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1.
International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics ; 14(Special Issue 4):1-6, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2262165

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to review zinc's effectiveness as an antivirus in treating herpes simplex virus infection. The authors use international journals published from 2000-2022, and use search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct with the keywords "zinc and herpes simplex virus". The herpes simplex virus that often causes symptoms in humans are HSV type 1 and type 2. The lesions appear as vesicles which then rupture into ulcers. Zinc is one of the most abundant nutrients or metals in the human body besides iron. Studies about the effects of zinc on HSV have shown that it has the function of inhibiting the viral life cycle. HSV attaches to the host cells to replicate and synthesize new viral proteins. Zinc can inhibit this process by depositing on the surface of the virion and inactivating the enzymatic function which is required for the attachment to the host cell, disrupting the surface glycoprotein of the viral membrane so it could not adhere and carry out the next life cycle, it can also inhibit the function of DNA polymerase that works for viral replication in the host cell. This article showed that zinc has effectiveness as an antivirus against the herpes simplex virus, therefore, patients infected with HSV can be treated with zinc as an alternative to an antivirus drug.Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd.

2.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956753

ABSTRACT

The aim is to determine oral manifestations in patients with COVID-19 disease and in the postcovid period. Methods: A special survey (questionnaire) was made in 424 people who had COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR, ELISA for specific IgM and IgG antibodies and Chest CT scan (168 people). 123 people had complaints and clinical symptoms in the oral cavity 2-6 months after the illness and they came to the University dental clinic. Laboratory tests have been performed (clinical blood test, blood immunogram, virus and fungal identification). Results: Survey results showed that 16,0% participants had asymptomatic COVID-19, 23,6% - mild and 48,1% moderate disease. 12,3% with severe COVID-19 were treated in a hospital with oxygen support. In the first 2 weeks 44,3% indicated xerostomia, dysgeusia (21,7%), muscle pain during chewing (11,3%), pain during swallowing (30,2%), burning and painful tongue (1,9%), tongue swelling (30,2%), catharal stomatitis (16,0%), gingival bleeding (22,6%), painful ulcers (aphthae) (8,5%) and signs of candidiasis - white plaque in the tongue (12,3%). After illness (3-6 months), patients indicated dry mouth (12,3%), progressing of gingivitis (20,7%) and periodontitis (11,3%). In patients who applied to the clinic we identified such diagnoses: desquamative glossitis - 16 cases, glossodynia (11), herpes labialis and recurrent herpetic gingivostomatitis (27), hairy leukoplakia (1), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (22), aphthosis Sutton (4), necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (13), oral candidiasis (14), erythema multiforme (8), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (2), oral squamous cell papillomas on the gingiva (4) and the lower lip (1). According to laboratory studies, virus reactivation (HSV, VZV, EBV, CMV, Papilloma viruces) was noted in 52 patients (42,3%), immunodeficiency in 96 people (78,0%), immunoregulation disorders (allergic and autoimmune reactions) in 24 people (19,5%). Conclusions: Lack of oral hygiene, hyposalivation, vascular compromise, stress, immunodeficiency and reactivation of persistent viral and fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 disease are risk factors for progression of periodontal and oral mucosal diseases.

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