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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(5)2023 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236117

ABSTRACT

There is limited information on the kinetics of the humoral response elicited by a fourth dose with a heterologous mRNA1273 booster in patients who previously received a third dose with BNT162b2 and two doses of BBIBP-CorV as the primary regimen. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the humoral response using Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (anti-S-RBD) of 452 healthcare workers (HCWs) in a private laboratory in Lima, Peru at 21, 120, 210, and 300 days after a third dose with a BNT162b2 heterologous booster in HCW previously immunized with two doses of BBIBP-CorV, depending on whether or not they received a fourth dose with the mRNA1273 heterologous vaccine and on the history of previous SARS infection -CoV-2. Of the 452 HCWs, 204 (45.13%) were previously infected (PI) with SARS-CoV-2, and 215 (47.57%) received a fourth dose with a heterologous mRNA-1273 booster. A total of 100% of HCWs presented positive anti-S-RBD 300 days after the third dose. In HCWs receiving a fourth dose, GMTs 2.3 and 1.6 times higher than controls were observed 30 and 120 days after the fourth dose. No statistically significant differences in anti-S-RBD titers were observed in those HCWs PI and NPI during the follow-up period. We observed that HCWs who received a fourth dose with the mRNA1273 and those previously infected after the third dose with BNT162b2 (during the Omicron wave) presented higher anti-S-RBD titers (5734 and 3428 U/mL, respectively). Further studies are required to determine whether patients infected after the third dose need a fourth dose.

2.
Vaccine ; 41(25): 3701-3709, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Within-host models describe the dynamics of immune cells when encountering a pathogen, and how these dynamics can lead to an individual-specific immune response. This systematic review aims to summarize which within-host methodology has been used to study and quantify antibody kinetics after infection or vaccination. In particular, we focus on data-driven and theory-driven mechanistic models. MATERIALS: PubMed and Web of Science databases were used to identify eligible papers published until May 2022. Eligible publications included those studying mathematical models that measure antibody kinetics as the primary outcome (ranging from phenomenological to mechanistic models). RESULTS: We identified 78 eligible publications, of which 8 relied on an Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)-based modelling approach to describe antibody kinetics after vaccination, and 12 studies used such models in the context of humoral immunity induced by natural infection. Mechanistic modeling studies were summarized in terms of type of study, sample size, measurements collected, antibody half-life, compartments and parameters included, inferential or analytical method, and model selection. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the importance of investigating antibody kinetics and underlying mechanisms of (waning of) the humoral immunity, few publications explicitly account for this in a mathematical model. In particular, most research focuses on phenomenological rather than mechanistic models. The limited information on the age groups or other risk factors that might impact antibody kinetics, as well as a lack of experimental or observational data remain important concerns regarding the interpretation of mathematical modeling results. We reviewed the similarities between the kinetics following vaccination and infection, emphasising that it may be worth translating some features from one setting to another. However, we also stress that some biological mechanisms need to be distinguished. We found that data-driven mechanistic models tend to be more simplistic, and theory-driven approaches lack representative data to validate model results.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Vaccination , Immunity, Humoral , Models, Theoretical
3.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1870, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244935

ABSTRACT

BackgroundVaccination remains essential in preventing morbidity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. We previously showed that >10mg/day prednisolone and methotrexate use were associated with reduced antibody concentrations four weeks after primary vaccination in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) [1].ObjectivesHere, we performed a follow-up study to measure the decay of antibody concentrations over time and the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 booster vaccination.MethodsGCA/PMR patients included in the primary vaccination (BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) study were asked again to donate blood samples six months after primary vaccination (n=24) and one month after booster vaccination (n=46, BNT162b2 or mRNA1273). Data were compared to that of age-, sex-, and vaccine-matched controls (n=58 and n=42, respectively).ResultsAntibody concentrations decreased faster over time in GCA/PMR patients than in controls, but this decrease was not associated with treatment during primary vaccination. Post-booster antibody concentrations were comparable between patients and controls. Antibody concentrations post booster vaccination associated strongly with antibody concentrations post primary vaccination, but not with treatment during booster vaccination. However, the fold-change of post-booster vaccination showed a slight negative correlation with the post-primary vaccine antibodies.ConclusionThese results indicate that patients with impaired vaccine responses after primary vaccination, have slightly stronger increases in humoral immunity after booster vaccination, but this is not enough to reach a similar protection. The decrease in humoral immunity, and subsequent increase after booster vaccination, is likely not impacted by prednisolone or methotrexate treatment. Rather, these treatments put the patients at an immunogenic disadvantage during primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, which is not fully repaired by a single booster vaccination. This longitudinal study in GCA/PMR patients stresses the importance of repeat booster vaccination for patients that used >10mg/day prednisolone or methotrexate during primary vaccination.Reference[1]van Sleen Y, van der Geest, Kornelis SM, Reitsema RD, Esen I, Terpstra JH, Raveling-Eelsing E, et al. Humoral and cellular SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in patients with giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. RMD open 2022;8(2):e002479.Figure 1.Acknowledgements:NIL.Disclosure of InterestsYannick van Sleen: None declared, Kornelis van der Geest Speakers bureau: Speaker fees from Roche, Grant/research support from: Grant support from Abbvie, Annemarie Buisman: None declared, Maria Sandovici: None declared, Debbie van Baarle: None declared, Elisabeth Brouwer: None declared.

4.
Bioscientia Medicina ; 7(3):3173-3177, 2023.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-20241678

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 infection can cause an exaggerated immune response. This immune response is associated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokines, especially interleukin-6 (IL-6). High IL-6 levels are found in the acute stage of COVID-19, and IL-6 can induce an excessive humoral inflammatory response. This study aimed to provide an overview of IL-6 levels in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital, Padang, Indonesia. Methods: Descriptive observational study of 102 research subjects. Observations on sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data were carried out in this study. Univariate analysis was carried out using SPSS version 25. Results: Patients with symptom onset <7 days had higher IL-6 levels than those with an onset of more than 7 days. Patients with critical degrees have the highest IL-6 levels compared to moderate and severe degrees. Patients with more than 1 comorbid had higher IL-6 levels than patients who had no comorbid or only had 1 comorbid. Patients with <21 days of treatment had higher IL-6 levels than patients with more than 21 days of treatment. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients at Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital, Padang, Indonesia, with an onset of less than 7 days, a critical degree, and more than 1 comorbidity have higher IL-6 levels.

5.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(7 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238091

ABSTRACT

Introduction Patients with hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM), experience suboptimal responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) are precursors to MM and exhibit altered immune cell composition and function. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the subsequent population-wide vaccination represent an opportunity to study the real-life immune response to a common antigen. Here, we present updated results from the IMPACT study, a study we launched in November 2020 to characterize the effect of plasma cell premalignancy on response to SARS-CoV2 vaccination (vx). Methods We performed: (i) ELISA for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies on 1,887 peripheral blood (PB) samples (237 healthy donors (HD), and 550 MGUS, 947 SMM, and 153 MM patients) drawn preand post-vx;(ii) single-cell RNA, T cell receptor (TCR), and B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing (10x Genomics) on 224 PB samples (26 HD, and 20 MGUS, 48 SMM, and 24 MM patients) drawn preand post-vx;(iii) plasma cytokine profiling (Olink) on 106 PB samples (32 HD, and 38 MGUS and 36 SMM patients) drawn pre- and post-vx;and (iv) bulk TCR sequencing (Adaptive Biotechnologies) on 8 PB samples from 4 patients (2 MGUS, 2 SMM) drawn pre- and post-vx. Results Patients with MGUS and SMM achieved comparable antibody titers to HD two months post-vx. However, patient titers waned significantly faster, and 4 months post-vx we observed significantly lower titers in both MGUS (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p=0.030) and SMM (p=0.010). These results indicate impaired humoral immune response in patients with MGUS and SMM.At baseline, the TCR repertoire was significantly less diverse in patients with SMM compared to HD (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p=0.039), while no significant difference was observed in the BCR repertoire (p=0.095). Interestingly, a significant increase in TCR repertoire diversity was observed post-vx in patients with SMM (paired t-test, p=0.014), indicating rare T cell clone recruitment in response to vaccination. In both HD and patients, recruited clones showed upregulation of genes associated with CD4+ naive and memory T cells, suggesting preservation of the T cell response in SMM, which was confirmed by bulk TCR-sequencing in 4 patients.Lastly, by cytokine profiling, we observed a defect in IL-1beta and IL-18 induction post-vx in patients with SMM compared to HD (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p=0.047 and p=0.015, respectively), two key monocyte-derived mediators of acute inflammation, suggesting an altered innate immune response as well. Conclusion Taken together, our findings highlight that despite the absence of clinical manifestations, plasma cell premalignancy is associated with defects in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, patients with plasma cell premalignancy may require adjusted vaccination strategies for optimal immunization.

6.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1869, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20238086

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAmid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis, two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have benefited most people worldwide. While healthy people can acquire sufficient humoral immunity against COVID-19 even in the elderly by vaccination with three doses of vaccine., recent studies have shown that complex factors other than age, including the type of vaccines and immunosuppressive drugs, are associated with immunogenicity in patients with rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD). Identifying factors that contribute to the vulnerability of those patients to acquire not only humoral but also cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2 despite multiple vaccinations is crucial for establishing an appropriate booster vaccine strategy.ObjectivesTo assess humoral,and T cell immune responses after third doses of mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.MethodsThis prospective observational study included consecutive RMD patients treated with immunosuppressant who received three doses of mRNA vaccines including BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273. Blood samples were obtained 2-6 weeks after second and third dose of mRNA vaccines. We measured neutralizing antibody titres, which against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and seroconversion rates to evaluate the humoral responses. We also assessed T-cell immunity responses using interferon releasing assay against SARS-CoV-2.ResultsA total of 586 patients with RMD treated with mmunosuppressive treatments were enrolled. The mean age was 54 years, and 70% of the patients were female. Seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibody titres after third vaccination of SARS-CoV-2 were significantly higher compared to those after second vaccination (seroconversion rate, 94.5% vs 83.6%, p<0.001;titres of neutralizing antibody, 48.2 IU/mL vs 11.0 IU/mL, p<0.001, respectively). Interferon releasing assay after third vaccinations demonstrated that T cell reaction against SARS-CoV-2 was also increased from that of second vaccination (interferon for antigen 1, 1.11.9 vs 0.61.9, p=0.004,interferon for antigen 2, 1.72.6 vs 0.82.3, p=0.004). Humoral and cellular immunogenicity did not differ between the types of third vaccination including full dose of BNT162 and half dose of mRNA1273.(neutralizing antibody titers, 47.8±76.1 IU/mL vs 49.0±60.1 IU/mL, p<0.001;interferon for antigen 1, 1.12.0 vs 1.01.5, p=0.004, respectively). Attenuated humoral response to third vaccination was associated with BNT162b2 as second vaccination age (>60 years old), glucocorticoid (equivalent to prednisolone > 7.5 mg/day), and immunosuppressant use including mycophenolate, and rituximab. On another front, use of mycophenolate and abatacept or tacrolimus but not rituximab were identified as negative factors for T-cell reactions against SARS-CoV-2. Although 53 patients (9.0%) who had been immunised with third-vaccination contracted COVID-19 during Omicron pandemic phase, no one developed severe pulmonary disease that required corticosteroid therapy.ConclusionOur results demonstrated third mRNA vaccination booster of SARS-CoV-2 contributed to restore both humeral and cellular immunity in RMD patients with immunosuppressants. We also identified that certain immunosuppressive therapy with older RMD patients having BNT162b2 as a second vaccination may need additional booster vaccination.Reference[1]Furer V, Eviatar T, Freund T, et al. Ann Rheum Dis. 2022 Nov;81(11):1594-1602. doi: 10.1136/ard-2022-222550.Acknowledgements:NIL.Disclosure of InterestsNone Declared.

7.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1868-1869, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20237956

ABSTRACT

BackgroundUnderstanding the dynamics of humoral immunity after COVID-19 vaccination is crucial in developing vaccination strategies. Antibody response patterns are more complex in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because of their underlying autoimmunity and immunosuppressive medications. The kinetics of vaccine response in RA patients are not well understood.ObjectivesTo construct a model of antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with RA.MethodsTwo patient groups were included for the study. The first group was composed of RA patients who were enrolled for influenza vaccination study between Oct 6, 2021 and November 3, 2021, in whom serial serum samples were obtained 0, 4, 16 weeks after vaccination. The second group was consecutively enrolled from outpatient clinic between October 6, 2021 and June 3, 2022, in whom serum sample was obtained once. After collecting data on demographics, vaccination and infection history of COVID-19 were obtained by self-report via questionnaire and data from Korean center for disease control. We then measured antibody titers against receptor binding domain of spike protein (anti-RBD) and nucleocapsid (anti-N), using Chemiluminescence microparticle immunosaasy (Abbott, USA) and Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Roche, Germany) respectively. The anti-RBD titer was log-transformed to improve normality. Time from vaccination and log of anti-RBD titer was modeled using fractional polynomial. Covariates including age, sex, BMI, underlying disease and immunosuppressive drugs were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations to account for repeated measured from a subject.ResultsA total of 736 patients (1042 samples) were enrolled. After excluding patients who experienced COVID-19 infection before sampling (n=84), those unvaccinated (n=44) and uncertain COVID-19 infection history (n=59), the data on 778 samples from 549 patients were analyzed (Group 1: 125, Group 2: 424). Antibody titer reached peak at 12 days after vaccination and decreased exponentially (Figure 1) which fell to 36.5% from peak after 2 months. Compared to the first vaccination, the 3rd and 4th vaccination significantly shifted anti-RBD antibody response curve (28 times, 95% CI 4~195;32 times 95% CI 4~234, respectively). However, there was no significant shift after the 4th vaccination from the 3rd vaccination (p=0.6405). Multivariable analysis showed that number of vaccinations and sulfasalazine (coefficient: 0.40, 95% CI 0.12~0.68) increased vaccine response but age (coefficient: -0.03, 95% CI -0.04~-0.02), abatacept (coefficient: -2.07, 95% CI -3.30~-0.84) and, JAK inhibitor (coefficient: -0.82, 95% CI -1.34~-0.31) decreased vaccine response.ConclusionAnti-RBD response to COVID-19 vaccination showed a peak at 12 days after vaccination and then exponentially decreased in patient with RA. The antibody response is affected by age and medications used for the treatment of RA.Table 1.ln[RBD (U/ml)]coefficient (univariable)95% CIp-valuecoefficient (multivariable)95% CIp-valuesex (female)0.17-0.22, 0.550.393---age-0.02-0.03, -0.01<.001**-0.03-0.04, -0.02<.001**DM0.11-0.27, 0.500.568---HTN-0.38-0.69, -0.070.018*---CKD0.680.07, 1.290.030*---RA duration (yr)-0.04-0.06, -0.010.001**---Pd (mg/d)-0.06-0.11, 0.000.035*---MTX use-0.23-0.52, 0.050.105---HCQ use0.01-0.28, 0.290.965---SSZ use0.450.07, 0.840.022*0.400.12,0.680.005**LEF use0.00-0.37, 0.370.988---TNF inhibitors use0.29-0.16, 0.730.208---Abatacept use-2.07-3.14, -0.99<.001**-2.07-3.30, -0.840.001**JAK inhibitors use-0.88-1.52, -0.240.007**-0.82-1.34, -0.310.002**Time (months)log(t)-1.96-2.37, -1.54<.001**-1.90-2.29, -1.50<.001**t

8.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1912, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236893

ABSTRACT

BackgroundVaccine-induced immunity is very important for controlling the COVID-19 infection. The vaccination supports humoral and cellular immunity, and this is one of the main strategy for us. Various vaccines approved in the countries have been shown to reduce infection rates, severity, and mortality.ObjectivesWe aimed to compare humoral and cellular immune responses after homologous or heterologous vaccination among patients with aiRMDs at their third vaccination with BNT162b2 or with two vaccinations followed by COVID-19 infection. We detected the anti-SARS-CoV2 antibody levels and measured the SARS-CoV-2 reactive B-, or T-cell mediated immunity in aiRMDs receiving homologous (Hom.), heterologous (Het.) vaccines or became infected (Inf.).MethodsA single center observational study evaluated immunogenicity and safety of the third dose vaccines or after two-dose regimen of vaccine and COVID infection in patients with aiRMDs. Neutralizing anti-RBD antibodies and specific T-cell response were measured.ResultsWe showed that following 4 months of the booster vaccination with the third dose of mRNA-based vaccine or after COVID infection, the positive (>21.8 BAU/mL) neutralizing anti-RBD IgG antibody response was outstanding in all three patient groups, 95.5%, 100% and 100% of the homologous and heterologous as well as the SARS-CoV-2 infected groups. Taken together booster vaccinations or SARS-CoV-2 infection after completing 2 doses of the vaccination can lead to the production of neutralizing antibodies still protective in RMD cases after 4 months of the third antigen exposition. The booster vaccination reduces the frequency of hospital admissions and mortality with ai RMDs. The vaccinations are effective independently from the type of vaccine, the SARS-CoV-2 specific memory B-cell populations showed a statistically not significant but lower frequency in the infection group. Clinical activity of aiRMDs was not increased following booster vaccination.ConclusionPatients, who received a heterologous booster vaccine had a higher level of peripheral memory B-cells compared to those who had COVID-19 infection. Biologic therapy decreased the level of B-cells. Patients with a disease duration of more than 10 years had higher level of CD8+TNF-α+ and CD8+IFN-γ+ T-cells compared to patients who were diagnosed less than 10 years ago. The third booster mRNA-based vaccine was as much effective as in the homologous and heterologous patients groups compared who had COVID infection.References[1] Szebeni, G.J.;Gemes, N.;Honfi, D.;Szabo, E.;Neuperger, P.;Balog, J.A.;Nagy, L.I.;Szekanecz, Z.;Puskas, L.G.;Toldi, G.;et al. Humoral and Cellular Immunogenicity and Safety of Five Different SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines in Patients With Autoimmune Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases in Remission or With Low Disease Activity and in Healthy Controls: A Single Center Study. Front. Immunol. 2022, 13, 846248.[2]Honfi, D.;Gémes, N.;Szabó, E.;Neuperger, P.;Balog, J.Á.;Nagy, L.I.;Toldi, G.;Puskás, L.G.;Szebeni, G.J.;Balog, A. Comparison of Homologous and Heterologous Booster SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Autoimmune Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 11411Acknowledgements:NIL.Disclosure of InterestsNone Declared.

9.
Mikrobiolohichnyi Zhurnal ; 85(1):36-45, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236345

ABSTRACT

Within the conditions of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, when many questions regarding prevention and treatment strategies remain unsolved and the search for the best antiviral agents is underway, attention should be paid to the role of trace elements zinc and selenium in increasing the body's resistance to viral infections and their direct antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Experimental data show that trace elements zinc and selenium not only actthrough regulating the immune response at all levels of humoral and cellular immunity, but also can play a significant role in adjuvant therapy for viral diseases. This is especially relevant in the case of COVID-19. Studies of the direct antiviral effect of these micro-elements testify to its 3 main ways to SARS-Cov-2: I - counteraction to virus replication and its transcription through: (i) their covalent binding to the SH-group of the cysteine of the main protease M(Pro) of the virus;(ii) inhibition of its RNA polymerase activity by zinc;II - preventing the penetration of the virus into cells due to blocking SH-groups of protein disulfide isomerase (RDI) of the protein of its spikes (peplomers);III - decreasing the adsorption capacity of the virus due to the blocking of the electrostatic interaction of SARS-CoV-2 peplomers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-2) in ultra-low, uncharacteristic oxidation states (Zn+1and Se-2). The intensity of the antiviral action of these trace elements may depend on their chemical form. It was found that zinc citrate (a five-membered complex of zinc with citric acid) and monoselenium citric acid obtained with the help of nanotechnology have a greater intensity of action and higher chemical purity. Taking into account the immunostimulating and direct antiviral effect of zinc and selenium, their use in the form of pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements should be considered as adjunctive therapy for SARS-CoV-2 in patients, or as a preventive strategy for uninfected people from risk groups during the spread of COVID-19.Copyright © Publisher PH <<Akademperiodyka>> of the NAS of Ukraine, 2023.

10.
Perfusion ; 38(1 Supplement):162-163, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234706

ABSTRACT

Objectives: At the beginning of the pandemic, it was believed that severe SARS-CoV2 infection would induce lifelong immunity and that reinfections would be unlikely. However, several cases of reinfection were documented in previously infected patient and the waning humoral immunity has raised significant concerns. Accordingly, long-term and durable vaccineinduce antibody protection against infection have also become a challenge, as several breakthroughs of COVID-19 have been identified in individuals partially or fully vaccinated. This study describes the incidence, the characteristics of severe COVID-19 infections requiring ECMO occurred after vaccination and the presence of side effects related to the vaccine. Method(s): EuroECMO COVID is a prospective, multicenter, observational study, developed by the EuroELSO, based on data from patients aged >=16 years who received ECMO support for refractory COVID-19 during the pandemic in 204 centers. The analysis investigates the survival of vaccinated patient, the associations between management-related variables, the incidence of vaccination during the different pandemic phases, the type of vaccines and the possible side effects. Result(s): Immunosuppressed patients are susceptible to reinfection even after being naturally infected or receiving a full vaccination. Ineffective antibody production, due to relatively ineffective vaccines, inadequate number of doses or the time after vaccination are involved in the pathogenesis of postvaccination infections. This population was found to have a partial immunity due to an inadequate number of doses and an overlapped time from vaccination and SARS-CoV2 incubation with PCR results after being vaccinated. Several manifestations of SARS-CoV2 infection are similar to vaccine-induce side effects and mild symptoms can be presented both as an adverse reaction after vaccination and a result of infection. In this subgroup no side effects were attributable to the vaccine. Conclusion(s): Vaccination does not entirely prevent SARS-CoV2 but will lead to less morbidity and mortality, as demonstrated by less need of ICU and ECMO care. In addition, the partial immunity for inadequate doses of vaccine or through the evolution of new variants demonstrated the importance of further analysis to differentiate the possible causes of waning humoral immunity.

11.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1903, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20233439

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-Cov2 vaccination has been shown to be effective against severe forms of SARS-Cov2 infection. Several studies investigated the humoral and cellular response to SARS-Cov2 vaccines in patients followed for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases under immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory treatments. It has been shown that patients on immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapies have a poor humoral response to the vaccine[1]ObjectivesThe aim of our study was to investigate the humoral response in patients under conventional immunosuppressive and biotherapies compared to healthy controls.MethodsPatients followed for immuno-inflammatory diseases under immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs who received at least one dose of anti- SARS-Cov2 vaccines were included. Quantitative Anti- SARS-Cov2 antibodies (IgM and IgG assay) VIDAS ® were assessed for all patients. Patients were then compared with healthy controls.ResultsWe enrolled 93 blood samples (63 patients with autoimmune and inflammatory disease and 30 healthy controls), the median age was 52 years [Q1 43, Q3 56]. The immuno-inflammatory diseases were: Crohn's disease (n=28), Rheumatoid arthritis (n=9), Hemorrhagic rectocolitis (n=5), Behçet's disease (n=5), Systemic lupus erythematosus (n=4), Sjogren's syndrome (n=3), Sarcoidosis (n=2), Takayasu disease (n=1). All patients continued their treatment during and after vaccination. Nineteen patients were on biotherapies: Infliximab (n=12), Adalimumab (n=3), etanercept (n=2), Ustekinumab (n=1), tocilizimab (n=1). Forty-three patients were on conventional immunosuppressive: azathioprine (n=18), methotrexate (n=16), corticosteroids > 10 mg/d (n=12). All patients had received at least one dose of vaccine: the median number of doses in both groups was 2[1-4] with no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (p=0.2). The vaccines received in the group of patients were mRNA vaccine (n=35) and other type of vaccine (n=28). In the healthy control group, type of vaccine were mRNA (n=13) other type vaccine (n=17). The patient had a lower mean level of Ig G against SARS-Cov2 antibodies (24.64 IU +/- 16.65) comparing to healthy controls (33.05+/- 10) with statically significant difference (p= 0.014). No difference between the 2 groups was noted in Ig G levels according to the history of SARS-Cov2 infection. No difference was found between conventional immunosuppressive drugs and biotherapies regarding to the level of antibodies.ConclusionOur study highlights that patients with autoimmune disease and under immunosuppressive therapy displayed a decrease of humoral response comparing to healthy controls. This finding was reported in several studies, Geisen et al[2] reported that patients with chronic inflammatory condition and receiving TNF alfa blockers had a decreased protection and a low level Ig A against spike. Based on these data, patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases have decreased humoral immunity to SARS-Cov2 and should be encouraged to receive a booster dose of SARS-COv2 vaccine.References[1]Prendecki M, Clarke C, Edwards H, et al. Humoral and T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients receiving immunosuppression. Ann Rheum Dis 2021;80:1322–9. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-220626[2]Geisen UM, Sümbül M, Tran F, et al. Humoral protection to SARS-CoV2 declines faster in patients on TNF alpha blocking therapies. RMD Open 2021;7:e002008. doi:10.1136/rmdopen-2021-002008AcknowledgementsMrs Hajer Mediouni.Disclosure of InterestsNone Declared.

12.
Nieren und Hochdruckkrankheiten Conference ; 52(4), 2023.
Article in German | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232467

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 92 papers. The topics discussed include: cellular and humoral immune responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pediatric kidney recipients;adult outcomes of childhood-onset idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: findings from a health insurance database;the genetic landscape and clinical spectrum of nephronophthisis and related ciliopathies;translational profiling of developing podocytes during glomerulogenesis;MAGED2 is required under hypoxia for cAMP signaling by inhibiting MDM2-dependent endocytosis of G-Alpha-S;high throughput investigation of the metabolic flux of intact cortical kidney tubules;peritoneal membrane junction and solute transporter expression and function in health, CKD and PD;and Function and interaction of coronavirus ion channel proteins.

13.
Cytotherapy ; 25(6 Supplement):S211, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20231957

ABSTRACT

Background & Aim: Immunocompromised patients are susceptible to high-risk opportunistic infections and malignant diseases. If available, most antiviral and antifungal drugs are quite toxic, relatively ineffective, and induce resistance in the long term. Methods, Results & Conclusion(s): We have previously demonstrated the safety of adoptive cell therapy for COVID-19 patients with CD45RA negative cells containing SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells from a donor, chosen based on HLA compatibility and cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools. After finishing a Phase 2 randomized multicenter clinical trial (RELEASE, NCT04578210), we concluded that the infusion is safe, effective, accelerates lymphocyte recovery and shows hallmarks of an immune response. To use adoptive cell therapy to treat COVID-19 it would be necessary to develop a biobank of living drugs. For that, we examined the immune evolution performing a longitudinal analysis from previously SARS-CoV-2 infected and infection- naive individuals covering 21 months from infection. Cellular responses were maintained over time while humoral responses increased after vaccination but were gradually lost. Therefore, the best donors would be recovered individuals and two months after vaccination. We also evaluated the effect of dexamethasone (current standard of care treatment for COVID-19 and other infections involving lymphopenia) and Interleukin-15 (cytokine involved in T-cell maintenance and survival) on CD45RA negative. Dexamethasone did not alter cell functionality, proliferation or phenotype at a clinical-practice concentration, while interleukin-15 increased the memory T-cell and T-regulatory cell activation state, and interferon gamma release. Furthermore, we applied the adoptive passive transfer of CD45RA negative cells containing pathogen-specific memory T-cells to other infectious diseases characterized by sustained lymphopenia. We infused six immunocompromised patients with Cytomegalovirus, BK virus, Aspergillus, and Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease. Patients experienced pathogen clearance, resolution of symptoms and lymphocyte increase. Transient microchimerism was detected in three patients. The use of CD45RA negative cells containing specific memory T cells of a third-party donor for treating severe pathogenic diseases in immunocompromised patients is feasible, safe, and effective, and has an advantage over other cell therapies such as lower costs and a less complex regulatory environment.Copyright © 2023 International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy

14.
Nieren- und Hochdruckkrankheiten ; 52(4):124, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20231859

ABSTRACT

Objective: Humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are reduced in adult kidney recipients. After pediatric kidney transplantation there are only few data available - mostly limited to monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Method(s): Cellular and humoral immune responses have been monitored before and after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pediatric kidney recipients. After in vitro stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 antigen (spike glycoprotein) virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells (SARS-CoV-2-Tvis) have been identified by cytokine flow cytometry. SARS-CoV-2 IgG was measured by CMIA. Result(s): Immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was analyzed in a total of 30 pediatric kidney recipients (age at 1st vaccine dose 5.2 - 17.8 years, median 14.8 years;43% male;30/30 2 vaccine doses;23/30 3 vaccine doses). At time of vaccination 22 patients (73%) received a tacrolimus (Tac)-based immunosuppression combined with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF;n = 15) or everolimus (n = 6) or neither of them (n = 1);3 patients were exposed to cyclosporine A and 5 patients to a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)- free immunosuppression. MMF was used in 18/30 patients. After 1st dose of mRNA vaccine SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detectable in 50% of pediatric kidney recipients, after 2nd dose in 78% and after 3rd dose in 88%. After the 2nd vaccine dose absence of humoral immune response (< 33.8 BAU/ml) was only found in case of MMF use (predominately combined with Tac). Peak IgG values (> 2,080 BAU/ml) were only detected in MMF-free regimens (6/7). Cellmediated response partially differed from humoral response, e. g., in some patients SARS-CoV2-Tvis were found despite lack of virus-specific antibodies. After 1st vaccine dose SARS-CoV-2-Tvis were detectable in 50% of pediatric kidney recipients, after 2nd dose in 92%. After 2nd vaccine dose absence or very low levels of SARS-CoV-2-Tvis (< 0.3 cells/mul) were only found in Tac-based immunosuppressive regimens, whereas higher levels (> 1.3 cells/mul) were exclusively detected in patients with MMFfree medication. Conclusion(s): After pediatric kidney transplantation humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were suboptimal, but more pronounced than in adult kidney recipients. Use of Tac and MMF was associated with impaired immune response to vaccination. SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral response corresponded only partially to cell-mediated response. Additional monitoring of SARS-CoV- 2-Tvis might be recommendable to improve assessment of the individual vaccine response and thereby to personalize the decision on the necessity of further vaccine doses.

15.
Virol J ; 20(1): 106, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity and virulence of the Omicron strain have weakened significantly pathogenesis of Omicron variants. Accumulating data indicated accessory proteins play crucial roles in host immune evasion and virus pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the impact of simultaneous deletion of accessory protein ORF7a, ORF7b and ORF8 on the clinical characteristics and specific immunity in Omicron breakthrough infected patients (BIPs) need to be verified. METHODS: Herein, plasma cytokines were identified using a commercial Multi-cytokine detection kit. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and pseudovirus neutralization assays were utilized to determine the titers of SARS-CoV-2 specific binding antibodies and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to quantify SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells and memory B cells. RESULTS: A local COVID-19 outbreak was caused by the Omicron BA.2 variant, which featured a deletion of 871 base pairs (∆871 BA.2), resulting in the removal of ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8. We found that hospitalized patients with ∆871 BA.2 had significantly shorter hospital stays than those with wild-type (WT) BA.2. Plasma cytokine levels in both ∆871 BA.2 and WT BA.2 patients were within the normal range of reference, and there was no notable difference in the titers of SARS-CoV-2 ancestor or Omicron-specific binding IgG antibodies, neutralizing antibody titers, effector T cells, and memory B cells frequencies between ∆871 BA.2 and WT BA.2 infected adult patients. However, antibody titers in ∆871 BA.2 infected adolescents were higher than in adults. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous deletion of ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8 facilitates the rapid clearance of the BA.2 variant, without impacting cytokine levels or affecting SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral and cellular immunity in Omicron-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay
16.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1192395, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238902

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the humoral immune response towards viral infection and vaccination is instrumental in developing therapeutic tools to fight and restrict the viral spread of global pandemics. Of particular interest are the specificity and breadth of antibody reactivity in order to pinpoint immune dominant epitopes that remain immutable in viral variants. Methods: We used profiling with peptides derived from the Spike surface glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 to compare the antibody reactivity landscapes between patients and different vaccine cohorts. Initial screening was done with peptide microarrays while detailed results and validation data were obtained using peptide ELISA. Results: Overall, antibody patterns turned out to be individually distinct. However, plasma samples of patients conspicuously recognized epitopes covering the fusion peptide region and the connector domain of Spike S2. Both regions are evolutionarily conserved and are targets of antibodies that were shown to inhibit viral infection. Among vaccinees, we discovered an invariant Spike region (amino acids 657-671) N-terminal to the furin cleavage site that elicited a significantly stronger antibody response in AZD1222- and BNT162b2- compared to NVX-CoV2373-vaccinees. Conclusions: Understanding the exact function of antibodies recognizing amino acid region 657-671 of SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein and why nucleic acid-based vaccines elicit different responses from protein-based ones will be helpful for future vaccine design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Furin/metabolism , Immunity, Humoral , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral , Peptides
17.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1146500, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327899

ABSTRACT

Primary antibody deficiencies, such as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), are heterogenous disease entities consisting of primary hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired antibody responses to vaccination and natural infection. CVID is the most common primary immunodeficiency in adults, presenting with recurrent bacterial infections, enteropathy, autoimmune disorders, interstitial lung diseases and increased risk of malignancies. Patients with CVID are recommended to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, but there are relatively few studies investigating humoral and cellular responses to immunization. We studied the dynamics of humoral and cell-mediated immunity responses up to 22 months in 28 patients with primary immunodeficiency and three patients with secondary immunodeficiency receiving ChAdOx1, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines. Despite inadequate humoral response to immunization, we demonstrate a robust T cell activation likely protecting from severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Humans , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , T-Lymphocytes , BNT162 Vaccine , Follow-Up Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1001198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326316

ABSTRACT

Background: There is evidence that the adaptive or acquired immune system is one of the crucial variables in differentiating the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This work aimed to analyze the immunopathological aspects of adaptive immunity that are involved in the progression of this disease. Methods: This is a systematic review based on articles that included experimental evidence from in vitro assays, cohort studies, reviews, cross-sectional and case-control studies from PubMed, SciELO, MEDLINE, and Lilacs databases in English, Portuguese, or Spanish between January 2020 and July 2022. Results: Fifty-six articles were finalized for this review. CD4+ T cells were the most resolutive in the health-disease process compared with B cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes. The predominant subpopulations of T helper lymphocytes (Th) in critically ill patients are Th1, Th2, Th17 (without their main characteristics) and regulatory T cells (Treg), while in mild cases there is an influx of Th1, Th2, Th17 and follicular T helper cells (Tfh). These cells are responsible for the secretion of cytokines, including interleukin (IL) - 6, IL-4, IL-10, IL-7, IL-22, IL-21, IL-15, IL-1α, IL-23, IL-5, IL-13, IL-2, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CXC motivating ligand (CXCL) 8, CXCL9 and tumor growth factor beta (TGF-ß), with the abovementioned first 8 inflammatory mediators related to clinical benefits, while the others to a poor prognosis. Some CD8+ T lymphocyte markers are associated with the severity of the disease, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Among the antibodies produced by SARS-CoV-2, Immunoglobulin (Ig) A stood out due to its potent release associated with a more severe clinical form. Conclusions: It is concluded that through this study it is possible to have a brief overview of the main immunological biomarkers and their function during SARS-CoV-2 infection in particular cell types. In critically ill individuals, adaptive immunity is varied, aberrantly compromised, and late. In particular, the T-cell response is also an essential and necessary component in immunological memory and therefore should be addressed in vaccine formulation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-15 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-13 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cross-Sectional Studies , Critical Illness , Ligands , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-7 , Adaptive Immunity , HLA-DR Antigens , Interleukin-23 , Inflammation Mediators , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Immunoglobulins
19.
Journal of Clinical Rheumatology ; 29(4 Supplement 1):S4-S5, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324507

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Few studies evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of different COVID-19 vaccine platforms in patients with primary Sjogren's Syndrome (pSS). The present study aims to assess the immunogenicity through anti-spike IgG antibodies after the COVID-19 vaccine dose in heterologous groups compared to homologous regimen in patients with pSS. Method(s): These data are from the SAFER study: 'Safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine in rheumatic disease', a real-life phase IV multicenter longitudinal study, evaluating patients since before the first dose. Pregnant women, those with a history of serious adverse events prior to any vaccine, and those with other causes of immunosuppression were excluded. Patients with pSS > 18 years, classified according to ACR/EULAR 2016 classification criteria were included. Antibodies against the Receptor Binding Domain - RBD portion of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (IgG-S) were measured by chemiluminescence (Architect SARS-CoV-2 Quanti II, Abbott), before the first dose and 28 days after the 2nd and 3rd dose. Seropositivity was defined as IgG-Spike titers >=7.1 BAU/mL. Patients received adenoviral vector (ChAdOx1, Astrazeneca), mRNA (Pfizer) or inactivated SARS-COV-2 (Coronavac). Non-parametric methods were used. The alpha level of significance was set at 5%. Result(s): 56 participants received 3 doses, 46 +/- 11 years old, disease duration 7.62 years, 92.9% female, 41.1% White and 55.4% Mixed. The homologous third-booster dose group (n = 15, all ChAdOx1) and heterologous group (n = 41) were homogeneous for age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, medication and baseline IgG-S median [IQR] titers. After primary vaccination (2 doses) IgG-S median and titers [IQR] were similar in homologous and heterologous groups (373.03 [179.58, 843.92] vs. 473.36 [119.05, 1059.60], p = 0.705). Third-booster dose induced higher IgG-S median [IQR] titers compared to only 2 doses (1229.54 [333.55, 4365.47] vs 464.95 [140.42, 1015.25], p alpha 0.001). Heterologous 3rd-booster induced higher IgG-S median [IQR] titers than homologous scheme with ChAdOx1 (1779.52 [335.83, 4523.89] vs 730.76 [303.37, 1858.98], p = 0.150), Fig 1 and 2, although not statistically significant. Conclusion(s): Third booster dose induced higher humoral immune response compared to two doses whichmay improve protection against COVID-19 in patients with pSS. Although not statistically significant, the response to the heterologous scheme tended to be better than the response to the homologous booster vaccination, which heterologous booster scheme tended to respond better than homologous booster vaccination, which is relevant in this immunosuppressed population. Increasing the sample size will help clarify this issue. .

20.
Journal of Clinical Rheumatology ; 29(4 Supplement 1):S4, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323776

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Patients with immune-mediated diseases achieve lower seroconversion rates to COVID19 vaccines compared to healthy controls. The aim of this study was to assess the SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and T-cell responses after a two-dose regimen of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method(s): Observational study. Patients with RA, >=18 years of age, who were vaccinated according to the Argentine National Health Ministry's vaccination strategy were included. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, neutralizing activity and specific T-cell responses were assessed after the first and second doses. Result(s): A total of 120 RA patients were included. Mostly, homologous regimens were used, including Gam-COVID-Vac (27.5%), ChAdOx1 (24.2%), BBIBP-CorV (22.5%) and BNT162b2 (0.8%), while the most frequent combination of vaccines was Gam-COVID-Vac/mRNA-1273 (21.7%). After the second dose 81.7% presented anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 70.0% neutralizing activity and 65.3% specific T-cell response. The use of BBIBP-CorV, treatment with abatacept (ABA) and rituximab (RTX) were associated with undetectable antibodies and no neutralizing activity after two doses of vaccine. BBIBP-CorV was also associated with the absence of T-cell response. The total incidence of adverse events was 357.1 events/1000 doses: significantly lower with BBIBP-CorV (166.7 events/1000 doses, p alpha 0.02). Conclusion(s): In this cohort of patients with RA who received 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccine, according to the Argentine strategic vaccination planwhich included homologous and heterologous regimens, two of ten did not develop IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2, 70% presented neutralizing activity and 65% specific T-cell response. The use of BBIBP-CorV was associated with deficient humoral and cellular response, while treatment with ABA and RTXaffected the development of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 and neutralizing activity.

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