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1.
Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine ; 19:29-33, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2011344

ABSTRACT

Studies on practitioners' perceptions of eMental Health repeatedly report experienced difficulties in establishing empathic interactions when communicating with their clients online – a fact that plays an important role in the adoption, or lack thereof, of technology-mediated treatments. Especially now, in times when social distancing and lockdown measures are effectuated globally to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for high-quality online formats of mental health care has become more urgent than ever. To increase our understanding of the process of achieving empathic interactions in technology-mediated communication, the current paper presents an online survey study using open questions on practitioners' experiences of establishing empathy in online therapeutic interactions (n = 363). Responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. From the derived themes, a conceptual model was built showing several properties of online communication that influence empathy and ways in which these properties affect the therapeutic interaction on emotional, conversational, and relational levels. Additionally, our findings highlight the behavioral strategies practitioners employ to find workarounds to manage these effects and attempt to (re)connect with their clients. Our findings thus provide experience-based insights into the process of building empathy in online treatments – insights that can be used to improve current and future eMental Health technologies, enabling practitioners to reach the desired level of empathic understanding during remote therapeutic interactions. © 2021, Interactive Media Institute. All rights reserved.

2.
Food Research ; 6(3):178-186, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010592

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome is not a disease but is a set of several disorders and causes an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus complications. Several studies have shown that non-invasive approaches such as anthropometric measurements can be used for the early detection of metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to analyse the anthropometric indicators related to metabolic syndrome in female college students. The design of this research was cross sectional, with the number of subjects involved were as many as 163 female college students aged 19 to 24 years old. Purposive sampling was used in the sampling of this research. The independent variables in this study were the Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR), Body Mass Index (BMI), Sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD), and hip circumference. The dependent variable in this study is the metabolic syndrome component that has been converted into a metabolic syndrome score (cMetS). The analysis results showed that all anthropometric indicators, namely WHtR, BMI, SAD, waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR have a strong positive relationship with the metabolic syndrome score (p<0.001). BMI was the anthropometric indicator that is most associated with the metabolic profiles, such as systolic blood pressure (p<0.001), blood sugar (p<0.05), and HDL (p<0.001). Waist circumference was the anthropometric indicator that is most associated with triglycerides and metabolic syndrome score (p<0.001). Metabolic syndrome in female college students can be identified using anthropometric measurements, one of which is BMI and WHR which are very easy to measure and efficient. BMI and WHR have the strongest relationship and can be used to detect early risk of metabolic syndrome in female college students.

3.
Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis ; 93(4):e2022287, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) between health professionals is fundamental for the provision of an efficient and effective medical care service. This is especially so in states of emergency, as highlighted by the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This study aimed to obtain further evidence regarding the validity and reliability of the Italian language IPC scale -an instrument for measuring interprofessional collaboration- in a setting that has yet to be investigated at an in-depth level: the emergency departments in Italian hospitals. METHODS: The survey tool was a structured questionnaire in the Italian language. It comprised the validated Italian version of the IPC scale plus a question concerning the frequency of collaborations between the nurses interviewed and other health professionals. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to rate the three factors ("communication", "accommodation" and "isolation") that compose the scale. RESULTS: Four hundred thirty-six nurses working in an emergency department for at least one year completed the questionnaire, which assessed collaboration with other health professionals working in the same department. The model fit statistics are satisfactory for all the nurse-target group combinations analysed. Regarding the Cronbach's alpha statistic used to compute the reliability of the scale, acceptable values were obtained for all items, except for those related to the isolation factor for each case of interprofessional collaboration considered. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the validity of the IPC scale as an instrument for the assessment of interprofessional collaboration involving nurses and other workers occupied in the provision of healthcare in Italian emergency departments.

4.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):1277-1282, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010512

ABSTRACT

Higher education institutions (HEIs) are fundamental to fostering sustainable advancement in regions where sustainable strategies are implemented. The positive perspective on personal strengths and resources in academic organizations during the Covid-19 pandemic has led to a high interest in positive emotions and psychological capital in the education setting. Positive emotions and psychological capital are the variables viewed as a sense of well-being and positive attitude in academic organizations. Thus, this study supports Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 3 (good health and well-being), while work engagement as the primary variable promotes SDG 4 (quality education). An engaged educator can ensure adaptivity and enhance performance to provide quality education. Nevertheless, only limited studies examined the interaction between these variables in the academic context. Previous studies focused only on students and job performance outcomes among corporate employees. However, none focused on academics’ well-being for establishing sustainability-related practices. This study, guided by the broaden-and-build theory, aims to examine the association between job-related positive emotions and work engagement and the mediating role of psychological capital. This study adopts a quantitative research technique, while a simple random method will be employed for data collection. The partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) methodology will be utilized for data analysis. The sample selection will be Malaysian HEIs academicians from different disciplines in line with the SDGs. Academicians’ job-related positive emotions are anticipated to relate to better work engagement through positive relationships with psychological capital levels (i.e., efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience). This study will provide first-hand information on the relationship between job-related positive emotions, psychological capital, and work engagement among Malaysian HEIs academicians.

5.
Frontiers in Medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009879

ABSTRACT

Background: Museums can be instrumental in fostering social inclusion and may improve the overall health of the older population. Over the course of the 2019 coronavirus pandemic, many older adults suffered as a result of confinement measures, which may have accelerated the processes that lead to physical frailty and increased mental health risks. This study aims to examine whether a 3-month cycle of weekly virtual tours of the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (MMFA) may have improved feelings of social inclusion, wellbeing and quality of life, and reduced physical frailty in older adults living within the community of Montreal. Methods and design: A total of 106 older adults, who were community-dwellers living in Montreal (Quebec, Canada), were recruited for a randomized controlled trial in two parallel groups (intervention with n = 53 vs control with n = 53) between January and April 2022. The intervention consisted of a 3-month cycle of weekly virtual museum tours of the MMFA. Social isolation, wellbeing, quality of life and frailty were evaluated using validated scales that were assessed on a web platform at baseline (M0) and after 3 months (M3) in the intervention group. The control group completed the same assessment according to the same schedule. The outcomes were the mean scores at M0 and M3, and changes in mean scores between M0 and M3. Results: The intervention group showed significant improvements in their social isolation, wellbeing, quality of life and frailty scores when compared to the control group, the highest benefits being observed with frailty. Conclusion: The results suggest that the 3-month cycle of weekly virtual MMFA tours may improve social inclusion, physical and mental health in community-dwelling older adults living in Montreal. Trial registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05046288, identifier NCT05046288.

6.
Journal of veterinary medical education ; : e20220014, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009829

ABSTRACT

Veterinary college curricula are generally offered through face-to-face lectures and laboratories. However, because of the COVID-19 global pandemic, entire veterinary curricula throughout the United States were forced to utilize remote learning with large portions of courses provided through synchronous or asynchronous delivery platforms employing video portal systems in spring 2020. The purpose of this study was to examine the satisfaction of veterinary students who were taught through remote learning with the option of synchronous live streaming lectures or asynchronous recorded lectures for a portion of 1 semester. This study also examined student satisfaction by comparing two cohorts of students taught via remote learning during the same semester (semesters 2 and 4 in the curriculum). The sample population consisted of a convenience sample of 242 veterinary students from one large southeastern veterinary college, who were asked to complete the end-of-semester course evaluation, which included five statements pertaining to remote learning. This study was performed to provide insight into changes that could be considered in the future as veterinary education seeks to utilize advancing technology and increase flexibility in learning while still providing high-quality education. Measures of dispersion and frequency were used to analyze the data. Veterinary students in this study preferred watching recorded lectures to streaming live lectures. Additional responses indicated overall agreement from both groups regarding lecture length, support for remote learning, and available resources for remote learning.

7.
PLoS ONE ; 17(8 August), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009687

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of infection clusters associated with choral singing have been reported. Singing generates droplets and carries the risk of spreading infection. However, no reports have explored droplet flight and aerosol production rates by singing and speaking in Japanese. First, we conducted an observation experiment evaluating the maximum flight distance and number of droplets generated by singing in Japanese, using a high-speed camera and particle counter. Twenty amateur choir members, 10 male and 10 female (five members for each of the four voices), participated in the experiment. Subsequently, although the maximum distance that droplets traveled by singing in Japanese was 61 cm for men (median of 46.5, interquartile range, 36-57) and 56 cm for women (median of 27.5, interquartile range, 20-50), droplets were observed anteriorly and laterally to be up to 66.8 cm. At the singer's mouth, ≥ 5 μm droplets were observed, whereas not observed at 1 meter toward the front of the singers in women and men, respectively. In German singing, droplets were observed up to 111 cm toward the front of the singer, possibly reflecting differences in pronunciation. In Japanese reading aloud, droplets were also observed up to 47 cm toward the front, whereas no droplet dispersion was observed by speaking the Japanese /a/ vowel or singing with wearing surgical mask toward the front. The aerosols produced when reading singing the /u/ vowels were significantly higher than those in other vowels. When singing in a choral group, keeping a sufficient distance at the front and side is recommended in minimizing infectious spread. If distance is not possible, practicing with /a/ vowels and avoiding consonants may be an alternative method. Our observations lasted only 50 seconds per song, and further observational studies are needed to determine the dynamics of aerosols that stay for long periods.

8.
Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan ; 142(9):937-943, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009672

ABSTRACT

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has revealed an urgent need for a sustainable healthcare system, especially human resource development. Nurses play a front-line role in the prevention of infection and countermeasures for people with health problems in health, medical, and welfare systems, and society demands that their role be further expanded. The education and training programs for nursing professionals are diverse. This study focuses on under-graduate nursing education and post-graduate education, and outlines the development of human resources in nursing for resilient leadership in times of crisis. Under-graduate nursing education is developing and expanding based on the Model Core Curriculum for Nursing Education and the reference standards for quality assurance in nursing education, while assuring the quality. For the advancement of health care and society in times of crisis, it is essential to develop nursing human resources who can respond to crises of life, livelihood, and survival across multiple dimensions. To achieve this, it is necessary for educational institutions, medical institutions, and governmental agencies to strengthen cooperation and collaboration, and to promote the development of human resources who can build a sustainable, equitable, and resilient society.

9.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009555

ABSTRACT

Background: With the murder of George Floyd and health disparities laid bare by the COVID pandemic, the US is reckoning with racial injustice. Across medicine and oncology, institutions are grappling with how to address systemic racism and improve care for patients of color. At the University of North Carolina (UNC), trainees developed an educational curriculum to raise awareness of implicit bias and introduce methods to address racial inequities. We present our findings on feasibility and acceptability of a fellow-led course on racism in medicine at a major academic medical center. Methods: UNC oncology fellows adapted a curriculum on implicit bias and racism in medicine in spring 2021. Our aims were 1) to improve knowledge and awareness about implicit bias and systemic racism and 2) introduce methods to address racial inequities. We used lived experiences and collated materials from scientific literature and lay media to illustrate key points. Sessions were: 1) Introduction and Implicit Bias, 2) Implicit Bias in Action: A Case Study, 3) Race-Based Metrics: Journal Club, 4) Career Perspective on Equity in Oncology. Videos, journal articles, and group discussion were employed to appeal to many learning styles. Results: Four sessions were held virtually for the Divisions of Oncology and Hematology. Attendance ranged from 28 to 35 per session. A post curriculum survey assessed perception of racial inequality in medicine and the series' effects using a Likert scale. Twenty-nine participants completed the survey, 12 of whom were fellows. Of all participants, 71% reported that the course improved knowledge or awareness of racial inequities “some” or “a great deal” and 61% reported that it improved their comfort level addressing racial inequities “some” or “a great deal.” All participants endorsed at least “some” racial inequity in medicine. Notably, over 75% of participants indicated interest in further sessions. Conclusions: Formulation of an educational curriculum by fellows and delivered in a division wide setting was feasible and well received by participants with robust discussion and interest in further work. Fundamental to this series' effectiveness was creating a space for discussion and reflection among colleagues. The goals of improving knowledge and introducing methods to address racial inequities were met. Importantly, our course was integrated alongside institutional efforts on DEI. We were limited by a lack of pre-course survey results due to a technical error. Given the current groundswell of interest and focus in improving racial equity in our society, we encourage other institutions to take similar steps to highlight issues of systemic racism and continue to move our field in the right direction.

10.
Clinical trials (London, England) ; : 17407745221118371, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The HIV Prevention Trials Network 083 trial was a group-sequential non-inferiority trial designed to compare HIV incidence under a novel experimental regimen for HIV prevention, long-acting injectable cabotegravir, with an active-control regimen of daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (brand name Truvada). In March of 2020, just as the trial had completed enrollment, the COVID-19 pandemic threatened to prevent trial participants from attending study visits and obtaining study medication, motivating the study team to update the interim monitoring plan. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board subsequently stopped the trial at the first interim review due to strong early evidence of efficacy. METHODS: Here we describe some unique aspects of the trial's design, monitoring, analysis, and interpretation. We illustrate the importance of computing point estimates, confidence intervals, and p values based on the sampling distribution induced by sequential monitoring. RESULTS: Accurate analysis, decision-making and interpretation of trial results rely on pre-specification of a stopping boundary, including the scale on which the stopping rule will be implemented, the specific test statistics to be calculated, and how the boundary will be adjusted if the available information fraction at interim review is different from planned. After appropriate adjustment for the sampling distribution and overrun, the HIV Prevention Trials Network 083 trial provided strong evidence that the experimental regimen was superior to the active control. CONCLUSIONS: For the HIV Prevention Trials Network 083 trial, the difference between corrected inferential statistics and naive results was quite small-as will often be the case-nevertheless, it is appropriate to report and publish the most accurate and unbiased statistical results.

11.
Journal of applied gerontology : the official journal of the Southern Gerontological Society ; : 7334648221123302, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009276

ABSTRACT

The Caring Callers Program was developed as a telephone-based intervention utilizing Senior Companion volunteers to reach older adults at greater risk for loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic. This pilot program consisted of trained volunteers who provided supportive, weekly calls as well as community resources with their Caring Callers clients. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the experiences of Senior Companion volunteers in the Caring Callers Program through the lens of productive aging. We completed semi-structured interviews with 18 Caring Callers volunteers. We used Rapid and Rigorous Qualitative Date Analysis (RADaR) which yielded four themes: (1) reciprocity;(2) purposeful use of time;(3) learning new skills;and (4) gaining perspective. Our findings provide insight for gerontological researchers examining volunteering as a productive aging activity and offer strategies for designing peer-led, telephone-based interventions to promote social connectedness in an unprecedented time.

12.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1135, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009206

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with RMDs are not yet used to live phisical activity such as an important part of their therapy;Covid 19 pandemic, with the restrictions imposed on interpersonal approaches and the the fear of being infected and spreading the virus, has further slowed down the way towards these kind of empowerment. During the pandemic, in Italy the number of pets (mainly dogs) had an exponen-cial increase. Animal Assisted Interventions/Animal Assisted Therapies seems to be really successful. Objectives: Our project aims: to offer people with RMDs the opportunity to move playing ftwalking under control of WALKin trainers who can teach them the right way to practice this new discipline or simply walking properly with their dogs or playng rehabilitative exercises (specifc for each one) with the help of animals specially trained. a number of meetings (at least 12) in which experts will discuss about RMDs, comorbidities, nature, animals, man-animal relationship adn so on. Methods: Thanks to an agreement with a natural park (UNESCO MAB Collina Po reserve), we could draw 4 different routes (3-4-5-7 Km) and a safe area in which all the participants can play different activities. Based on the medical prescription, people will be assigned to different groups (no more than 7 people in each group) and to different activities (walking, rehabilitative exercises, alone or with animals). Twice a week during an hour the groups will meet and practice their activity, not only working together, but also sharing experiences, sesations, feeling. Each group will be lead by an expert (walking trainers, health pofessionals, teamsters). Either each group leader or each participant will wright a diary at the end of the activity session, to let us have a number of encoded informations which drive us to verify all progresses in term of improvement of mobility and mood and reduction of drugs cosumption. Results: The participation (face to face and virtual) in the frst three meetings (October, November 2021 and January 2022 has been continuously increasing and we have a good core of 'fans', but also every time a lot of new people who want to join us. We are collecting the frst inscriptions and we preview to start the activity on March 20 when the frst goups will be leaded by Maurizio Damilano, twice world and Olympic running champion and inventor of ftwalking. First preliminary results will be available in December 2022. Conclusion: With this project we hope to help people with RMDs to live physical activity as an important part of their therapeutic pathway and to rediscover how nice it is to be together, fnding new friends (either humans or animals).

13.
British journal of health psychology ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Interventions to promote the wearing of face coverings if required in the future can only be developed if we know why people do or do not wear them. Study aims were, therefore, to assess public adherence to wearing face coverings to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and to gauge why people were or were not wearing face coverings in work, public transport, and indoor leisure settings. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: 10,622 adults (25 January-6 February 2022) who were representative of the UK population were asked about their (a) wearing of face coverings in work, public transport, and leisure settings;(b) sociodemographic characteristics;and (c) perceptions of capabilities, opportunities, and motivations ("COM-B"). Data were analysed descriptively, using within-participants ANOVA and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Participants reported mostly wearing face coverings in public transport settings (>80%), but substantially less in work (<50%) and leisure (<30%) contexts. Perceptions of capabilities, opportunities, and motivations to wear face coverings were consistently associated with the actual wearing of face coverings across the three settings, but there were marked deficits in automatic motivation and social opportunity. People living in England, describing themselves as White, and men were least likely to wear face coverings. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions targeted at men, people living in England, and those describing themselves as White that focus on increasing capabilities, providing greater opportunities and boosting motivations are suggested to promote the wearing of face coverings, with particular focus on addressing automatic motivation and social opportunity.

14.
Nursing education perspectives ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008642

ABSTRACT

: It is known that nursing students in an online learning environment may experience challenges related to their quality of life and well-being. However, it is unknown what additional challenges students face in a resource-limited environment like Appalachia. This descriptive study surveyed 154 undergraduate nursing students from a single institution in the Appalachian region at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results reveal that students experienced unique resource-related barriers specific to underserved communities that impacted their online learning experiences. Findings offer unique implications for nurse educators facilitating online learning. Specific ideas for those teaching in resource-limited areas are presented.

15.
Nature human behaviour ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008293

ABSTRACT

Lotteries have been shown to motivate behaviour change in many settings, but their value as a policy tool is relatively untested. We implemented a pre-registered, citywide experiment to test the effects of three high-pay-off, geographically targeted lotteries designed to motivate adult Philadelphians to get their COVID-19 vaccine. In each drawing, the residents of a randomly selected 'treatment' zip code received half the lottery prizes, boosting their chances of winning to 50×-100× those of other Philadelphians. The first treated zip code, which drew considerable media attention, may have experienced a small bump in vaccinations compared with the control zip codes: average weekly vaccinations rose by an estimated 61 per 100,000 people per week (+11%). After pooling the results from all three zip codes treated during our six-week experiment, however, we do not detect evidence of any overall benefits. Furthermore, our 95% confidence interval provides a 9% upper bound on the net benefits of treatment in our study.

16.
Cultural diversity & ethnic minority psychology ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008249

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: People of Asian origin in Germany are affected by racial-ethnic discrimination, which became even more evident in the context of surging anti-Asian racism (AAR) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Experiences of discrimination can pose a threat to mental health. This study tested the role of discrimination experiences for subjective well-being in a sample of Asian origin people in Germany. METHOD: A total of 671 participants (76.5% women) who self-identified as being of Asian origin participated in an online survey in December 2020. Participants completed several measures of racial-ethnic discrimination experiences, some of which were related to the pandemic (e.g., experienced microaggressions and perceived change in discrimination experiences during the pandemic), as well as indicators of subjective well-being (positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and subjective health status). RESULTS: In structural equation models, discrimination experiences were associated with lower subjective well-being (b = -.36, SE = .16, p < .05). A follow-up analysis suggested that this relationship was evident for discrimination measures that had a reference to the pandemic as well as measures without this reference. CONCLUSIONS: The range of different discrimination experiences among people of Asian origin in Germany is characterized by discrimination in the context of the pandemic and also beyond, and these may have a significant negative impact on the mental health of those affected. The findings of this study have practical implications both for reducing anti-Asian stigmas in society and in the context of psychological counseling of affected individuals, which should target the maintenance or improvement of subjective well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

17.
International Nano Letters ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2007306

ABSTRACT

In this study design and fabrication of coronavirus filter based on the cellulose and carbon nanomaterials have been investigated. Particulate matter (PM) corona virus has attracted a lot of attention due to its great threat to human health. Nanoparticles are intertwined with fibers and form highly porous air filter paper. The structure of the filter has been characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. In addition, by optimization with activated carbon (AC) nanoparticles, the prepared AC air filter paper shows a high removal efficiency of more than 95% for PM 100 nm. More importantly, this filter shows less pressure drop and less thickness. This filter has a positive effect on the prevention of this disease during the coronavirus epidemic and show high absorption efficiency air filter for PM more than 100 nm.

18.
Health promotion journal of Australia : official journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007099

ABSTRACT

ISSUE ADDRESSED: The complexity and uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need to change training of public health professionals in higher education by shifting from siloed specialisations to interdisciplinary collaboration. At the end of 2020 and 2021, public health professionals collaboratively designed and delivered, a week-long intensive course-Public Health in Pandemics. The aim of this research study was to understand whether the use of systems thinking in the design and delivery of the course enabled students to grasp the interdisciplinary nature of contemporary health promotion and public health practice. RESEARCH METHODS: Two focus group interviews (n = 5 and 3/47) and a course opinion survey (n = 11/47) were utilised to gather information from students regarding experiences and perceptions of course design and delivery, and to determine if students felt better able to understand the complex nature of pandemics and pandemic responses. MAJOR FINDINGS: Students provided positive feedback on the course and believed that the course design and delivery assisted in understanding the complex nature of health problems and the ways in which health promotion and public health practitioners need to work across sectors with diverse disciplines for pandemic responses. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an integrated interdisciplinary approach to course design and delivery enabled students used systems thinking to understand the complexity in preparing for and responding to a pandemic. This approach may have utility in preparing an agile, iterative and adaptive health promotion and public health workforce more capable of facing the challenges and complexity in public health.

19.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 13:12-13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006934

ABSTRACT

Introduction/ Background: Previous reports have estimated national seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies among blood donors in Kenya at 4.3% (April-June 2020), 9.1% (August-September 2020), and 48.5% (January-March 2021). Here we describe seroprevalence in the period June-August 2021 when COVID-19 vaccine coverage was 2.5% in the adult population in Kenya. Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional descriptive study to estimate prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies using residual plasma from the 6 regional transfusion centres in Kenya. Samples with complete donor demographic data were included and analysed using an anti-spike IgG enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay with validated specificity of 99.0% and sensitivity of 92.7%. Bayesian multilevel regression with poststratification was used to obtain seroprevalence estimates and 95% credible intervals (Crl) adjusted for age, sex, and region of residence referenced against national 2019 census data for individuals aged 16-64 years. Results were also adjusted for test performance. Results: Of 7601 available plasma samples donated between 2nd June 2021 and 7th August 2021, 7139 (93.1%) were included in the analysis. Males comprised 5555 (78.8%) of the study population, while 4304 (60.3%) samples were from individuals aged 16-24 years. Crude seroprevalence was 67.2% (95% CrI, 66.1%- 68.3%). Overall Bayesian population-weighted, test-adjusted seroprevalence was 73.2% (95%CrI, 69.8-77.2%). Seroprevalence ranged from 69.9% among donors aged 35-44 years to 76.3% in the 16-24-year age group. We found no difference in seroprevalence by sex. Regional seroprevalence ranged from 58.9% in the coastal region (excluding Mombasa) to 82.5% in Nairobi. Impact: Local governments are making efforts to improve vaccine coverage while faced with limited access to the vaccines. These findings may guide targeted vaccine deployment through prioritization of vulnerable populations with lower seropositivity. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 has continued to spread rapidly across Kenya, infecting three-quarters of the adult population sampled through blood donation. The high seroprevalence observed is consistent with reports from other regions in sub-Saharan Africa and implies substantial infection-induced immunity that may mitigate the impact of low vaccine coverage.

20.
Journal of Public Health in Africa ; 13:15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006923

ABSTRACT

Introduction/ Background: There have been low reported cases per population of SARS-CoV-2 in sub-Saharan Africa. Populationbased studies are needed to estimate the true cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 to inform public health interventions. This study estimated SARS-CoV- 2 seroprevalence in four states in Nigeria in October 2020, and two states in June 2021. Methods: We conducted a two-stage cluster sample household survey in Enugu, Gombe, Lagos, and Nasarawa September-October 2020 and Kano and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) in June 2021. Thirty-four enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly sampled per state (30 in Lagos), and 20 households randomly selected per EA. All household members were eligible. Oral and nasopharyngeal swabs were taken for molecular testing and blood collected for antibody testing. Samples were tested on the multi-antigen target Luminex xMAP assay. Results: A total of 3,546 households (>83% of households) and 14,835 individuals (>94% of individuals) participated. In October 2020, SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 25.2% (95% CI:21.8-28.6) in Enugu, 9.3% (95% CI:7.0- 11.5) in Gombe, 23.3% (95% CI:20.5, 26.4) in Lagos, and 18.0% (95% CI:14.4-21.6) in Nasarawa. In June 2021, seroprevalence was 42.6% (95% CI:39.4-45.8) in Kano and 40.3% (95% CI:34.7-45.9) in FCT. By July 2021, <3% of the populations of Kano and FCT had received at least one vaccine dose. Among the 38.9% and 53.1% respectively who indicated they would not take the vaccine, safety concern was the main reason (84.9%, 83.7% respectively). Impact: Population based surveys are important tools to estimate the true seroprevalence of novel pathogens more accurately with predominantly asymptomatic presentation. These surveys provide seroprevalence provide estimates that are not subject to bias from unequal distribution or uptake of testing services during outbreaks for development of accurate public health mitigation measures. Conclusion: Sixteen months in, approximately 60% of the populations of FCT and Kano had no antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, indicating a significant proportion of the population remained vulnerable to infection. Rapid scale-up of vaccine distribution and efforts to encourage vaccine uptake are needed to prevent the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

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