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1.
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare ; 15(3):257-275, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2051860

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Ostracism is being socially ignored or excluded by others. Ostracism leads to serious psychological distress and health issues in the young adults being ostracized. However, there are no psychometrically designed instruments to measure this phenomenon in young adults. This study aims to develop a scale that measures ostracism efficiently and establishes the scale's psychometric properties. Design/methodology/approach: The research design used for the study is "a mixed-method study using non-experimental research with an exploratory sequential approach and instrument development design." For the formation of the item pool, theoretical evidence was collected and focus group discussions were conducted. Afterward, content validity was established with the help of subject matter experts, followed by Velicer's minimum average partial method and maximum likelihood factor analysis to form the instrument's factorial structure. Findings: Velicer's minimum average partial method and maximum likelihood factor analysis made two factors as follows: ostracism experience and psychological effect. The instrument developed has a high value of alpha reliability i.e. a = 0.97 and a = 0.96, a = 0.92 for the subscales, respectively. Research limitations/implications: The sample used for the research was enough to run the analysis, but future studies can go for a more extensive and more diverse sample. The sample was based solely on university students. The current research focused only on the target of the phenomenon, and the whole research process was conducted online because of the Covid-19 pandemic going on. The scale developed can be used in several settings to find out if the individual is being ostracized or not. Practical implications: The scale's most important implication is in the colleges and universities where young adults are found and face this problem daily. Likewise, psychologists can also use it in clinical settings. The other important implication of this scale is that it is opening a route to future research as different variables can be studied in ostracism such as depression, physical health and anxiety. Social implications: Ostracism is a hidden evil in societies that is not usually talked about. When people are not given equal importance in groups or settings, it leads to serious psychological issues in those individuals. This scale will in the identification of the problem that will lead to a proper solution to this evil. Originality/value: This work is original and not copied from anywhere. The research was conducted with the sole purpose of developing a scale on the ostracism experiences in young adults. The data is collected in the form of online surveys. The current scale is an attempt at developing a more reliable and valid scale that can be used in social settings.

2.
CBU Beden Egitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi ; 17(1):29-41, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040679

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic, which affected the whole world in the same time period, also deeply affected the perception and behavior patterns of sports participants. People have been subjected to great anxiety and fear with the epidemic. This situation has caused people to become alienated from each other and their surroundings. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between fear of Covid-19 and alienation in sports. The universe of the research consists of hockey athletes participating in the U15 Women-Men Democracy and National Union Turkey Hockey Championship, which is in the annual activity program of the Turkish Hockey. The sample group consists of a total of 165 hockey athletes, including 68 women and 97 men, who have agreed to participate in the study entirely on a voluntary basis from among these athletes. Descriptive statistics were conducted to determine the level of fear of Covid-19 and alienation of hockey athletes in sports. The homogeneity of the data was checked, the Independent Samples t test was used for binary comparisons, One-Way Anova was used for multiple comparisons, and the Tukey tests were used to determine the source of the difference. In the context of the relational model, the correlation method was applied We express the findings reached as a result of the research.;It was found that there were no significant differences between the fear of Covid-19 and alienation in sports according to age and sports experience variables, there were significant changes in the level of fear of Covid-19 in the gender variable of hockey players and athletes had an average score near the intermediate level on both scales. As a result, it has been determined that there is no correlation dec fear of Covid-19 and alienation in sports in this research.

3.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039241

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions are one of the major tools to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Information about these behaviors is disseminated by messaging campaigns. However, people differ in their responses to persuasive messages. Here, we examine whether cultural orientation is associated with adherence to recommended COVID-19 prevention guidelines. Participants (n = 443, 201 from the United States via Amazon Mechanical Turk and 242 from Central New York via a convenience, snowball sample) completed an online survey during April and May 2020. Cultural orientation was measured via the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism Scale. Adherence to limiting social contact was self-reported. Multi-level Poisson regression assessed the association between cultural orientation and social contact behaviors. Those high in horizontal individualist characteristics had a positive association with increased social contact behaviors (RR: 2.20, 95%CI: 1.97-2.47, p <0.001). Those high in vertical collectivist characteristics had a negative association with those behaviors (RR: 0.59, 95%CI: 0.52-0.67, p<0.000). We found an association with cultural orientation and adherence to social contact behaviors during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the United States, effective public health messages to promote adherence to preventative behaviors should be tailored to horizontal individualists, those least likely to engage in recommended behaviors.

4.
Journal of Rural Social Sciences ; 37(2), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034461

ABSTRACT

Rural individuals and places face major vulnerabilities in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic, yet how and why rural residents adopted preventive behaviors as a result is not well understood. Using cross-sectional data from an online panel survey of Utahans along the rural-urban continuum collected in June of 2020, we find that, overall, rural Utahans were less likely than their more urban counterparts to adopt preventive behaviors. Those who perceived less risk, knew someone sick with COVID-19, thought former President Trump was doing a good job handling the pandemic, had false optimism about the pandemic, had less formal education, and belonged to a lower economic class, were also less likely to adjust some of their behaviors. Given that COVID-19 and its variants continue to spread, and because other viral outbreaks are likely, a better understanding of preventive behavior along the rural-urban continuum and what shapes it is essential for health-related policymaking including encouraging vaccine uptake.

5.
Journal of Adolescent Health ; 68(2 Suppl):S1-S60, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033647

ABSTRACT

This proceedings contains 112 s that discuss the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults, highlighting the need for strategic information for future global initiatives in adolescent health, behavioral sciences to public health and policy, with a particular focus adverse effects of COVID-19 and future pandemics on adolescent health.

6.
Cactus the Tourism Journal for Research, Education, Culture and Soul ; 4(1):27-41, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026313

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus has led to devastating tragedies, creating a worldwide crisis upon economy and society. Starting from people suffering from illness, deaths, unemployment up until poverty, the COVID-19 pandemic can be considered one of the darkest periods of the world's history. More broadly, the virus has transformed our everyday lifestyles, inter-human interactions, dynamics of life and last but not least, perceptions upon travelling. The tourism sector has been tremendously affected by the expansion of the virus, with hundreds of countries closing borders, introduction of numerous travel restrictions and suspended flights. Restrictions, regulations and the fear of not getting infected with the new virus have created chaos and considerably changed the way individuals currently perceive travelling. Our study takes a demand-side perspective in order to determine changes in travelling behaviours of individuals, by focusing on students, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study acts as a pilot test and aims at offering guidance for the tourism sector in elaborating and adapting to changing demands on the market. For this purpose, we have collected primary data by distributing a survey among students studying at Universities in Romania. Results have been analysed and compared with relevant literature research. Findings reveal the importance of rate of infection, possible occurring restrictions and costs as being critical when choosing travel destinations during pandemic. Conclusions demonstrate that there is a high need for strong collaboration and cooperation between governments and tourism agencies and businesses. We propose tourism organisations to direct their promotions upon relaxing and safe destinations, at a domestic level in a first phase, followed by international alternatives. We consider that competition can take a backseat during these tough periods and make room for collaborative behaviours and partnerships for the industry to survive.

7.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021478

ABSTRACT

Historically, infectious diseases have generated fears among populations. Unhealthy handling of these fears result in the stigma and discrimination of infected patients. Globally, measures taken so far by governments to curb the spread of the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, although helpful, have created fears in people. Consequently, there are reported Ghanaian media cases of stigmatisation against persons who were infected and recovered from COVID-19. However, these reports remain unsubstantiated. This study, therefore, sought to examine stigma and discriminatory tendencies towards COVID-19 survivors among the adult population in Ghana. This was a population-based cross-sectional study among 3,259 adults. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to recruit study participants. Descriptive and inferential statistics comprising frequency, percentage, chi-square, and multivariable logistic regression were employed in analysing the data. Knowledge on COVID-19 was poor among 33.6% of the participants. Forty-three per cent had a good attitude towards COVID-19. Nearly half (45.9%) exhibited stigma and discriminatory tendencies towards COVID-19 survivors. Participants who had poor COVID-19 related knowledge (aOR = 1.91, 95%CI = 1.59-2.29, p<0.001) and poor attitude towards COVID-19 (aOR = 5.83, 95% CI = 4.85-6.98, p < 0.001) were more likely to exhibit stigma and discriminatory tendencies towards COVID-19 survivors. Our study found relatively high proportions of poor knowledge and negative attitudes towards COVID-19. Stigma and discriminatory tendencies were consequently high. Our findings call for increased public education on COVID-19 by the Ghana Health Service and the Information Services Department, to increase the level of knowledge on the pandemic while reducing stigma and discrimination associated with it.

8.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021477

ABSTRACT

There is widespread concern over the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide and self-harm globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) where the burden of these behaviours is greatest. We synthesised the evidence from the published literature on the impact of the pandemic on suicide and self-harm in LMIC. This review is nested within a living systematic review (PROSPERO ID CRD42020183326) that continuously identifies published evidence (all languages) through a comprehensive automated search of multiple databases (PubMed;Scopus;medRxiv, PsyArXiv;SocArXiv;bioRxiv;theWHO COVID-19 database;and the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset by Semantic Scholar (up to 11/2020), including data from Microsoft Academic, Elsevier, arXiv and PubMed Central.) All articles identified by the 4th August 2021 were screened. Papers reporting on data from a LMIC and presenting evidence on the impact of the pandemic on suicide or self-harm were included. Methodological quality was assessed using an appropriate tool, and a narrative synthesis presented. A total of 22 studies from LMIC were identified representing data from 12 countries. There was an absence of data from Africa, the Pacific, and the Caribbean. The reviewed studies mostly report on the early months of COVID-19 and were generally methodologically poor. Few studies directly assessed the impact of the pandemic. The most robust evidence, from time-series studies, indicate either a reduction or no change in suicide and self-harm behaviour. As LMIC continue to experience repeated waves of the virus and increased associated mortality, against a backdrop of vaccine inaccessibility and limited welfare support, continued efforts are needed to track the indirect impact of the pandemic on suicide and self-harm in these countries.

9.
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research ; 5(3):200-206, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935001

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate oral hygiene habits and periodontal disease status with teledentistry and to compare oral hygiene and periodontal disease status according to the COVID-19 history. Materials and Methods: Patients who had applied to our faculty before the pandemic and were reached via teledentistry were included. A questionnaire consisting of 4 sections and 25 questions was administered through telephone conversation. Demographic information, medical history, smoking habits, and COVID-19 history (with [COVID(+)] or without COVID-19 [COVID(-)]) were questioned in the first section, while dental hygiene (DH), environmental dental hygiene (EH), history of periodontal disease (PH) were evaluated in the next three sections. The answers were scored in a way that increased values symbolize negative attitude. Taking into account the minimum and maximum values that can be obtained from the sum of the scores;DH, EH and PH scales with low, medium and high value ranges were created. The groups were compared in terms of the mean value from the scales and the distribution in the scale ranges.

10.
Investigacion Clinica ; 62(Suplemento 3):55-61, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929293

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by Covid 19 is having a negative impact on human health, it affects the entire world population, raising mortality rates on a large scale in vulnerable groups;as in older adults with dementia. By this disease they have lost their independence being unable to take care for themselves and is related to deaths from Covid-19. Likewise, the confinement has affections at psychological and behavioral levels, increasing stress levels for fear of losing life and situations they face such as loneliness, poverty, discrimination, social isolation among others;these are determining factors for the older adults to be affected more than other populations and clearly there is a breakdown in the quality of life. On the other hand, caregivers experience work overload because there is no one else to replace them, restrictions on home visits and isolation are undoubtedly of great concern to their families, there are restrictions in medical visits, therapies and more treatments that in many cases, by not receiving them, they aggravate the health status of the elderly. Finally there are home and leisure activities that help counteract the effects of thepandemic and the dementia, among the main ones we can mention physical exercise, gardening, video calls, meditation and others. There is little research that indicates a survival plan, so that more work should be done on this group of people in order to find more alternatives than help improve the quality of life of older adults.

11.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:26, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929163

ABSTRACT

On 28 July 2022, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) published a technical report, offering contact tracing guidance to public health authorities in EU and EEA countries which can be utilised during the 2022 monkeypox outbreak. The ECDC note that although monkeypox is not a traditional sexually transmitted infection (STI), the virus takes the opportunities for close-contact transmission wherever they arise. The priority for public health authorities in EU and EEA countries is the early identification and isolation of cases and prompt tracing of their contacts to break the chains of transmission. The collaboration between public health and sexual health professionals, who are already experienced and have established procedures for partner notification for STIs, is critical to ensure that as many close contacts as possible are identified and informed about their exposure. Close collaboration with civil society and community-based organisations is also recommended to build trust in contact tracing strategies and to ensure these strategies and accompanying risk communication is adapted to the affected groups, while minimising stigmatization, as this outbreak is currently circulating largely among men who have sex with men (MSM) with multiple partners. On 2 June 2022, the ECDC and the World Health Organization (WHO) jointly published interim guidance, aimed at providing advice to health authorities on the communication of risks and engagement of groups most affected by the outbreak. The joint report highlighted the need to build trust between authorities and at-risk groups, ensuring timely and consistent health information and advice to broader populations, while using more direct channels to, and engagement with, those at increased risk through two-way communication. With COVID-19 restrictions ending, the number of large gatherings has increased, as has international travel, and in response the ECDC and the WHO jointly published interim advice for public health authorities on summer events during the monkeypox outbreak. Although the focus of the report is monkeypox, much of the advice addresses good public health practices in general, which may help prevent the transmission of several infectious diseases. The guidance includes sections which can be used to formulate advice to business and venue owners and event organisers, as well as participants themselves before, during and after events. In order to raise awareness directly with the group that has been most affected by the current outbreak, that is gay and bisexual men and other MSM, the ECDC partnered with community organisations and public health experts from The Love Tank, Prepster, and MPact, to produce guidance, explaining what precautions people should take and providing useful links with additional information.

12.
Indonesian Journal of Medicine ; 6(4):387-392, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924933

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 and has numerous clinical spectrums. Mild respiratory infection is the common clinical manifestation of COVID-19, and the less common is pneumonia accompanied by fever, cough, and breathing difficulty. Long COVID can be defined as prolonged signs and symptoms which cannot be explained for other reasons 4 weeks after being diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to describe the cause of illness is confirmed or suspected COVID-19 patients, specifically on long COVID. Subjects and Method: We performed literature searches of the latest articles with Medline, CINAHL (EBSCO), Global Health (Ovid), WHO Global Research on COVID-19 database, LitCovid and Google Scholar databases published from 2019 to 2020. Two reviewers searched all articles independently (P and W, with 7 and 10 years of experience, respectively). We conducted a systematic review to provide recent evidence of symptoms and complications in long COVID. We followed PRISMA guidelines.

13.
Nature ; 2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921585
14.
Circular Tecnica - Embrapa Gado de Leite 2021. (126):24 pp. ; 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1918943

ABSTRACT

Embrapa Gado de Leite/Centro de Inteligencia do Leite carried out a survey to assess the behaviour of Brazilian consumers of milk and dairy products during the Covid-19 pandemic, considering household consumption. It was shown that long-life milk was not the most important dairy product in the Brazilian shopping basket. Despite being present in more than 90% of Brazilian homes, other dairy products, especially cheeses, are gaining consumer preference. Data from market consultants showed that this sales channel had the highest growth during the first months of the pandemic. The majority of survey respondents said they maintained or even increased the consumption of dairy products. Data from consulting market confirmed the survey results, reporting increases in sale of dairy products during the first half of 2020. The survey results also showed consumption patterns by income classes and regions of Brazil, showing the complexity of the national dairy market. In the case of income, the higher percentage of consumption stability in the lower income classes was high. Regarding the most important factor at the time of purchase of dairy products, the price was more considered by the higher income classes, and low prices and the brand by higher-income consumers. In the case of regions, differences were also evidenced in the maintenance of consumption of products, with powdered milk having a higher percentage of stability in the northeast and north, as well as the importance of price and brand in the purchase decision, in which the price prevailed more in the northeast than in other regions. In conclusion, income, rather than price, is the determining factor of dairy consumption in Brazil.

15.
Nature ; 606(7915): 646-649, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908129
16.
Nature ; 606(7915): S18-S20, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908125
17.
European Sport Management Quarterly ; 22(1):1-138, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904356

ABSTRACT

This second volume of the 'Sport and COVID-19' special edition expands upon the themes of the first. Topics covered by the six papers include: corporate social irresponsibility's impact on a sporting goods brand;virtual sport behaviour of event participants;sport media coverage during the pandemic;and sport brand involvement and fan well-being during the pandemic.

18.
The Open Public Health Journal ; 15(e187494452203210), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1902778

ABSTRACT

Background: Village health volunteers (VHV) are health community leaders responsible for improving the health and quality of life of the people of a community. For example, screening for COVID-19 in the community. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional survey research aimed to study the association between health behavior and health promotion needs of VHV in Ongkharak District, Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand. The subjects consisted of 270 VHV in Ongkharak District. The research instrument was a questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.81. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient.

19.
Sustainability ; 14(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903422

ABSTRACT

To support the global strategy to raise public health through walking among adults, we added the evidence on predictors of walking behavior in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region by emphasizing the mediator-COVID-19. During the COVID-19 outbreak, public restrictions to encompass the spread of the disease have disrupted normal daily lifestyles, including physical activity and sedentary behavior. It was proposed that tremendous changes have occurred on predictors of physical activity in general and walking behavior in particular for three types of walking, including commute, non-commute, and social walking compared to pre-COVID-19 time. This study aimed to identify the determinants of the walking types mentioned above, including subjective and objective variables before COVID-19, and compare them during the COVID-19 period in a sample from Iran, which has not yet been addressed in previous research. Adults (N = 603) finalized an online survey between June 5 and July 15, 2021. This group reported their individual/socioeconomic locations (e.g., home/work) and perception features before and during COVID-19. The paper developed six Binary Logistic (BL) regression models, with two models for each walking type (commute, non-commute, and social walking). For commute trips before COVID-19, the findings showed that factors including BMI, residential duration, p. (perceived) neighborhood type, p. distance to public transport stations and job/university places, p. sidewalks quality, p. facilities attractiveness, p. existence of shortcut routes, commute distance, building density and distance to public transport were correlated with commute walking. At the same time, such associations were not observed for BMI, p. distance to public transport and job/university places, p. facilities attractiveness, building density, and distance to public transport during COVID-19. The variables include age, possession of a driving license, number of family members, p. neighborhood type, p. distance to grocery, restaurant, parking, and mall, p. existence of sidewalks, land-use mix, and distance to public transport indicated correlations with non-commute before COVID-19. However, p. distance to groceries and malls and the p. existence of sidewalks did not correlate with non-commute walking during COVID-19. Ultimately for social walking, age and income variables, and the considerable proportions of subjective variables (e.g., p. distance to services/land-uses, security, etc.), health status and building density were correlated with social walking before COVID-19. Nevertheless, most of the mentioned variables did not explicitly correlate with social walking during COVID-19. As for the implication of our study, apparently, special actions will be needed by urban authorities to encourage adults to enhance their walkability levels by fully considering both objective and subjective indicators and walking types, which will result in healthier lifestyles.

20.
Sustainability ; 14(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903418

ABSTRACT

Sustainable development is a constant and a necessity of daily life in the restaurant industry. The restaurant industry has high consumptions of energy, water, detergents, and consumables, together with tremendous food waste. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted many acute sustainable development problems. In this context, this article analyzes the practices identified by restaurant managers that define their responsible behavior, and the significant changes made towards sustainability during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article presents the results obtained through qualitative research, carried out by semi-directive in-depth interviews, conducted with 56 restaurant managers from Romania. The answers obtained are based on five topics of discussion highlighting the managers' growing interest in finding solutions to counteract negative effects on the environment, to ensure the wellbeing of customers and employees, and to increase the profitability of their company. The results obtained from the research reflect the thoughts and actions of restaurant managers in Romania, contributing to the body of knowledge in the understanding of sustainability practices in the foodservice sector.

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