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1.
Boletim Goiano de Geografia ; 41(27), 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1818547

ABSTRACT

Brazil has favored agribusiness instead of family farming. In the agribusiness production networks, food is not treated as a social right, but rather as a commodity whose primary purpose is to obtain profit. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on the intrinsic relationship between agribusiness expansion and hunger in Brazil. Our starting point are some of the pillars that support food as a commodity, like ultra-processed food and economic concentration in its production and distribution. The methodology was structured according to the basic principles of qualitative research for the construction of a critical analysis. The researchers conclude that in addition to the increase in production and productivity of agribusiness, the researchers have the growth of people without access to food, showing that these processes are sides of the same coin. The researchers also note that although hunger increased exponentially during the COVID-19 pandemic, agri-food businesses and supermarkets were among the most profitable during this period.

2.
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 47, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1815224

ABSTRACT

Rapid rise of population migration is a defining feature of the 21st century due to the impact of climate change, political instability, and socioeconomic downturn. Over the last decade, an increasing number of migrant peoples travel across the Americas to reach the United States seeking asylum or cross the border undocumented in search of economic opportunities. In this journey, migrant people experience violations of their human rights, hunger, illness, violence and have limited access to medical care. In the ‘Divine Comedy’, the Italian poet Dante Alighieri depicts his allegorical pilgrimage across Hell and Purgatory to reach Paradise. More than 700 years after its publication, Dante's poem speaks to the present time and the perilious journey of migrant peoples to reach safehavens. By exploring the depths and heights of the human condition, Dante's struggles resonate with the multiple barriers and the unfathomable experiences faced by migrant peoples in transit across South, Central, and North America to reach the United States. Ensuring the safety of migrant peoples across the Americas and elsewhere, and attending to their health needs during their migratory paths represent modern priorities to reduce social injustices and achieving health equity.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(8):4598, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810143

ABSTRACT

Empirical research has aimed to substantiate the institution–food security nexus. However, institutional literature has largely overlooked the relationship between institutions and the sustainable development goal of zero hunger (SDG2). SDG2 is a multidimensional goal that extends beyond food security and requires comprehensive investigation. Therefore, this study explored the role of institutions in promoting SDG2 achievement using a panel dataset spanning 108 countries from 2000 to 2019. The institutional impact was evaluated using worldwide governance indicators, and the International Country Risk Guide (ICRG)’s political risk ratings. Simultaneous equation modeling was used as the estimation technique. According to the results, institutions showed a positive and highly significant association with SDG2 performance. All the dimensions of good governance promoted SDG2 performance. Except for maintaining law and order, all other dimensions of political risk indicators were found to improve SDG2 performance. This study also discovered significant evidence that voice and accountability, as well as the settlement and the prevention of conflicts, had the most substantial influences on SDG2 achievement. In developing countries, improving both the quality of governance and political stability had a comparatively higher impact on SDG2 performance than in developed countries. Furthermore, institutions showed a significant mediating impact on SDG2 performance via agricultural productivity and economic growth. Based on these findings, this study concluded that the pursuit of good governance and inclusive institutions could be instrumental in achieving SDG2.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 22:1-13, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1808357

ABSTRACT

Background An overlooked problem in food and nutrition system analysis is assuring adequate diversity for a healthy diet. Little is known about nutrient diversity in food and nutrition systems and how it transmits to dietary diversity. Nutritional functional diversity (NFD) is a metric that describes diversity in providing nutrients from farm to market and the consumption level. The objective of this study is to determine the NFD score at different stages of the rural food and nutrition system, including household’s agricultural and home production, domestic food processing, purchased food, and diet. It also aims to explore the association between NFD and nutrient adequacy, food security, and anthropometric indicators. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 321 households in 6 villages of Zahedan district. The NFD score was measured at three subsystems (production, processing, and consumption) of the food and nutrition system. Household food security, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and anthropometrics of the household’s head were measured to assess the association between NFD and food and nutrition indicators. Linear and bivariate statistical techniques were applied to study the associations between variables. Results In the rural food and nutrition system, the food purchased from the city plays the main role in the households NFD score. Their contribution to total NFD was twice that of the food items purchased from the village. The NFD score of homestead production and households food processing was found to be five times less than those of food purchased from cities. The food insecure households had significantly lower NFD scores for food purchased from the city and higher NFD scores for purchased food items from the rural market and native wild vegetable consumption. A strong and positive relationship was observed between NFD of food items purchased from the city and households’MAR. No significant association was found between the NFD score of homestead production, processing, and dependent variables, i.e. food insecurity, MAR, and household head anthropometrics. Conclusion NFD score, as a relatively new metric, could help in determining diversity from farm to diet and identifying the gaps to plan appropriate interventions for improving diversity in the local food system.

5.
1st International Conference in Information and Computing Research (ICORE) - Adapting to the New Normal - Advancing Computing Research for a Post-Pandemic Society ; : 90-95, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1806923

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity has been a chronic and significant issue in our society, specifically in low-income areas. Hunger, poor nutrition and health, and early death are only a few of the terrible impacts. Hunger is caused more often than not by a lack of food;rather, it is a matter of figuring out how to make the food that is available, accessible to everybody. Non-profit organization work to alleviate the negative consequences of food insecurity by giving food and services to those who are hungry. This organization rely on the generosity of donors, food donations, to achieve their goals. This paper focuses on creating a mobile and web application called Foodernity with the goal of easing the burden of needy people who require food to survive. This is critical, especially in times of crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic, where most of the people in low-income areas don't have enough budget for their food every day. Furthermore, the application also wants to help in reducing the problem of food waste. The whole process of developing both mobile and web application, in particular, followed the Agile Model's formal and logical processes. This study recommends that the beneficiary to use this application to evaluate its functionality. Those who are hungry or needy people who relies mostly on food donation from the organization will benefit from this application by allowing the donors to give donation to the organization that helps needy people to have access to food.

6.
African Studies Review ; 65(1):41-65, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1805441

ABSTRACT

Advocates of the Green Revolution for Africa (GR4A) argue that the best way to address malnutrition is to incorporate smallholders into the global food economy via value chains involving the use of improved inputs, production technologies, and access to markets. Moseley and Ouedraogo critically assess these tactics using a feminist political ecology lens to analyze GR4A efforts in southwestern Burkina Faso which target female rice farmers. They examine the nature of the GR4A rice value chain, the degree to which a GR4A project is impacting the nutrition of participating women, and the influence of gender roles on GR4A rice project outcomes.

7.
The CPA Journal ; 92(3/4):9-11, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1801568

ABSTRACT

According to the National Council of Nonprofits, the sector employs approximately 12.3 million people and spends more than $826 billion on salaries, benefits, and payroll taxes annually [National Council of Nonprofits (NCN), 2021. "Economic Impact," February 2, 2021, https://bit.ly/3wjgVnT]. [...]these nonprofits create many opportunities to fuel the United States' economic engine: nonprofits consume a wide range of goods and services, ranging from immediate needs (e.g., food, utilities, office supplies, rent) to larger expenses (e.g., computer and medical equipment). According to the Independent Sector survey (2020), only 23% of food pantries were operational during the height of the pandemic and they struggled to survive, leading to profound adverse financial and social implications. NBC News, April 8, 2020, https://nbcnews.to/3tpaspU). Since 2020, food pantries have had to adjust to this new environment with new strategies and activities, focusing on urgent needs and direct emergency assistance.

8.
BMJ ; 377:o987, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1794514

ABSTRACT

Dear prime minister, We wish to make you aware of our concern for the health of Angus Rose, a 52 year old man, who at the time of writing is on day 34 of a hunger strike outside Parliament, consuming only fluids, vitamins, and minerals. 2 Like our fellow scientist colleagues, we are not all in agreement with the tactic of a public hunger strike.3 However, we agree it is essential that the latest scientific evidence on the climate crisis is officially and openly communicated to the cabinet and members of parliament by the government’s chief scientific adviser, just as was done during the height of the covid-19 crisis. The science briefing that convinced Boris Johnson. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-60203674 2 Atwoli L Baqui AH Benfield T. Call for emergency action to limit global temperature increases, restore biodiversity, and protect health.

9.
Gender & Behaviour ; 19(1):17294-17305, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1787025

ABSTRACT

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), fifth objective, calls for gender equality;achieving this will ensure other goals such as Goals 1 (poverty eradication/alleviation), 2 (zero hunger, 3 (healthy lives and promotion of wellbeing for all ages, and 4 (quality education for all) among others. Though not constitutionally established, the office of first ladies is here to stay in Africa, but with some challenges such as lack of direction on the office responsibilities. As a woman, the first lady's role should radiate around quality food affordability, availability and accessibility together with other challenges that impact directly on women. To achieve this, Goals 1, 3 and 4 need to be considered for meaningful sustainable development. Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic that is hunting the global system with a special focus on Africa needs urgent attention when considering women plights in a patriarchal environment. First Ladies have invaluable roles to play so that food security, an area that women are good at could be achieved. Through Goal 5 of the SDGs, and with the adoption of African feminism both food security and COVID-19 will be addressed holistically. Unfortunately, many first ladies are on the neck of their spouses to be a de facto head of government in the form of a cabinet appointment, contract execution, promotion of an unaccounted annual budget. Through the adoption of African feminism and secondary data perspective, this paper examines some likely roles of the first ladies in the age of COVID-19 and food insecurity.

10.
Gender & Behaviour ; 19(1):17453-17466, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1787024

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is here to contend with as a new normal at the global level. The solution to the pandemic is what scientists, politicians, pundits and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are battling with little outcome. Many kinds of literature abound since the outbreak of the epidemic that those who are the main target of this are the ones with comorbidity ailments. The impacts of this contagious disease call for academic interrogation since what brings about this, majorly, is the lack of organic food in the age of genetically modified (GM) food imposed on us. The dictum, healthy profit and unhealthy people are here to stay as long as biotechnologists are after the profit of multinational corporations (MNCs) and to some extent, farmers '. It has been proved that organic food is an agent of anti-hidden hunger and by implication, a source of medicine as against taken medicine as food. This paper intends to adopt an agroecological thesis in the promotion of food security through food sovereignty that is home-made without reliance on importedfood that are sources of compromising immunity, which is a target of COVID19 as documented by some students of development studies, and food and nutrition security (FNS). Relying on secondary data and content analysis approach, a conclusion will be drawn that the COVID-19 vaccine is not only a ruse, but another means to subject developing areas to abject poverty through the importation of one-size-fits-all drugs for the pandemic. A need to promote healthy people as againstfocussing on healthy profit that benefits only MNCs executives and their shareholders against stakeholders in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 719485, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775832

ABSTRACT

The association between hunger and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is less known especially in vulnerable populations receiving HIV care and treatment services. Caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) are vulnerable and likely to experience hunger due to additional economic pressure in caring for OVC. Using data from the community-based, USAID-funded Kizazi Kipya project, this study assesses the association between hunger and ART adherence among caregivers of OVC in Tanzania. HIV positive caregivers enrolled in the project from January to July 2017 were analyzed. The outcome variable was adherence to ART, defined as "not having missed any ART dose in the last 30 days," and household hunger, measured using the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), was the main independent variable. Data analysis included multivariable logistic regression. The study analyzed 11,713 HIV positive caregivers who were on ART at the time of enrollment in the USAID Kizazi Kipya project in 2017. Aged 48.2 years on average, 72.9% of the caregivers were female. While 34.6% were in households with little to no hunger, 59.4 and 6.0% were in moderate hunger and severe hunger households, respectively. Overall, 90.0% of the caregivers did not miss any ART dose in the last 30 days. ART adherence rates declined as household hunger increased (p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that the odds of adhering to ART was significantly lower by 42% among caregivers in moderate hunger households than those in little to no hunger households (OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.50-0.68). The decline increased to 47% among those in severe hunger households (OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.41-0.69). Hunger is an independent and a significant barrier to ART adherence among caregivers LHIV in Tanzania. Improving access to adequate food as part of HIV care and treatment services is likely to improve ART adherence in this population.


Subject(s)
Child, Orphaned , HIV Infections , Caregivers , Child , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Hunger , Middle Aged , Tanzania/epidemiology
12.
Sustainability ; 14(6):3301, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1765871

ABSTRACT

Around 2 billion people are suffering from chronic malnutrition or “hidden hunger”, which is the result of many diseases and disorders, including cognitive degeneration, stunting growth, and mortality. Thus, biofortification of staple food crops enriched with micronutrients is a more sustainable option for providing nutritional supplements and managing malnutrition in a society. Since 2001, when the concept of biofortification came to light, different research activities have been carried out, like the development of target populations, breeding or genetic engineering, and the release of biofortified cultivars, in addition to conducting nutritional efficacy trials and delivery plan development. Although, being a cost-effective intervention, it still faces many challenges, like easy accessibility of biofortified cultivars, stakeholders’ acceptance, and the availability of biofortified germplasm in the public domain, which varies from region to region. Hence, this review is focused on the recent potential, efforts made to crop biofortification, impacts analysis on human health, cost-effectiveness, and future perspectives to further strengthen biofortification programs. Through regular interventions of sustainable techniques and methodologies, biofortification holds huge potential to solve the malnutrition problem through regular interventions of nutrient-enriched staple food options for billions of people globally.

13.
Teaching Geography ; 46(3):94-97, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1762212

ABSTRACT

Explore the link between poverty, small-scale gold mining and mercury exposure - link to students' knowledge of mercury from science to explain its impact on human health. [...]these were the most common terms that would be revisited throughout the unit, building a strong foundation. [...]there was a need at the start of the topic to keep students' intrinsic load small, to give scope to ensure they fully understood and could apply these terms. [...]disease management to create a healthier population focused on three sustainable development goals: * Good health and well-being * Clean water and sanitation * Zero hunger.

14.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(4): 1027-1037, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic initially doubled the rates of food insecurity across the USA and tripled rates among households with children. Despite the association among food insecurity, chronic disease and psychological distress, narratives depicting the experiences of already food insecure populations are notably underrepresented in the literature. The current study assessed the impact of COVID-19 on clients of a food pantry who were also enrolled in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). DESIGN: A qualitative study probing the effects of the pandemic on daily living, food needs, food buying and food insecurity. Interview transcripts were analysed using a combined deductive and inductive approach. SETTING: Interviews were conducted via telephone between May and June of 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Equal numbers of English- and Spanish-speaking clients (n 40 total). RESULTS: Three main findings emerged: (1) the pandemic increased economic distress, such as from job loss or increased utility bills due to sustained home occupancy and (2) the pandemic increased food needs, food prices and food shortages. In combination with economic stressors, this led to greater food insecurity; (3) increased economic stress and food insecurity contributed to increased psychological stress, such as from fear of infection, isolation and children being confined at home. CONCLUSIONS: Despite federal legislation and state and local programmes to alleviate food insecurity, COVID-19 exacerbated economic hardship, food insecurity and psychological distress among urban SNAP and food pantry clients. Additional research is needed to identify the most effective policies and programmes to ameliorate the short- and long-term health and economic inequities exacerbated by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics
15.
Complementary Medicine Research ; 28(SUPPL 1):5, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1745616

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 was first detected as a human disease in late-2019 and then spread very quickly to all parts of the world, rich and poor. The number of people infected globally and the death toll skyrocketed during 2020 and continues to rise. In addition to the people directly affected by the disease, many more are affected indirectly through the lockdown measures implemented in many countries, the resulting economic downturn, and associated losses of jobs and income-earning opportunities. Especially in poor countries, where social safety nets hardly exist, poverty and food insecurity are on the rise, reversing the positive development trends observed during the last few decades. Preliminary projections based on global economic outlooks suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic may add around 100 million people to the ranks of the undernourished in the short and medium run, making achievement of the zero hunger goal by 2030 rather unlikely. This lecture will review projected global trends in hunger and undernutrition and analyze the main reasons for people's worsened access to nutritious foods and healthy diets during the COVID-19 pandemic. Case-study examples from various countries will be presented. Furthermore, important lessons to be learned on how to make local and global foods systems more resilient and be better prepared for possible future pandemics will be discussed. It will be shown that popular calls - such as focusing on regional production and reducing international food trade - may actually be counterproductive. More diverse, efficient, and open food systems and a stronger focus on poverty reduction and social safety nets will be required to address the various challenges ahead, including climate change, possible future pandemics, and continued population growth.

16.
Revista NERA ; 24(58):8-27, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1743647

ABSTRACT

Agribusiness has never left the scene and, in recent decades, there are no setbacks, it is expanding towards the Cerrado, the Amazon and the Pantanal. Always deforesting and eliminating what prevents and questions its unrestrained growth. After all, for there to be expansion it is necessary to have available territories (often treated as idle, empty) to be appropriated. This was the case in the heyday of the so-called progressive governments, which benefited from the commodity boom and continues today in the midst of a time of economic, political, health and social crisis. However, we live in a particular moment: the COVID-19 pandemic, which has been plaguing the entire globe since the beginning of 2020 and which is used by the Brazilian government to "passar a boiada". Thus, the objective of this article is to point out elements that allow reflection on how the government of Jair Messias Bolsonaro (without a party) in such a short term has strongly impacted the agrarian and environmental issue. This text comprises the presentation of number 58 of Revista NERA, which has ten important contributions on the complexity and multiscale nature of the agrarian question.

17.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-330637

ABSTRACT

The results of the fifth and final wave of the National Income Dynamics Study – Coronavirus Rapid Mobile (NIDS-CRAM) survey reported in this paper provide an update and analysis of the trend in household food insecurity and hunger during the past year in South Africa. In a previous paper in May 2021, we noted that “indicators of hunger and a lack of money to buy food, or what we will refer to as ‘food insecurity’ for brevity, have remained stubbornly high, and do not appear to have changed substantially since June 2020.” Unfortunately, this statement remains true in wave 5.

18.
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ; 22(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1738199

ABSTRACT

The food and nutrition security situation in Nigeria is alarming as several factors exacerbate food insecurity in Nigeria. Dubbed as the 'poverty capital of the world,' Nigeria's poverty rates are high. The country's population is over 200 million people, with more than half living below the poverty line. Poverty is closely associated with a lack of dietary diversity, malnutrition, and food insecurity. Volatility in food prices, fluctuations in the local currency's (naira's) value, and high inflation rates pose stress on domestic and imported food prices in Nigeria. Also, prolonged conflicts in Nigeria due to the Boko Haram insurgency and the Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) have continued to pose a danger and misery to millions of lives - exacerbating food vulnerabilities and social insecurity in the northeastern part of Nigeria. Similarly, farmers and herdsmen's conflicts limit agricultural production and yield. As a result of limited farm production, import bans intended to improve local farm production and favor the local economy have not achieved that purpose. Instead, it has driven up domestic market food prices. Using the UNICEF's framework of malnutrition, this paper discusses factors contributing to food insecurity in Nigeria. Some factors discussed include the continuous conflicts caused by insurgency in northeast Nigeria, high poverty rates, inadequate sanitation facilities, improper food transportation and handling facilities, malnutrition, and the recent burden caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022, African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. All Rights Reserved.

19.
International Journal of Social Economics ; 49(4):489-508, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1735746

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The objective of this paper was twofold-revisiting the in-kind public distribution system (PDS) – India's flagship food security intervention and seeking beneficiary perspectives on its efficacy. The feasibility of cash transfers as an alternative mechanism is also examined, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.Design/methodology/approach>Primary and secondary data from the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu were used. In-depth interviews with beneficiaries using phenomenology were conducted to evaluate their perception and willingness to shift to a cash-based PDS in the pre and post-pandemic periods. Secondary district-level data were also used to ascertain institutional preparedness for this shift.Findings>In-depth interviews of 105 beneficiaries revealed valuable insights, which seem to have significantly changed post-pandemic. Beneficiaries in the post-pandemic period seem much more inclined toward cash transfers, though a combination of cash plus in-kind benefits seems to be strongly preferred. Secondary results pointed out to the lack of institutional preparedness in financial inclusion. The research suggested that while the existing PDS needs to be overhauled, policymakers should look at a model of cash plus in-kind transfers as a probable alternative to pure cash transfers.Originality/value>There is a dearth of in-depth state-specific studies on beneficiary perception of PDS, and this is important since the economic and sociocultural milieu in each region is unique. Being the only state with universal food security, its experience could yield important insights for other states or even middle or low-income countries similar to India.

20.
Advances in Food Security and Sustainability ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1734119

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has posed a severe challenge on food security by limiting access to food for the marginally placed population. While access to food is a challenge, access to nutritional food is a greater challenge to the population. The present-day foods are not sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of the human body. In a pandemic condition, providing nutritious food to the population is imperative to ensure the health and well-being of humankind. Exploiting the existing biodiversity of crop species and deploying classical and modern tools to improve the nutritional potential of these species holds the key to addressing the above challenge. Breeding has been a classical tool of crop improvement that relied predominantly on genetic diversity. Collecting and conserving diverse germplasms and characterizing their diversity using molecular markers is essential to preserve diversity and use them in genetic improvement programs. These markers are also valuable for association mapping analyses to identify the genetic determinants of traits-of-interest in crop species. Association mapping identifies the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the trait-of-interest by exploring marker-trait associations, and these QTLs can further be exploited for the genetic improvement of cultivated species through genomics-assisted breeding. Conventional breeding and genomics approaches are also being applied to develop biofortified cereal crops to reduce nutritional deficiencies in consumers. In this context, chapter explains the prerequisites for association mapping, population structure, genetic diversity, different approaches of performing association mapping to dissect nutritional traits, use the information for genomics-assisted breeding for nutrient-rich cereal crops, and application of genomics strategies in crop biofortification. These approaches will ensure food and nutrition security for all amidst the current COVID-19 crisis.

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