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1.
Immunol Lett ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028118

ABSTRACT

Antibody testing after COVID-19 vaccination is generally not recommended. Here, we present the results of a retrospective study, in which we analyzed antibody levels before and after the first dose of the ChAdOx1 vector vaccine. We identified 5% non-responders (43.6±10.6 years;females: 41%) and 3.4% low-responders (44.2±10.1 years;females: 64%) after the first dose. Of these, 61 individuals received a timely second dose either with a homologous (ChAdOx1/ChAdOx1) or heterologous (ChAdOx1/mRNA-1273) schedule. All vaccinees achieved positive S1-specific IgG titers to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain after the second dose, but antibody levels as well as neutralization titers against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain were higher after the heterologous schedule. However, Omicron-specific neutralizing antibodies were not detectable after two doses in either group, indicating that a third vaccine dose is needed to enhance cross-reactive antibodies against currently circulating and emerging variants of concern.

2.
Frontiers in Medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022786

ABSTRACT

IntroductionStress hyperglycemia is a frequent finding in patients with COVID-19 infection and could affect the outcome of disease. Cytokines released in response to infection could have adverse effects on insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta-cell function. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of stress hyperglycemia with cytokines and clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. MethodsIn a cross-sectional analysis of 150 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection who were included in the GIRA-COVID database, we identified patients with stress hyperglycemia by calculation of the Stress Hyperglycemia Ratio (SHR) and use of a cut-off of 1.14. Plasma levels of cytokines principally involved in COVID-19 infection-related cytokine storm were measured. Outcome variables were use of mechanical ventilation and death within 60 days from hospital admission. ResultsPatients with SHR > 1.14 had significantly higher plasma insulin, HOMA-index, and levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor-a ratio (IL-10/TNF-alpha), and CXC motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) than patients with SHR <= 1.14. IL-10, IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio, CXCL10, and IFN-gamma were significantly and directly related with SHR in univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models showed that IL-10, IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio, and CXCL10 were independently associated with SHR>1.14. In a multivariate logistic model, stress hyperglycemia predicted use of mechanical ventilation (OR 2.453;CI 1.078-6.012) and death (OR 2.281;CI 1.049-7.369) independently of diabetes and other major confounders. ConclusionsIn patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection, stress hyperglycemia is associated with worse clinical outcomes and is independently related to levels of cytokines that might impair glucose homeostasis.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13:920627, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of long-COVID remains unknown, and information is particularly limited for symptoms of very long duration. We aimed to assess the serological, T-cell immune responses and ANA titers of patients with long-COVID-19 syndrome of 1-year duration. METHODS: Prospective, longitudinal study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients followed-up for 12 months. Sequential blood samples and COVID-19 symptom questionnaires (CSQ) were obtained, and humoral and cellular immune responses, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and inflammation biomarkers were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 154 patients discharged from hospital, 72 non-vaccinated with available CSQ in all visits were included. Of them, 14 (19.4%) reported persistent symptoms both at 6-months and 12-months, mainly asthenia (15.3%), myalgia (13.9%), and difficulty concentrating/memory loss (13.9%). Symptomatic patients were more frequently women, smokers, showed higher WHO severity score, and a trend to higher ICU admission. In the adjusted analysis, long-COVID syndrome was associated with lower frequency of detectable neutralizing antibodies (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.98;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-0.99) and lower SARS-CoV-2-S1/S2 titers (aHR [95%CI] 0.14 [0.03-0.65]). T-cell immune response measured with a SARS-CoV-2-interferon-γ release assay was not different between groups. There was a higher frequency of positive ANA titers (≥160) in symptomatic patients (57.1% vs 29.3%, p=0.04), that was attenuated after adjustment aHR [95% CI] 3.37 [0.84-13.57], p=0.087. Levels of C-reactive protein and D-dimer were higher during follow-up in symptomatic patients, but with no differences at 12 months. CONCLUSION: Patients with 1-year duration long-COVID-19 syndrome exhibit a distinct immunologic phenotype that includes a poorer SARS-CoV-2 antibody response, low-degree chronic inflammation that tends to mitigate, and autoimmunity.

4.
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical ; 74(1), 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012416

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This paper shows the results obtained in the validation of in vitro serological assays to detect IgM, IgG antibodies, and total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 UMELISA SARS-CoV-2 IgM, UMELISA ANTI-SARS-CoV-2 and UMELISA SARS-CoV-2 IgG developed by the Immunoassay Center. Methods: Panels of serum samples from negative and COVID-19 confirmed patients were used to determine the analytical performance of each assay. Results: UMELISA SARS-CoV-2 IgM, UMELISA ANTI-SARS-CoV-2 and UMELISA SARS-CoV-2 IgG assays demonstrated 100% clinical specificity for all assays;and 100% analytical specificity for the first two assays, and 93.1% for the last one. Clinical sensitivity was 64.3%, 80.8% and 97.5%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100% in all assays, while the negative predictive value ranged from 83.3% to 95.2%. Concordance varied from 92.4% to 96.9%, and kappa index in every assay was very good. Assays sensitivity increased to 82.7%, 96.5% and 100 %, respectively for serum samples collected more than 14 days after onset of the symptoms. Conclusions: The assays demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity, which allows us to have Cuban technology-based tools for serological, epidemiological surveillance, and other types of studies, including those related to vaccines on a platform with wide national distribution. © 2022, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

5.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004586

ABSTRACT

In the present study, immunogenicity data in 61 vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs) either infection naïve (naïve HCWs) or with infection of Delta and/or Omicron COVID-19 (experienced HCWs) were evaluated up to 270 days after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine and up to 90 days after a booster dose. A decrease in antibody levels at 270 days following administration of the second dose (p = 0.0335) was observed, although values did not fall below the positivity threshold (33.8 BAU/ml). After booster vaccination, antibody levels increased after 30 days (p = 0.0486), with much higher values than after first and second vaccination. Antibody levels then decreased at 60 and 90 days after the booster dose. A comparison between mean antibody levels of naïve and experienced HCWs revealed higher values in experienced HCWs, resulting from both natural and vaccination-induced immunity. A total of 14.7% of HCWs contracted the Omicron virus variant after the vaccine booster, although none showed severe symptoms. These results support that a booster dose results in a marked increase in antibody response that subsequently decreases over time.

6.
Vaccine ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has proven to be a successful strategy for prevent severe infections. CoronaVac and BNT162b2 are the most used vaccines worldwide, but their use in heterologous vaccination schedules is still subjected to evaluation. METHODS: Fifty healthy individuals who received heterologous prime-boost vaccination with CoronaVac and BNT162b2 were enrolled in a post-vaccination serological follow-up longitudinal prospective study. We evaluated specific serum anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG antibody levels, and their capacity to block RBD-ACE2 interaction with a surrogate neutralization assay. In 20 participants, we assessed antibody binding kinetics by surface plasmon resonance, and Fc-mediated functions by ADCC and ADCP reporter assays. RESULTS: Our baseline seronegative cohort, displayed seroconversion after two doses of CoronaVac and an important decrease in serum anti-RBD IgG antibodies levels 80 days post-second dose. These levels increased significantly early after the third dose with BNT162b2, but 73 days after the booster we found a new fall. Immunoglobulin functionalities showed a similar behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The heterologous prime-boost vaccination with CoronaVac and BNT162b2 generated an impressive increase in serum anti-RBD specific antibody levels followed by a drop. Nevertheless, these titers remained well above those found in individuals only vaccinated with CoronaVac in the same elapsed time. Serum IgG levels showed high correlation with antibody binding analysis, their capacity to block RBD-ACE2 interaction, and Fc-effectors mechanisms. Our work sheds light on the humoral immune response to heterologous vaccination with CoronaVac and BNT162b2, to define a post-vaccination correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and to discuss the scheduling of future vaccine boosters in general population.

7.
Journal of Reproductive Immunology ; : 103685, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1966885

ABSTRACT

Breast milk is a pivotal source to provide passive immunity in newborns over the first few months of life. Very little is known about the levels of transfer of antibodies over the period of breastfeeding. We conducted a prospective study in which we evaluated concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike IgA and RBD IgG/M/A antibodies in maternal serum and breast milk over a duration of up to 6 months after delivery. We compared antibody levels in women with confirmed COVID-19 infection during pregnancy (n=16) to women with prenatal SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (n=5). Among the recovered women, n=7 (44%) had been vaccinated during the lactation period as well. We observed intraindividual moderate positive correlations between antibody levels in maternal serum and breast milk (r=0.73, p-value<0.0001), whereupon the median levels were generally higher in serum. Anti-RBD IgA/M/G transfer into breast milk was significantly higher in women recovered from COVID-19 and vaccinated during lactation (35.15AU/ml;IQR 21.96- 66.89AU/ml) compared to the nonvaccinated recovered group (1.26AU/ml;IQR 0.49- 3.81AU/ml), as well as in the vaccinated only group (4.52AU/ml;IQR 3.19- 6.23AU/ml). Notably, the antibody level in breast milk post SARS-CoV-2 infection sharply increased following a single dose of vaccine. Breast milk antibodies in all groups showed neutralization capacities against an early pandemic SARS-CoV-2 isolate (HH-1) and moreover, also against the Omicron variant, although with lower antibody titer. Our findings highlight the importance of booster vaccinations especially after SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy in order to optimize protection in mother and newborn.

8.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4629-4641, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954696

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has undergone multiple mutations since its emergence, and its latest variant, Omicron (B.1.1.529), is the most contagious variant of concern (VOC) which poses a major and imminent threat to public health. Since firstly reported by World Health Organization (WHO) in November 2021, Omicron variant has been spreading rapidly and has become the dominant variant in many countries worldwide. Omicron is the most mutated variant so far, containing 60 mutations in its genome, including 37 mutations in the S-protein. Since all current COVID-19 vaccines in use were developed based on ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strains, whether they are protective against Omicron is a critical question which has been the center of study currently. In this article, we systemically reviewed the studies regarding the effectiveness of 2- or 3-dose vaccines delivered in either homologous or heterologous manner. The humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by various vaccine regimens to protect against Omicron variant are discussed. Current understanding of the molecular basis underlying immune escape of Omicron was also analyzed. These studies indicate that two doses of vaccination are insufficient to elicit neutralizing antibody responses against Omicron variant. Nevertheless, Omicron-specific humoral immune responses can be enhanced by booster dose of almost all type vaccines in certain degree, and heterologous vaccination strategy may represent a better choice than homogenous regimens. Intriguingly, results of studies indicate that all current vaccines are still able to elicit robust T cell response against Omicron. Future focus should be the development of Omicron variant vaccine, which may induce potent humoral as well as cellular immune responses simultaneously against all known variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 833085, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952321

ABSTRACT

In the COVID-19 pandemic year 2021, several countries have implemented a vaccine certificate policy, the "Green Pass Policy" (GPP), to reduce virus spread and to allow safe relaxation of COVID-19 restrictions and reopening of social and economic activities. The rationale for the GPP is based on the assumption that vaccinated people should maintain a certain degree of immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Here we describe and compare, for the first time, the humoral immune response to mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, Ad26.COV2.S, and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines in terms of antibody titer elicited, neutralizing activity, and epitope reactogenicity among 369 individuals aged 19 to 94 years. In parallel, we also considered the use of a rapid test for the determination of neutralizing antibodies as a tool to guide policymakers in defining booster vaccination strategies and eligibility for Green Pass. Our analysis demonstrates that the titer of antibodies directed towards the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 Spike is significantly associated with age and vaccine type. Moreover, natural COVID-19 infection combined with vaccination results, on average, in higher antibody titer and higher neutralizing activity as compared to fully vaccinated individuals without prior COVID-19. We also found that levels of anti-Spike RBD antibodies are not always strictly associated with the extent of inhibition of RBD-ACE2 binding, as we could observe different neutralizing activities in sera with similar anti-RBD concentrations. Finally, we evaluated the reactivity to four synthetic peptides derived from Spike protein on a randomly selected serum sample and observed that similar to SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination elicits a heterogeneous antibody response with qualitative individual features. On the basis of our results, the use of rapid devices to detect the presence of neutralizing antibodies, even on a large scale and repeatedly over time, appears helpful in determining the duration of the humoral protection elicited by vaccination. These aspects and their implications for the GPP are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While emerging data during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have demonstrated robust mRNA vaccine-induced immunogenicity across populations, including pregnant and lactating individuals, the rapid waning of vaccine-induced immunity and the emergence of variants of concern motivated the use of mRNA vaccine booster doses. Whether all populations, including pregnant and lactating individuals, will mount a comparable response to a booster dose is not known. OBJECTIVE: We sought to profile the humoral immune response to a COVID-19 mRNA booster dose in a cohort of pregnant, lactating, and age-matched nonpregnant women. STUDY DESIGN: We characterized the antibody response against ancestral Spike and Omicron in a cohort of 31 pregnant, 12 lactating and 20 nonpregnant age-matched controls who received a BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 booster dose after primary COVID-19 vaccination. We also examined the vaccine-induced antibody profiles of 15 maternal:cord dyads at delivery. RESULTS: Receipt of a booster dose during pregnancy resulted in increased IgG1 against Omicron Spike (post-primary vaccination vs post-booster, p = 0.03). Pregnant and lactating individuals exhibited equivalent Spike-specific total IgG1, IgM and IgA levels and neutralizing titers against Omicron compared to nonpregnant women. Subtle differences in Fc-receptor binding and antibody subclass profiles were observed in the immune response to a booster dose in pregnant compared to nonpregnant individuals. Analysis of maternal and cord antibody profiles at delivery demonstrated equivalent total Spike-specific IgG1 in maternal and cord blood, yet higher Spike-specific FcγR3a-binding antibodies in the cord relative to maternal blood (p = 0.002), consistent with preferential transfer of highly functional IgG. Spike-specific IgG1 levels in the cord were positively correlated with time elapsed since receipt of the booster dose (Spearman R 0.574, p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that receipt of a booster dose during pregnancy induces a robust Spike-specific humoral immune response, including against Omicron. If boosting occurs in the third trimester, higher Spike-specific cord IgG1 levels are achieved with greater time elapsed between receipt of the booster and delivery. Receipt of a booster dose has the potential to augment maternal and neonatal immunity.

11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 907343, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933692

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the high level of protection against severe COVID-19 provided by the currently available vaccines some breakthrough infections occur. Until now, there is no information whether a potential risk of a breakthrough infection can be inferred from the level of antibodies after booster vaccination. Methods: Levels of binding antibodies and neutralization capacity after the first, one and six month after the second, and one month after the third (booster) vaccination against COVID-19 were measured in serum samples from 1391 healthcare workers at the University Hospital Essen. Demographics, vaccination scheme, pre-infection antibody titers and neutralization capacity were compared between individuals with and without breakthrough infections. Results: The risk of developing an Omicron breakthrough infection was independent of vaccination scheme, sex, body mass index, smoking status or pre-existing conditions. In participants with low pre-infection anti-spike antibodies (≤ 2641.0 BAU/ml) and weaker neutralization capacity (≤ 65.9%) against Omicron one month after the booster vaccination the risk for developing an Omicron infection was 10-fold increased (P = 0.001; 95% confidence interval, 2.36 - 47.55). Conclusion: Routine testing of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and surrogate virus neutralization can quantify vaccine-induced humoral immune response and may help to identify subjects who are at risk for a breakthrough infection. The establishment of thresholds for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels identifying "non"-, "low" and "high"-responders may be used as an indication for re-vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2
13.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 33, 2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multi-types COVID-19 vaccines have shown safety and efficacy against COVID-19 in adults. Although current guidelines encourage people living with HIV (PLWH) to take COVID-19 vaccines, whether their immune response to COVID-19 vaccines is distinct from HIV-free individuals is still unclear. METHODS: Between March to June 2021, 48 PLWH and 40 HNC, aged 18 to 59 years, were enrolled in the study in Wuchang district of Wuhan city. All of them received inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (Sinopharm, WIBP-CorV, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd) at day 0 and the second dose at day 28. The primary safety outcome was the combined adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection. The primary immunogenicity outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) responses by chemiluminescence and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies responses by ELISA and colloidal gold at baseline (day 0), day 14, day 28, day 42, and day 70. RESULTS: In total, the study included 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who finished 70 days' follow-up. The frequency of adverse reactions to the first and second dose was not different between PLWH (30% and 11%) vs. HNC (32% and 24%). NAbs responses among PLWH peaked at day 70, while among HNC peaked at day 42. At day 42, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) and seroconversion rate of nAbs among PLWH were 4.46 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (95% CI 3.18-5.87) and 26% (95% CI 14-41), which were lower than that among HNC [GMC (18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33), seroconversion rate (63%, 95% CI 44-79)]. IgG responses among both PLWH and HNC peaked at day 70. At day 70, the geometric mean ELISA units (GMEU) and seroconversion rate of IgG among PLWH were 0.193 ELISA units (EU)/mL (95% CI 0.119-0.313) and 51% (95% CI 34-69), which was lower than that among HNC [GMEU (0.379 EU/mL, 95% CI 0.224-0.653), seroconversion rate (86%, 95% CI 64-97)]. There were no serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Early humoral immune response to the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was weaker and delayed among the PLWH population than that among HNC. This observation remained consistent regardless of a high CD4 count with effective antiretroviral therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The immunogenicity of different COVID-19 vaccine regimens and combinations in naïve and convalescent individuals has not been formally tested in controlled studies, and real-life observational studies are scarce. METHODS: We assessed the SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination-induced immunity of 697 hospital workers at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf between 17 and 31 January 2022. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anti-NC-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies indicating prior infection was 9.8% (n = 68) and thus lower than the seroprevalence in the general population. All vaccinated individuals had detectable anti-S1-RBD-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (median AU/mL [IQR]: 13,891 [8505-23,543]), indicating strong protection against severe COVID-19. Individuals who received three COVID-19 vaccine doses (median AU/mL [IQR]: 13,856 [8635-22,705]) and those who resolved a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and had received two COVID-19 vaccine doses (median AU/mL [IQR] 13,409 [6934-25,000]) exhibited the strongest humoral immune responses. CONCLUSIONS: The current study indicates that three exposures to the viral spike protein by either SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 vaccination are necessary to elicit particularly strong humoral immune responses, which supports current vaccination recommendations.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917857

ABSTRACT

Since the end of December 2020, it has been possible to vaccinate against COVID-19. Our aim was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the vaccines available at the time of the mass vaccination program in Poland and also to look into the most common adverse side effects. Patients' anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies levels were checked before vaccination and after the first and after the second/last dose by the anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (IgG) (EUROIMMUN MedicinischeLabordiagnostica AG; Luebeck; Germany) test. Before each blood collection, all patients filled out a questionnaire regarding experienced side effects. We observed that 100% of patients responded to the vaccinations. After the first dose, convalescents had much higher levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than naive patients, although after the second dose, 61 out of 162 convalescents (37.7%) had lower results than before. The comparison of immunological responses in the convalescents group after the first dose and in the naive group after the second dose showed that convalescents had higher antibody titers, which may suggest the possibility of changing the vaccination schedule for convalescents. The highest antibody titers after both the first and second doses were observed after Moderna shots. Fever was identified as a significant factor regarding higher levels of antibodies after the first and second doses of the vaccine.

16.
Heliyon ; 8(7): e09863, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914442

ABSTRACT

Background: A robust efficiency of mRNA vaccines against coronavirus disease-2019 has been demonstrated, however, the intended long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 has been challenged by the waning humoral and cellular immunity over time, leading to a third vaccination dose recommendation for immunocompetent individuals, six months after completion of primary mRNA vaccination. Methods: We here measured humoral responses via an immunoassay measuring SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses using Elispot for interferon-γ 1- and 8- months post full BNT162b2 vaccination, in 10 health-care professionals. To explore whether the declining abundance of coronavirus-specific T-cells (CoV-2-STs) truly reflects decreased capacity for viral control, rather than the attenuating viral stimulus over time, we modeled ex vivo the T-cellular response upon viral challenge in fully vaccinated immunocompetent individuals, 1- and 8-months post BNT162b2. Findings: Notwithstanding the declining CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies and CoV-2-STs, re-challenged CoV-2-STs, 1- and 8-months post vaccination, presented similar functional characteristics including high cytotoxicity against both the unmutated virus and the delta variant. Interpretation: These findings suggest robust and sustained cellular immune response upon SARS-CοV-2 antigen exposure, 8 months post mRNA vaccination, despite declining CοV-2-STs over time in the presence of an attenuating viral stimulus.

17.
mBio ; : e0157722, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909595

ABSTRACT

Persistent SARS-CoV-2 replication and systemic dissemination are linked to increased COVID-19 disease severity and mortality. However, the precise immune profiles that track with enhanced viral clearance, particularly from systemic RNAemia, remain incompletely defined. To define whether antibody characteristics, specificities, or functions that emerge during natural infection are linked to accelerated containment of viral replication, we examined the relationship of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune evolution in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNAemia, which is tightly associated with disease severity and death. On presentation to the emergency department, S-specific IgG3, IgA1, and Fc-γ-receptor (Fcγ R) binding antibodies were all inversely associated with higher baseline plasma RNAemia. Importantly, the rapid development of spike (S) and its subunit (S1/S2/receptor binding domain)-specific IgG, especially FcγR binding activity, were associated with clearance of RNAemia. These results point to a potentially critical and direct role for SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune clearance on viral dissemination, persistence, and disease outcome, providing novel insights for the development of more effective therapeutics to resolve COVID-19. IMPORTANCE We showed that persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is an independent predictor of severe COVID-19. We observed that SARS-CoV-2-targeted antibody maturation, specifically Fc-effector functions rather than neutralization, was strongly linked with the ability to rapidly clear viremia. This highlights the critical role of key humoral features in preventing viral dissemination or accelerating viremia clearance and provides insights for the design of next-generation monoclonal therapeutics. The main key points will be that (i) persistent SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNAemia independently predicts severe COVID-19 and (ii) specific humoral immune functions play a critical role in halting viral dissemination and controlling COVID-19 disease progression.

18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 876533, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903013

ABSTRACT

Background: Safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19 are critical for preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but little is known about the humoral immune response more than 9 months after vaccination. We aimed to assess the humoral immune response after the first, second, and third (booster) doses of BNT162b2 vaccine in SARS-CoV-2 naïve and previously infected healthcare professionals (HCP) and the humoral immune response after infection in vaccinated HCP. Methods: We measured anti-spike (anti-S) and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies at different time points up to 12 months in the sera of 300 HCP who had received two or three doses of BNT162b2 vaccine. Mixed-model analyses were used to assess anti-S antibody dynamics and to determine their predictors (age, sex, BMI, and previous infection). Results: Naïve individuals had statistically lower anti-S antibody concentrations after the first dose (median 253 BAU/ml) than previously infected individuals (median 3648 BAU/ml). After the second dose, anti-S antibody concentrations increased in naïve individuals (median 3216 BAU/ml), whereas the second dose did not significantly increase concentrations in previously infected individuals (median 4503 BAU/ml). The third dose resulted in an additional increase in concentrations (median 4844 BAU/ml in naïve and median 5845 BAU/ml in previously infected individuals). Anti-S antibody concentrations steadily decreased after the second dose and after the third dose in naïve and previously infected individuals. In addition, we found that age had an effect on the humoral immune response. Younger individuals had higher anti-S antibody concentrations after the first and second doses. After infection with the new variant Omicron, a further increase in anti-S antibody concentrations to a median value of 4794 BAU/ml was observed in three times vaccinated HCP whose anti-S antibody concentrations were relatively high before infection (median 2141 BAU/ml). Our study also showed that individuals with systemic adverse events achieved higher anti-S antibody concentrations. Conclusion: In this study, significant differences in humoral immune responses to BNT162b2 vaccine were observed between naïve and previously infected individuals, with age playing an important role, suggesting that a modified vaccination schedule should be practiced in previously infected individuals. In addition, we showed that the high anti-S antibodies were not protective against new variants of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(9): 4533-4538, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885414

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants could induce immune escape by mutations of the spike protein which are threatening to weaken vaccine efficacy. A booster vaccination is expected to increase the humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2 variants in the population. We showed that immunization with two doses of wild type receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein, and booster vaccination with wild type or variant RBD protein all significantly increased binding and neutralizing antibody titers against wild type SARS-CoV-2 and its variants in mice. Only the booster immunization by Omicron (BA.1)RBD induced a strong antibody titer against the omicron virus strain and comparable antibody titers against all the other virus strains. These findings might shed the light on coronavirus disease 2019 booster immunogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination
20.
Vaccines ; 10(5):17, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884453

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the best way to limit the extent of the COVID pandemic. Knowledge of the duration of the immune response will allow the planning of a vaccination protocol. This study aims to validate the complete (humoral and cellular) immune responses over time in large population groups following the full vaccination of healthcare professionals in real-life conditions and to assess the relationship between antibody levels and T-cell activity in relation to the characteristics of the study group. The samples for the study were obtained from volunteers (staff of two hospitals) on three occasions: before vaccination, T0, then 4-9 weeks after full vaccination (two doses BNT162b2), T1, and 7-9 months after vaccination, T2. The humoral response was investigated by the titre of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies to S1 protein. Assays were performed three times at intervals. The cellular response was assessed in a subgroup of 189 subjects by QuanT-Cell SARS-CoV-2 (IGRA). The assay was performed once. A group of 344 subjects fully vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine were included in the study. The humoral response was observed in 100% of subjects at both 4-7 weeks and 7-9 months, but antibody titres fell by almost 90% in this interval. The cellular response was observed in 94% (177/189) of subjects 7-9 months after the second dose of vaccine. In subjects with a negative cellular response, eight out of 12 smoked. A factor associated with greater immunogenicity of vaccination was past SARS-CoV-2 infection. The administration of full BNT162b2 vaccination (two doses) induces humoral and cellular responses detectable even more than six months after vaccination. Smoking may be a factor associated with impaired cellular response to vaccination.

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