 12.3 ± 6.2 wk from diagnosis) at testing, and 20 adults who reported never having COVID-19 (24 ± 4 yr, 11 females). Heart rate and beat-to-beat blood pressure were continuously recorded during 5 min of rest to assess HRV and cardiac BRS. HRV [root mean square of successive differences between normal heartbeats (RMSSD); control, 73 ± 50 ms; ASYM, 71 ± 47 ms; and SYM, 84 ± 45 ms; P = 0.774] and cardiac BRS (overall gain; control, 22.3 ± 10.1 ms/mmHg; ASYM, 22.7 ± 12.2 ms/mmHg; and SYM, 24.3 ± 10.8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.871) were not different between groups. However, we found correlations with time since diagnosis for HRV (e.g., RMSSD, r = 0.460, P = 0.016) and cardiac BRS (overall gain, r = 0.470, P = 0.014). These data suggest a transient impact of COVID-19 on cardiac autonomic function that appears mild and unrelated to persistent symptoms in young adults.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The potential role of persistent COVID-19 symptoms on cardiac autonomic function in young adults was investigated. We observed no differences in heart rate variability or cardiac baroreflex sensitivity between controls who never had COVID-19 and those who had COVID-19, regardless of symptomology. However, there were significant relationships between measures of cardiac autonomic function and time since diagnosis, suggesting that COVID-19-related changes in cardiac autonomic function are transient in young, otherwise healthy adults.

COVID-19 , Female , Young Adult , Humans , Autonomic Nervous System , Baroreflex/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Heart , Blood Pressure/physiology
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2083522
Hypertension. Conference: American Heart Association's Hypertension ; 79(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064359
17th IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications, MeMeA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2052065