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1.
Indian J Community Med ; 47(3): 317-320, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100011

ABSTRACT

Background: This article describes the experience of a rural human milk bank, with the problems faced in first 6 months including the coronavirus disease (COVID) crisis and interventions leading to success. Methods: The study included individual counselling by dedicated counsellors, focused counselling of primipara mothers seeking the help of obstetricians, counselling of pre-term mothers by neo-natal nurses, periodically delivered information in post-natal wards, and counselling of grandmothers and husbands. Results: The COVID crisis was dealt with donations from reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-negative mothers with social distancing and mask use. Younger, educated, working mothers with normal delivery and from middle-income families were easy to counsel. Periodic announcements in wards significantly increased awareness about milk banks and donation. Pre-term mothers could be motivated when their baby was nil by mouth or they saw other babies in need of milk. Lactation support to mothers with breast problems, especially in primipara, helps in getting more donors. Counselling of fathers was easier than that of grandmothers. Conclusions: Structured awareness programs and counselling strategies along with education of grandmothers and husbands were very effective in increasing human milk donation.

2.
Nurs Womens Health ; 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the perspectives of lactation support providers delivering breastfeeding education via in-person and telehealth consultations and assess the impact of COVID-19 on the provision of breastfeeding education. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study using purposive sampling. SETTING: Massachusetts-based lactation support providers who provided in-person and/or telehealth consultations in various practice settings (e.g., inpatient; outpatient; private practice; and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children). PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen Massachusetts-based lactation support providers, ages 36 to 68 years. MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed an online demographic and employment characteristics survey and virtual key informant interviews, from which six main themes were defined. RESULTS: The six main themes included Common Questions Asked by Clients, Prenatal and Postpartum Consultation Topics, Facilitators for Telehealth Versus In-Person Consultations, Barriers for Telehealth Versus In-Person Consultations, Best Practices, and COVID-19 Adaptations. From participant interviews, common subthemes emerged. The primary adaptation due to COVID-19 was shifting to telehealth. Content in lactation consultations was similar via in-person and telehealth sessions. Typical content areas included breast pumping and mother's milk supply. A notable difference was the lack of physical examinations for women and newborns in telehealth sessions. Scheduling flexibility was a key facilitator of telehealth consultations, whereas the inability to provide hands-on assistance and chaotic home environments were common barriers. In-person facilitators included weighing newborns to assess feeding success and insurance billing coverage, whereas unsupportive family members were noted as a barrier. Diversity, equity, and inclusion-related barriers (e.g., language barriers, lack of reflective diversity, lack of stable Internet access) were observed in both settings. Best practices for in-person and telehealth consultations included meeting mothers where they are and focusing on mothers' goals. CONCLUSION: Practice adaptations adopted during the pandemic and best practice recommendations may be useful for lactation support providers and other health care professionals caring for breastfeeding dyads.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 910383, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080130

ABSTRACT

Human milk contains three antibody classes that confer mucosal immunity to the breastfed infant: secretory IgA (SIgA), secretory IgM (SIgM), and IgG. Influenza and pertussis vaccines administered during pregnancy induce pathogen specific SIgA and IgG responses in human milk that have been shown to protect the breastfed infant from these respiratory illnesses. In addition, mRNA vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus administered during pregnancy and lactation induce anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA responses in human milk. This review summarizes the immunologic benefits of influenza, pertussis, and COVID-19 vaccines conferred by human milk. Additionally, future research direction in human milk immunity and public health needs to improve lactational support are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Whooping Cough , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Milk, Human , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
4.
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 13(10):18-22, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2065386

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a very virulent and contagious coronavirus and has caused a pandemic of acute respiratory disease, named “Coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19) that emerged in the late 2019. In breast milk (BM), presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus and its antibodies have been examined. Aims and Objectives: The current observational study was conducted over a period of 1 year in the state of Mizoram to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus and antibodies in pregnant mothers and their newborn along with breast milk. Materials and Methods: A total of 115 breast milk samples and 70 breast swabs (before or after breast washing) from 115 women who were recently diagnosed with COVID-19 were collected. Samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using RT-PCR. Breast milk was also analyzed for SARS-CoV2, IgA, and IgG receptor binding domain (RBD), S2 subunit of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Results: BM RTPCR was found to be positive 78 and 37 BM samples were found to be negative for RTPCR. Among the infants, 32 were exclusively on breastfeed and 83 were mixed feeding infants. Post-breastfeeding four infants were shown the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. IgA and IgG RBD and S2 subunit of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were positive in 17, 16, and 12 BM samples which show that maternal antibodies to be developed in BM take time for production and the mothers infected almost 10 days ago, only showed presence of those antibodies. Conclusion: Our findings have shown increase admissions of COVID-19 infected antenatal mothers with positive outcome despite the requirement of intensive care. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in BM which was significantly high, but there was no transmission to the babies during the postnatal period. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Asian Journal of Medical Sciences is the property of Manipal Colleges of Medical Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Indian Pediatrics ; 59(5):424-425, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2035429

ABSTRACT

Lactating mothers (n=126) residing in Pune, Maharashtra were interviewed to assess the prevalence of stress, rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and its association with different demographic factors. 75.4% mothers were found to be moderately stressed. Rate of EBF was 62.7%. Moderate stress and testing positive for COVID-19 were significantly negatively associated with EBF (P < 0.001).

6.
Open Public Health Journal ; 15(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029874

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Every postpartum mother is recommended to breastfeed her baby because breast milk is the main need of newborns. The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on life in various aspects, including on the breastfeeding mothers, especially if they suffer from COVID-19 infection. Aim: The study aims to provide comprehensive evidence regarding potential virus transmission and antibody transfer through breastmilk and the experiences of mothers related to breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. The search strategy involved the use of keywords related to COVID-19 and breastfeeding in PubMed and Science Direct databases. Articles were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Breastfeeding has been recommended to be continued during the pandemic due to the benefits associated with it and the absence of sufficient evidence for transmission of COVID-19 infection through breast milk. During the lockdown period, there was a change in breastfeeding patterns, although most mothers believed that breastfeeding should be continued. Anxiety and lack of support affected breastfeeding practices. Breastfeeding mothers reported a dilemmatic situation. They felt protected because of the lockdown policy but also struggled to get support from their social environment. The impact varied in terms of stopping breastfeeding practice altogether, breastfeeding irregularly, and even giving formula milk. Conclusion: Adherence to health protocols can reduce the risk of transmission of COVID-19 infection through breastfeeding from mother to baby. Support from the family and the environment is needed to ensure the continuity of breastfeeding practice. © 2022 Kurniawati et al.

7.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028622

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The mother-child breastfeeding dyad is a powerful force for achieving healthy, secure and sustainable food systems. However, food system reports exclude breastfeeding and mother's milk. To help correct this omission and give breastfeeding women greater visibility in food systems dialogue and action, we illustrate how to estimate mother's milk production and incorporate this into food surveillance systems, drawing on the pioneering experience of Norway to show the potential value of such analysis. DESIGN: The estimates use data on the proportion of children who are breastfed at each month of age (0-24 months), annual number of live births and assumptions on daily human milk intake at each month. New indicators for temporal and cross-country comparisons are considered. SETTING: It is assumed that a breastfeeding mother on average produces 306 l of milk during 24 months of lactation. PARTICIPANTS: The annual number of live births is from Statistics Norway. Data for any breastfeeding at each month of age, between 0 and 24 months, are from official surveys in 1993, 1998-1999, 2006-2007, 2013 and 2018-2019. RESULTS: Estimated total milk production by Norwegian mothers increased from 8·2 to 10·1 million l per year between 1993 and 2018-2019. Annual per capita production increased from 69 to 91 l per child aged 0-24 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows it is feasible and useful to include human milk production in food surveillance systems as an indicator of infant and young child food security and dietary quality. It also demonstrates significant potential for greater milk production.

8.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 65, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human milk banks (HMBs) are essential facilities for the selection, collection, testing, transportation,storage, and distribution of DHM for special medical needs. The aim of this analysis was to analyze the operation status and data over the last 8 years of operation of the first human milk bank (HMB) in East China. METHODS: Data related to the costs, donors, donation, pasteurization, and recipients were extracted from the web-based electronic monitoring system of the HMB for the period August 1, 2013 to July 31, 2021. RESULTS: Over the 8 years of operation, 1,555 qualified donors donated 7,396.5L of qualified milk at a cost of ¥1.94 million($306,051), with the average cost per liter of donor human milk being ¥262.3($41.4). The donors were between 25 and 30 years of age, and the majority (80.1%) were primipara. All the donated milk was pasteurized and subjected to bacteriological tests before and after pasteurization: 95.4% passed the pre-pasteurization tests, and 96.3% passed the post-pasteurization tests. A total of 9,207 newborns received 5,775.2L of pasteurized donor milk. The main reason for the prescription of donor human milk was preterm birth. As a result of continuous quality improvements, January 2016 witnessed a significant increase in the volume of qualified DHM and the number of qualified donors. However, in 2020, as a result of the restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the volume of qualified DHM and the number of qualified donors decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Over its 8 years of operation, our HMB has made steady quality improvements in its screening and information processes. Continuous quality improvement is on ongoing need, along with recruiting more qualified donors and collecting donor human milk for vulnerable newborns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Breast Feeding , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Milk, Human , Pandemics
9.
Cells ; 11(15)2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993937

ABSTRACT

The consumption of human milk by a breastfeeding infant is associated with positive health outcomes, including lower risk of diarrheal disease, respiratory disease, otitis media, and in later life, less risk of chronic disease. These benefits may be mediated by antibodies, glycoproteins, glycolipids, oligosaccharides, and leukocytes. More recently, human milk extracellular vesicles (hMEVs) have been identified. HMEVs contain functional cargos, i.e., miRNAs and proteins, that may transmit information from the mother to promote infant growth and development. Maternal health conditions can influence hMEV composition. This review summarizes hMEV biogenesis and functional contents, reviews the functional evidence of hMEVs in the maternal-infant health relationship, and discusses challenges and opportunities in hMEV research.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles , MicroRNAs , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Milk, Human/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/metabolism
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 635, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Human milk contains antibodies against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which may serve as a protective factor through passive immunization in infants. The objective of this study was to measure the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA in human milk and serum after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: Breast milk and serum samples from 72 lactating mothers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic or symptomatic infection were collected 1-229 days after the onset of clinical symptoms related to COVID-19. Seventeen mothers with no history of COVID-19 served as a control group. Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay was performed to analyze antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-IgA human milk antibodies were detected in mothers and their concentrations were consistently higher than SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibodies. The serum and breastmilk samples of women with COVID-19 was characterized by a higher concentration of anti-RBD IgA and IgG than the serum from the control group without COVID-19. No statistically significant difference was observed between the antibody levels in the serum samples obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic women exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and between the antibody level and the time from a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result over the period studied. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG antibodies in the breastmilk of COVID-19 recovered women and the possibility of these antibodies in providing specific immunologic benefits to breastfeeding infants such as protection against the virus transmission and severity of the acquired COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Lactation , Milk, Human , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988044

ABSTRACT

It is currently unclear if SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA vaccination can also induce IgG and IgA against common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) in lactating parents. Here we prospectively analyzed human milk (HM) and blood samples from lactating parents to measure the temporal patterns of anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific and anti-HCoV cross-reactive IgA and IgG responses. Two cohorts were analyzed: a vaccination cohort (n = 30) who received mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 (mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2), and an infection cohort (n = 45) with COVID-19 disease. Longitudinal HM and fingerstick blood samples were collected pre- and post-vaccination or, for infected subjects, at 5 time-points 14-28 days after confirmed diagnosis. The anti-spike(S) and anti-nucleocapsid(N) IgA and IgG antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs were measured by multiplex immunoassay (mPlex-CoV). We found that vaccination significantly increased the anti-S IgA and IgG levels in HM. In contrast, while IgG levels increased after a second vaccine dose, blood and HM IgA started to decrease. Moreover, HM and blood anti-S IgG levels were significantly correlated, but anti-S IgA levels were not. SARS2 acute infection elicited anti-S IgG and IgA that showed much higher correlations between HM and blood compared to vaccination. Vaccination and infection were able to significantly increase the broadly cross-reactive IgG recognizing HCoVs in HM and blood than the IgA antibodies in HM and blood. In addition, the broader cross-reactivity of IgG in HM versus blood indicates that COVID-19 vaccination and infection might provide passive immunity through HM for the breastfed infants not only against SARS-CoV-2 but also against common cold coronaviruses.

12.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 867540, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952503

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted breastfeeding and lactation globally, with clinical practices implemented early in the pandemic being mostly anti-breastfeeding, e.g., separation of mothers from their infants, and not evidence based. As the pandemic has progressed, evidence has emerged reconfirming the value of human milk and the importance of protecting and supporting breastfeeding, especially the initiation of lactation. However, it is clear that COVID-19 has changed the clinical care paradigm around breastfeeding and lactation support and, as such, it is imperative that practices adapt and evolve to maintain the emphasis on lactation support. We participated in a round table conference aiming to rescue and develop protocols and practices that support breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. One key area to target will be to maximize the use of the antenatal period. The early identification of lactation risk factors together with the development of person-centered methods to deliver breastfeeding information and education to parents-to-be will be critical. In addition, the establishment of a hospital culture that values breastfeeding and prioritizes the use of human milk will be integral for the motivation of health care professionals. That culture will also support active management of the initiation of lactation and the development of a 'back-up plan' toolkit to support the mother experiencing lactation difficulties. Post-discharge support will also be crucial with the development of both in-person and virtual lactation support programs, in particular for the immediate post-discharge period to benefit mothers who experience an early discharge process. These measures will allow for a new, adapted framework of practice that acknowledges the current COVID-19 paradigm and maintains the emphasis on the need to protect and support breastfeeding and the use of human milk.

13.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 884962, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938639

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2) pandemic has forced the global health system to face new challenges both in the acute management of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) patients and in its consequences. In particular, the long-term effects of this new virus, especially in children, are still poorly understood. Scientific research is currently trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the so called "long COVID syndrome". Since the beginning of the pandemic, breastmilk has been studied for its antiviral and immunomodulatory properties. Based on these assumptions, we conducted a preliminary study in order to investigate the prevalence of long COVID in a cohort of Italian children with previously detected SARS-CoV-2 infection and evaluate if breastfeeding might play a role in modulating long COVID occurrence.

14.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 888683, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924137

ABSTRACT

Objective: We investigated changes in maternal daily milk pumping frequency and milk volume per expression and their derived lactation indicators, as well as human milk (HM) feeding status with a focus on amount and rates in preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after using a WeChat mini-program during the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: The study was conducted with 482 mothers and their 544 babies. We prospectively enrolled mothers and infants with birth weight <1,500 g or gestational age <32 weeks born in 2020, and retrospectively included the same population in 2019. All study subjects were classified into three subgroups: pre-pandemic (PP, 2019), early pandemic (EP, January to April 2020), and late pandemic (LP, May to December 2020). From 1 January 2020, mothers recorded in an online pumping diary using the WeChat mini-program. We obtained the infants' feeding information from an online database for analysis. Results: Maternal lactation indicators did not change significantly. However, 56.7% (139/245) of mothers achieved milk volume ≥500 ml/day (CTV) in PP, 58.9% (33/156) in EP, and a slight increase to 60.7% (91/150) in LP. Maternal pumping frequency remained about eight times/day. In LP, daily milk volume was higher than the other two periods from day 4, and mothers achieved CTV by day 12, which was achieved in the other two groups by 13-14 days. There were several statistical differences in the amount and rates of feeding between the groups, particularly about HM and donor milk feeding, with the vast majority being decreased during EP, while during LP they returned to PP levels. Pleasingly, the median average daily dose of HM at 1-28 days was highest in LP (LP, 87.8 vs. PP, 75.5 or EP, 52.6 ml/kg/day, P corrected < 0.001). In addition, most categorical feeding indicators decreased in EP and recovered in LP. Conclusion: An education model based on the WeChat program could aid lactation education and management in mothers of preterm infants to maintain healthy lactation. The model, together with optimized management strategies, can ensure that the HM feeding rate is not compromised in vulnerable high-risk infants during NICU hospitalization in a public health emergency, like the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911494

ABSTRACT

Background: Five of the most abundant human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in human milk are 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL), lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) and 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL). Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled parallel feeding trial evaluated growth in healthy term infants fed a control milk-based formula (CF; n = 129), experimental milk-based formula (EF; n = 130) containing five HMOs (5.75 g/L; 2'-FL, 3-FL, LNT, 3'-SL and 6'-SL) or human milk (HM; n = 104). Results: No significant differences (all p ≥ 0.337, protocol evaluable cohort) were observed among the three groups for weight gain per day from 14 to 119 days (D) of age, irrespective of COVID-19 or combined non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. There were no differences (p ≥ 0.05) among the three groups for gains in weight and length from D14 to D119. Compared to the CF group, the EF group had more stools that were soft, frequent and yellow and were similar to the HM group. Serious and non-serious adverse events were not different among groups, but more CF-fed infants were seen by health care professionals for illness from study entry to D56 (p = 0.044) and D84 (p = 0.028) compared to EF-fed infants. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the EF containing five HMOs supported normal growth, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and safe use in healthy term infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant Formula , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human , Oligosaccharides
16.
Ann Nutr Metab ; : 1-9, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current pandemic and the concerns of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 have contributed to increasing the rate of breastfeeding interruption. This tendency has been associated with negative effects on the well-being of lactating mothers and their infants. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence on the strategies to support breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic and on the safety of breastfeeding during a SARS-CoV-2 infection or after COVID-19 vaccination. SUMMARY: Available data show that the lack of support of lactating mothers during the pandemic has contributed to breastfeeding cessation worldwide. However, a few strategies have been proposed to overcome this issue. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from infected mothers to their offspring is extremely low. Furthermore, vaccination of lactating mothers is not associated with side effects in their infants. Key Messages: Increasing effort should be made to support breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mothers who are able to take care of their offspring and to adopt basic hygiene measures should not interrupt breastfeeding during a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccination of lactating mothers might further strengthen the protective effect of breastfeeding against infections.

17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 910138, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903030

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has turned pregnant women's healthcare into a worldwide public health challenge. Although initial data did not demonstrate pregnancy as a more susceptible period to severe outcomes of acute severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, there are an increasing number of reports showing that not only pregnant women might be at significantly higher risk than non-pregnant women by COVID-19 but also the fetus. These findings may be related to adaptive changes that occur during pregnancy, such as the reduction in the residual respiratory capacity, the decrease in viral immune responses, and the increased risk for thromboembolic events. Additionally, despite the SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission evidence being uncommon, maternal illness severity might reflect serious perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Thus, protecting the maternal-fetal dyad against COVID-19 is critical. Even though pregnant women initially were excluded from vaccine trials, several studies have provided safety and efficacy of the overall vaccine COVID-19 platforms. Vaccination during pregnancy becomes a priority and can generate benefits for both the mother and newborn: maternal neutralizing antibodies are transmitted through the placenta and breastfeeding. Moreover, regarding passive immunization, human milk contains other bioactive molecules and cells able to modulate the newborn's immune response, which can be amplified after the vaccine. Nonetheless, many issues remain to be elucidated, considering the magnitude of the protective immunity transferred, the duration of the induced immunity, and the optimal interval for pregnant immunization. In this review, we assessed these unmet topics supported by literature evidence regarding the vaccine's immunogenicity, pregnancy immune heterogeneity, and the unique human milk antiviral features.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Vaccines , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics/prevention & control , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 896068, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903022

ABSTRACT

During the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), pregnant and lactating women are at higher risk of infection. The potential of viral intrauterine transmission and vertical transmission by breastfeeding has raised wide concerns. Breastmilk is rich in nutrients that contribute to infant growth and development, and reduce the incidence rate of infant illness and death, as well as inhibit pathogens significantly, and protect infants from infection. Although it is controversial whether mothers infected with COVID-19 should continue to breastfeed, many countries and international organizations have provided recommendations and guidance for breastfeeding. This review presents the risks and benefits of breastfeeding for mothers infected with COVID-19, and the reasons for the absence of SARS-CoV-2 active virus in human milk. In addition, the antiviral mechanisms of nutrients in breastmilk, the levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in breastmilk from COVID-19 infected mothers and vaccinated mothers are also summarized and discussed, aiming to provide some support and recommendations for both lactating mothers and infants to better deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Antibodies, Viral , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant , Lactation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Revista Espanola de Salud Publica ; 94(e202005055):e1-e9, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1897761

ABSTRACT

Background: The new coronavirus disease is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus, considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) an international public health emergency that may have negative consequences during breastfeeding. The objective of this work is to investigate the action plan on breastfeeding in postpartum women with SARS-CoV-2 and her newborn.

20.
J Hum Lact ; 38(3): 401-406, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are secreted into human milk after women are vaccinated against COVID-19, which might protect the breastfed infant. Due to several reports of severe side-effects of the Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 (AZD1222) vaccine against COVID-19, some lactating women followed a heterologous vaccination schedule consisting of the first dose of AZD1222 and a second dose of an mRNA-based vaccine. However, it is unclear whether this generates a significant SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody response in human milk. MAIN ISSUE: To quantify the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody response in human milk of two lactating women receiving a heterologous vaccination schedules: AZD1222 and mRNA-based vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech [BNT162b2] and Moderna [mRNA-1273]). MANAGEMENT: Both participants collected 16 samples of human milk longitudinally. SARS-CoV-2-specific Immunoglobulin A was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, it could be suggested that heterologous vaccination with AZD1222 and an mRNA-based vaccine can elicit a significant SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA response in human milk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Humans , Lactation , Milk, Human , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
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