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1.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:884211, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834411

ABSTRACT

Stagnating COVID-19 vaccination rates and vaccine hesitancy remain a threat to public health. Improved strategies for real-time tracking and estimation of population-level behavior regarding vaccinations are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether online search trends for COIVD-19 and influenza mirror vaccination rates. State-level weekly fraction of online searches for top vaccination-related search terms and CDC vaccination data were obtained from June 1, 2020, to May 31, 2021. Next, trends in online search and vaccination data for COVID-19 and influenza were analyzed for visual and quantitative correlation patterns using Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Online searches in the US for COVID-19 vaccinations increased 2.71-fold (95% CI: 1.98-3.45) in the 4 weeks after the FDA emergency authorization compared to the precedent 4 weeks. In March-April 2021, US online searches reached a plateau that was followed by a decline of 83.3% (95% CI: 31.2%-135.3%) until May 31, 2021. The timing of peaks in online searches varied across US states. Online searches were strongly correlated with vaccination rates (r=0.71, 95% CI: 0.45 - 0.87), preceding actual reported vaccination rates in 44 of 51 states. Online search trends preceded vaccination trends by a median of 3.0 weeks (95% CI: 2.0-4.0 weeks) across all states. For influenza vaccination searches, seasonal peaks in September-October between 2016-2020 were noted. Influenza search trends highly correlated with the timing of actual vaccinations for the 2019-2020 (r=0.82, 95% CI: 0.64 - 0.93) and 2020-2021 season (r=0.91, 95% CI: 0.78 - 0.97). Search trends and real-world vaccination rates are highly correlated. Temporal alignment and correlation levels were higher for influenza vaccinations;however, only online searches for COVID-19 vaccination preceded vaccination trends. These findings indicate that US online search data can potentially guide public health efforts, including policy changes and identifying geographical areas to expand vaccination campaigns.

2.
Enterprise Development & Microfinance ; 32(1):4-18, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1834350

ABSTRACT

Somalia has a significant place in the livestock sector in the Horn of Africa;livestock trade and export is one of the key economic contributors. Most of the livestock trade happens with the Middle East, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia being one of its biggest importers. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to both massive loss of life and huge economic losses as the result of measures to contain the virus. In June 2020, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia took the decision to restrict the number of pilgrims for the annual Hajj. Impacts resulted in a decline in income from the seasonal Hajj of 80 per cent, though domestically prices of livestock remained stable and local markets were used for livestock sales. This paper, besides highlighting the effects, provides recommendations which could inform strategic planning, humanitarian aid, and resilience building for the livestock value chain in Somalia and the Horn of Africa.

3.
Regions and Cohesion ; 12(1):25-53, 2022.
Article in French | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834282
4.
Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Europeen sur les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin ; 27(17), 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834263

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe start of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign among French healthcare and welfare sector workers in January 2021 offered an opportunity to study psychological antecedents of vaccination in this group.AimWe explored whether knowledge and attitude items related to social conformism and confidence in systems contributed to explaining intention for COVID-19 vaccination. Methods We developed a knowledge and attitude questionnaire with 30 items related to five established and two hypothetical psychological antecedents of vaccination (KA-7C). The online questionnaire was distributed from 18 December 2020 to 1 February 2021 through chain-referral via professional networks, yielding a convenience sample. We used multivariable logistic regression to explore the associations of individual and grouped KA-7C items with COVID-19 vaccine intention. Results Among 5,234 participants, the vaccine intention model fit (pseudo R-squared values) increased slightly but significantly from 0.62 to 0.65 when adding social conformism and confidence in systems items. Intention to vaccinate was associated with the majority opinion among family and friends (OR: 11.57;95% confidence interval (CI): 4.51-29.67) and a positive perception of employer's encouragement to get vaccinated (vs negative;OR: 6.41;95% CI: 3.36-12.22). The strongest association of a knowledge item was identifying the statement 'Some stages of vaccine development (testing) have been skipped because of the epidemic emergency.' as false (OR: 2.36;95% CI: 1.73-3.22). Conclusion The results suggest that social conformism and confidence in systems are distinct antecedents of vaccination among healthcare and welfare workers, which should be taken into account in vaccine promotion.

5.
Slovenian Journal of Public Health ; 61(2):124-132, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1834252

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly affected global healthcare systems. Prior epidemiological studies on different infectious diseases have shown a strong correlation between serum vitamin D levels and the incidence of certain infectious diseases. Vitamin D has an important immunomodulatory effect on innate immunity and exhibits several other mechanisms in the pathogenesis of the cytokine storm, which is one of the main contributing factors to fatality in COVID-19 patients.

6.
Annals of Animal Science ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1834236

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic stress and the impacts of climatic changes on humans’ and animals’ health status and well-being resulted in severe drawbacks. Initially, stress-induced oxidation resulting from the generation of free radicals leading to the impairment of cellular function and a high possibility of attack with infection. Astaxanthin is a bioactive material derived from fish, crustaceans, and algae with high antioxidative potential. Astaxanthin is a lipid-soluble carotenoid that can easily cross through the cellular membrane layers to catch the reactive oxygen metabolites. Astaxanthin also has pigmentation properties making it suitable for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, agriculture, and aquaculture sectors. Recently, astaxanthin is suggested as a natural scavenger for free radicals induced by COVID-19. Besides, using astaxanthin as antioxidative and immunostimulant agents is well-reported in several clinical studies. The output of these investigations should be simplified and presented to the scientific community to utilize the available information and fill the gap of knowledge. Also, it is necessary to update the researchers with the recent recommendations of applying astaxanthin in vivo and in vitro to help in proposing new horizons for engaging natural antioxidative agents to protect human and animal health. Herein, this review article tackled the nature, sources, potential roles, applicable sides, and availability of astaxanthin to fortify the scientific community with the required knowledge for further research efforts. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Annals of Animal Science is the property of Sciendo and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
Journal of Medical Internet Research ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834129

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent shifts to telemedicine and remote patient monitoring demonstrate the potential for new technology to transform health systems;yet, methods to design for inclusion and resilience are lacking. Objective: The aim of this study is to design and implement a participatory framework to produce effective health care solutions through co-design with diverse stakeholders. Methods: We developed a design framework to cocreate solutions to locally prioritized health and communication problems focused on cancer care. The framework is premised on the framing and discovery of problems through community engagement and lead-user innovation with the hypothesis that diversity and inclusion in the co-design process generate more innovative and resilient solutions. Discovery, design, and development were implemented through structured phases with design studios at various locations in urban and rural Kentucky, including Appalachia, each building from prior work. In the final design studio, working prototypes were developed and tested. Outputs were assessed using the System Usability Scale as well as semistructured user feedback. Results: We co-designed, developed, and tested a mobile app (myPath) and service model for distress surveillance and cancer care coordination following the LAUNCH (Linking and Amplifying User-Centered Networks through Connected Health) framework. The problem of awareness, navigation, and communication through cancer care was selected by the community after framing areas for opportunity based on significant geographic disparities in cancer and health burden resource and broadband access. The codeveloped digital myPath app showed the highest perceived combined usability (mean 81.9, SD 15.2) compared with the current gold standard of distress management for patients with cancer, the paper-based National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer (mean 74.2, SD 15.8). Testing of the System Usability Scale subscales showed that the myPath app had significantly better usability than the paper Distress Thermometer (t63=2.611;P=.01), whereas learnability did not differ between the instruments (t63=–0.311;P=.76). Notable differences by patient and provider scoring and feedback were found. Conclusions: Participatory problem definition and community-based co-design, design-with methods, may produce more acceptable and effective solutions than traditional design-for approaches.

8.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(3):e0266456, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833658

ABSTRACT

The world health organization estimates that more than a quarter of the human population is infected with parasitic worms that are called helminths. Many helminths suppress the immune system of their hosts to prolong their survival. This helminth-induced immunosuppression "spills over" to unrelated antigens and can suppress the immune response to vaccination against other pathogens. Indeed, several human studies have reported a negative correlation between helminth infections and responses to vaccinations. Using mice that are infected with the parasitic nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis as a model for chronic human filarial infections, we reported previously that concurrent helminth infection impaired the vaccination-induced protection against the human pathogenic 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus (2009 pH1N1). Vaccinated, helminth-infected mice produced less neutralizing, influenza-specific antibodies than vaccinated naive control mice. Consequently helminth-infected and vaccinated mice were not protected against a challenge infection with influenza virus but displayed high virus burden in the lung and a transient weight loss. In the current study we tried to improve the vaccination efficacy using vaccines that are licensed for humans. We either introduced a prime-boost vaccination regimen using the non-adjuvanted anti-influenza vaccine Begripal or employed the adjuvanted influenza vaccine Fluad. Although both strategies elevated the production of influenza-specific antibodies and protected mice from the transient weight loss that is caused by an influenza challenge infection, sterile immunity was not achieved. Helminth-infected vaccinated mice still had high virus burden in the lung while non-helminth-infected vaccinated mice rapidly cleared the virus. In summary we demonstrate that basic improvements of influenza vaccination regimen are not sufficient to confer sterile immunity on the background of helminth-induced immunosuppression, despite amelioration of pathology i.e. weight loss. Our findings highlight the risk of failed vaccinations in helminth-endemic areas, especially in light of the ongoing vaccination campaign to control the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases ; 16(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833509

ABSTRACT

Background: The year 2020 Lassa fever (LF) outbreak had the greatest disease burden and this can place an enormous strain on the already overstretched healthcare system and can potentially increase morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Therefore, having a knowledgeable healthcare workforce with appropriate skills and competencies to prevent and manage outbreaks of a neglected infectious disease such as LF in Nigeria will potentially enhance public health. Thus, this survey assessed the level of knowledge of LF and its prevention and control (PC) measures amongst the healthcare workers (HCWs) during a LF outbreak in Katsina state, Nigeria. Methodology/Principal findings: During this cross-sectional survey, HCWs complete a validated 29-item questionnaire comprising 18 items on the knowledge of LF and its PC measures and an item on global self-evaluation of their LF knowledge. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated. Chi-square and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Out of 435 HCWs invited, a total of 400 participated in the study (92% response rate). The majority of participants (51.8%) demonstrated inadequate LF knowledge, with 62.9% of those scoring low having a high self-perception of their LF knowledge with the global scale. This LF knowledge over-estimation was predicted by LF training status (odds ratio (OR) 2.53;95% CI: 1.49-4.30;p = 0.001). The level of LF knowledge and its PC measures among the study participants was low (11.60+or-8.14, 64.4%) and predicted by participants' LF training status (OR 2.06;95% CI: 1.19-3.57;p = 0.009), place of work (OR 1.82;95% CI: 1.07-3.08;p = 0.03) and their designations (OR 2.40;95% CI: 1.10-5.22;p = 0.03).

10.
PLoS Medicine ; 19(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833506

ABSTRACT

Background: Optimizing services to facilitate engagement and retention in care of people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) is critical to decrease HIV-related morbidity and mortality and HIV transmission. We systematically reviewed the literature for the effectiveness of implementation strategies to reestablish and subsequently retain clinical contact, improve viral load suppression, and reduce mortality among patients who had been lost to follow-up (LTFU) from HIV services. Methods and findings: We searched 7 databases (PubMed, Cochrane, ERIC, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the WHO regional databases) and 3 conference archives (CROI, IAC, and IAS) to find randomized trials and observational studies published through 13 April 2020. Eligible studies included those involving children and adults who were diagnosed with HIV, had initiated ART, and were subsequently lost to care and that reported at least one review outcome (return to care, retention, viral suppression, or mortality). Data were extracted by 2 reviewers, with discrepancies resolved by a third. We characterized reengagement strategies according to how, where, and by whom tracing was conducted. We explored effects, first, among all categorized as LTFU from the HIV program (reengagement program effect) and second among those found to be alive and out of care (reengagement contact outcome). We used random-effect models for meta-analysis and conducted subgroup analyses to explore heterogeneity. Searches yielded 4,244 titles, resulting in 37 included studies (6 randomized trials and 31 observational studies). In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (N= 16), tracing most frequently involved identification of LTFU from the electronic medical record (EMR) and paper records followed by a combination of telephone calls and field tracing (including home visits), by a team of outreach workers within 3 months of becoming LTFU (N= 7), with few incorporating additional strategies to support reengagement beyond contact (N= 2). In high-income countries (HICs) (N = 21 studies), LTFU were similarly identified through EMR systems, at times matched with other public health records (N= 4), followed by telephone calls and letters sent by mail or email and conducted by outreach specialist teams. Home visits were less common (N= 7) than in LMICs, and additional reengagement support was similarly infrequent (N = 5). Overall, reengagement programs were able to return 39% (95% CI: 31% to 47%) of all patients who were characterized as LTFU (n= 29). Reengagement contact resulted in 58% (95% CI: 51% to 65%) return among those found to be alive and out of care (N= 17). In 9 studies that had a control condition, the return was higher among those in the reengagement intervention group than the standard of care group (RR: 1.20 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.32, P < 0.001)). There were insufficient data to generate pooled estimates of retention, viral suppression, or mortality after the return. Conclusions: While the types of interventions are markedly heterogeneity, reengagement interventions increase return to care. HIV programs should consider investing in systems to better characterize LTFU to identify those who are alive and out of care, and further research on the optimum time to initiate reengagement efforts after missed visits and how to best support sustained reengagement could improve efficiency and effectiveness.

11.
Journal of Ethnic Foods ; 9(11), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833392

ABSTRACT

The tourist-catering subsector plays an important role in the consolidation and attraction of tourism products and services offered. This research aims to ascertain the importance of synergies, and proactive collaborative and co-operational relations between agri-food suppliers and the restaurants. This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive methodology, data source triangulation, information processing using NVIVO12 software. This study identifying that the city of Cordoba offers a variety of gastronomic products and services, and that the supply sector is semi-structured and still in need of improvements of quality, safety and having a wider commercial network. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, suppliers have reinvented themselves and created new market opportunities to benefit from rapid growth in some sectors;furthermore, they are in a position to offer restaurants a competitive advantage in post-pandemic recovery.

12.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice ; 15(21), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833359

ABSTRACT

Background: Community pharmacists (CPs) are one of the frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) working diligently to provide much-needed services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Burnout was one of the detrimental outcomes of the pandemic on the mental health of Lebanese CPs. To assess the extent of this syndrome among Lebanese CPs, a psychometrically reliable and valid tool is needed. Objectives This study aimed to validate the Arabic version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI-A) for use in the assessment of burnout among CPs. Methods A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Lebanese CPs over February 2021. Data were collected using an anonymous Arabic self-administered questionnaire that includes information on socio-demographic characteristics, work-related variables, in addition to the measurements: the CBI which includes personal, work-related, and patient-related dimensions of burnout, and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Amos software. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to explore the factorial structure and to measure model fit. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency. The criterion validity of the CBI was assessed. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore the association between different aspects of burnout and mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety. Results The CBI-A showed high internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas varied from 0.774 to 0.902 and a low floor and ceiling effect (1-9%). As for the CBI-A construct validity, the exploratory factor analysis showed three factors with good factor loadings and explained 72.17% of the variance. The confirmatory analysis supported the three-factorial structure of the CBI that presented a good overall fit based on the goodness-of-fit indices. Ad hoc modifications to the model were introduced based on the modification indices to achieve a satisfactory fit by allowing one covariate error between one pair of items within the personal burnout domain. All of the 19 items were kept in the construct since they showed a good factorial weight. The CBI-A is associated with burnout-related factors in expected directions, including extensive working hours, sleeping hours, and job satisfaction, indicating, therefore, the criterion validity of the tool. CBI subscales were also found positively associated with mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety demonstrating, in turn, a predictive validity. Conclusion This study provides evidence for the validity and reliability of the Arabic version of CBI as an adequate tool for assessing burnout among CPs. Such an instrument could be useful for assessing such syndrome among other healthcare workers.

13.
Infectious Diseases of Poverty ; 11(32), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833357

ABSTRACT

Background: Nucleic acid test (NAT) could effectively control the spread of COVID-19 caused by large-scale sports competitions. However, quantitative analysis on the appropriate frequency of NAT is scarce, and the cost-effectiveness and necessity of high-frequency NAT remain to be fully explored and validated. This study aims to optimize the COVID-19 surveillance strategies through cost-effectiveness analysis for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games and the upcoming Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games.

14.
Archives of Public Health ; 80(10), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833347

ABSTRACT

Background: Most epidemiologic reports focus on lower extremity amputation (LEA) caused specifically by diabetes mellitus. However, narrowing scope disregards the impact of other causes and types of limb amputation (LA) diminishing the true incidence and societal burden. We explored the rates of LEA and upper extremity amputation (UEA) by level of amputation, sex and age over 14 years in Saskatchewan, Canada.

15.
Lipids in Health and Disease ; 20(177), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833317

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertriglyceridemia can occur in lymphoproliferative disorders. Infectious mononucleosis is a self-limiting, benign lymphoproliferative disorder. This study aimed to investigate the serum triglyceride concentrations and their change over time in patients with infectious mononucleosis.

16.
BMC Infectious Diseases ; 22(319), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833284

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the first official report of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Iran on 19 February 2020, our country has been one of the worst affected countries by the COVID-19 epidemic in the Middle East. In addition to demographic and clinical characteristics, the number of hospitalized cases and deaths is an important factor for evidence-based decision-making and disease control and preparing the healthcare system to face the future challenges of COVID-19. Therefore, this cohort study was conducted to determine the demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Kermanshah Province, west of Iran.

17.
International Journal of STD & AIDS ; 33(6):604-607, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1833020

ABSTRACT

Background: BASHH/MEDFASH (Medical Foundation for HIV and Sexual Health) Standards for the Management of Sexual Health Services 20141 set out a number of recommendations regarding time between contacting a service to being seen, time to receiving results, and time to treatment. This audit investigated if UK practice is compliant with BASHH standards of care in terms of: Time to patient being seen after contacting sexual health services, time to chlamydia (CT) NAAT (nucleic acid amplification test) results and time from positive CT result to treatment.

18.
Journal of Information Science ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1832952

ABSTRACT

Factors, such as whether a website is designed to be user-oriented beyond its mere visual design, its effectiveness and efficiency, its usability, and the organisation of the information it offers, have come to the fore once again after the Covid-19 pandemic. It has been evident that the link structure in a website, better known as the website’s information architecture, helps the practitioners with identifying factors that affect the usability of a website. In this sense, practitioners must ensure that the information architecture supports the usage intentions of a websites’ visitors to better serve and motivate them. However, in many cases, different types of users navigate websites that contain immense amounts of information, so understanding their needs is also important for practitioners. In parallel, this article addresses the problem that different visitors of a large-scale website will need to navigate through dense information to find the information they are looking for, and the information architecture of the website must support different user tasks for the website to be widely adopted. Thus, unlike previous studies, this article combines the principles of information architecture and the technology acceptance model to investigate the effect of information architecture on visitor’s usage intentions. The work also guides practitioners in developing architectural strategies to better enable visitors to fulfil their objectives in the least amount of time. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Information Science is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

19.
American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine ; 205(9):1116-1118, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832821
20.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832689

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 epidemic, draconian countermeasures forbidding nonessential human activities have been adopted in several countries worldwide, providing an unprecedented setup for testing and quantifying the current impact of humankind on climate and for driving potential sustainability policies in the postpandemic era from a perspective of complex systems. In this study, we consider heterogeneous sources of environmental and human activity observables, considered as components of a complex socioenvironmental system, and apply information theory, network science, and Bayesian inference to analyze their structural relations and nonlinear dynamics between January 2019 and August 2020 in northern Italy, i.e., before, during, and after the national lockdown. The topological structure of a complex system strongly impacts its collective behavior;therefore, mapping this structure is essential to fully understand the functions of the system as a whole and its fragility to unexpected disruptions or shocks. To this aim, we unravel the causal relationships between the 16 environmental conditions and human activity variables, mapping the backbone of the complex interplay between intervening physical observables—such as NO2 emissions, energy consumption, intervening climate variables, and different flavors of human mobility flows—to a causal network model. To identify a tipping point during the period of observation, denoting the presence of a regime shift between distinct network states (i.e., before and during the shock), we introduce a novel information-theoretic method based on statistical divergence widely used in statistical physics. We find that despite a measurable decrease in NO2 concentration, due to an overall decrease in human activities, locking down a region as a climate change mitigation is an insufficient remedy to reduce emissions. Our results provide a functional characterization of socioenvironmental interdependent systems, and our analytical framework can be used, more generally, to characterize environmental changes and their interdependencies using statistical physics.

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