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1.
Journal of Pathology Informatics ; JOUR: 100157,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105470

ABSTRACT

Background Pathology services experienced a surge in demand during the COVID-19 pandemic. Digitalisation of pathology workflows can help to increase throughput, yet many existing digitalisation solutions use non-standardised workflows captured in proprietary data formats and processed by black-box software, yielding data of varying quality. This study presents the views of a UK-led expert group on the barriers to adoption and the required input of measurement science to improve current practices in digital pathology. Methods With an aim to support the UK’s efforts in digitalisation of pathology services, this study comprised: (1) a review of existing evidence, (2) an online survey of domain experts, and (3) a workshop with 42 representatives from healthcare, regulatory bodies, pharmaceutical industry, academia, equipment, and software manufacturers. The discussion topics included sample processing, data interoperability, image analysis, equipment calibration, and use of novel imaging modalities. Findings The lack of data interoperability within the digital pathology workflows hinders data lookup and navigation, according to 80% of attendees. All participants stressed the importance of integrating imaging and non-imaging data for diagnosis, while 80% saw data integration as a priority challenge. 90% identified the benefits of artificial intelligence and machine learning, but identified the need for training and sound performance metrics. Methods for calibration and providing traceability were seen as essential to establish harmonised, reproducible sample processing, and image acquisition pipelines. Vendor-neutral data standards were seen as a “must-have” for providing meaningful data for downstream analysis. Users and vendors need good practice guidance on evaluation of uncertainty, fitness-for-purpose, and reproducibility of artificial intelligence/machine learning tools. All of the above needs to be accompanied by an upskilling of the pathology workforce. Conclusions Digital pathology requires interoperable data formats, reproducible and comparable laboratory workflows, and trustworthy computer analysis software. Despite high interest in the use of novel imaging techniques and artificial intelligence tools, their adoption is slowed down by the lack of guidance and evaluation tools to assess the suitability of these techniques for specific clinical question. Measurement science expertise in uncertainty estimation, standardisation, reference materials, and calibration can help establishing reproducibility and comparability between laboratory procedures, yielding high quality data and providing higher confidence in diagnosis.

2.
J Laryngol Otol ; : 1-5, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of radiological inflammation within the paranasal sinuses, middle ear and mastoid in patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine consecutive adults (aged over 18 years) with coronavirus disease 2019 (confirmed on polymerase chain reaction within 7 days of imaging) who underwent computed tomography of the head between 1 March 2020 and 24 June 2020. Lund-Mackay and mastoid and middle-ear opacification scores were used to categorise the extent of sinus and mastoid opacification on axial and coronal computed tomography images. RESULTS: Of 147 patients originally identified, only 83 met the inclusion criteria. Sinus opacification was present in 51.8 per cent of patients (n = 43), and middle-ear or mastoid opacification was observed in 24.1 per cent (n = 20). There was no statistically significant difference in sinus or middle-ear and mastoid opacification between patients after stratification based on 30-day all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Radiological computed tomography findings suggest mild mucosal disease within the sinuses, middle ear and mastoid. There was no statistical correlation between such opacification and 30-day mortality.

3.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 52(5): 324-330, 2022 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100078

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Retinal vascular complications have been described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to analyze retinal microvascular changes and their correlations with clinical findings. Materials and Methods: This case-controlled study was conducted in a university hospital. The right eyes of 52 otherwise healthy patients recovered from COVID-19 and 42 healthy controls were examined with optical coherence tomography angiography. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare vessel density (VD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters. Associations with treatment choices, pneumonia, and laboratory findings were analyzed. Results: Twenty-nine patients (56%) and 18 healthy controls (43%) were men. Mean age of the COVID-19 group was 39.00±13.04 years. Twenty-two patients had pneumonia, 18 (35%) received hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), 17 (33%) received HCQ plus low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and 10 (19%) received favipiravir. The patient group had lower parafoveal VD in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and lower parafoveal VD and perifoveal VD in the deep capillary plexus (DCP) than controls (p=0.003, p=0.004, p=0.001). FAZ area did not differ significantly (p=0.953). Perifoveal VD in the DCP was also significantly lower in the HCQ+LMWH group than the HCQ group (p=0.020) and in the presence of pneumonia (p=0.040). C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin levels were negatively correlated with perifoveal VD in the DCP (r=-0.445, p=0.023; r=-0.451, p=0.040). Ferritin was also negatively correlated with parafoveal VD in the SCP (r=-0.532, p=0.013). Conclusion: Parafoveal and perifoveal VD was found to be lower in the COVID-19 group. Presence of pneumonia, need for LMWH prophylaxis, and levels of CRP and ferritin were found to be negatively associated with retinal VD. Large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the clinical importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Male , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Fovea Centralis , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Ferritins
4.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721221136319, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many neurologic complications have been described after severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) including atypical cases of optic neuritis (ON), positive to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) IgG. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of MOG-IgG-associated ON and discuss why SARS-CoV-2 infection could be a potential trigger. METHODS: Retrospective single case report. RESULTS: We report a case of ON with positive MOG-IgG developed 15 days after presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: This report suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection may have triggered autoantibodies production against MOG leading to ON.

5.
REC: CardioClinics ; JOUR
Article in Spanish | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095941

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo de revisión pretende resumir el papel de la imagen cardiaca en cuanto a los avances técnicos y de conocimiento más relevantes publicados en el último año. Aunque la imagen cardiaca sigue ocupando un lugar destacado en el diagnóstico y en la detección de complicaciones de la afectación cardiaca por la infección por coronavirus, otros temas candentes están claramente de actualidad. Entre lo más relevante cabe destacar la confirmación de la utilidad pronóstica de parámetros obtenidos mediante técnicas de imagen avanzada en el campo de las valvulopatías, prevención cardiovascular o cardio-oncología, el papel destacado de la imagen en el primer escalón diagnóstico de las nuevas guías de dolor torácico o el crecimiento exponencial del intervencionismo estructural percutáneo, donde se hace necesario un mayor conocimiento en la selección de pacientes, el timing del procedimiento o los predictores de éxito. Por último, la inteligencia artificial es un aliado que ha llegado para quedarse, y esperemos que la precisión y la rentabilidad diagnósticas, así como los tiempos dedicados a la interpretación, mejoren gracias a este avance tecnológico. This review article aims to summarize the role of cardiac imaging regarding the most relevant technical and knowledge advances published within the last year. Although diagnosis and detection of cardiac involvement due to coronavirus disease maintain a prominent place, other interesting hot topics have been raised. Among the most relevant, it is noteworthy to highlight the prognostic utility of different parameters obtained by advanced imaging techniques in the field of valvular heart disease, cardiovascular prevention or cardio-oncology, the prominent role of imaging in the first diagnostic step of the new Chest Pain guidelines or the exponential growth of percutaneous structural interventionism, where further knowledge is demanded in terms of patient selection, procedure timing or predictors of success. Finally, artificial intelligence is a promising tool already in our hands, we hope that diagnostic precision and interpretation time will improve thanks to these technological advances.

6.
Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096121

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the temporal evolution of vaccination against COVID-19 in a Swiss oncological cohort. METHODS: History of complete vaccination (i.e. at least two vaccine doses) against COVID-19 of patients undergoing oncological 18F-FDG PET/CT between February and September 2021 (n = 2613) was taken. Vaccination rate was compared with age-matched national data from the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. Subgroup differences in temporal evolution of vaccination rate were analyzed by fitting a generalized linear model and determined by significant interaction between, sex, oncological diagnosis, and month of examination. RESULTS: Rate of complete vaccination against COVID-19 steadily increased and reached 81 % in September 2021. The fraction of vaccinated patients in the oncological cohort was higher in the beginning and approached the fraction in the age-matched general Swiss population at the end of the study period. Month of exam (p < 0.001) was the only significant predictor of the vaccination rate. CONCLUSION: Vaccination rate against COVID-19 in a Swiss oncological cohort increased steadily from February to September 2021. Compared to the age-matched general population it was higher in the beginning and similar by the end of the study period. Ethics approval: Trial registration: BASEC 2021-00444, Ethikkommission Zürich (Cantonal Ethics Committee Zurich), Switzerland, registered February 24th 2021.

7.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, a portion of those affected have evolved towards acute hypoxic respiratory failure. Initially, this was hypothesized to result from acute lung injury leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In previous research, a novel quantitative CT post-processing techniques was described to quantify the volume of blood contained within pulmonary blood vessels of a given size. Hypothesized that patients with lower BV5 blood flow, would have higher supplemental oxygen need and less favorable arterial blood gas profiles. METHODS: From the initial data analysis, 111 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were retrospectively selected based on the availability of CT scans of the lungs with slice thickness 1.5 mm or less, as well as PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection. 3D reconstructions of the lungs and pulmonary vasculature were created. Further analysis was performed on 50 patients. Patients were divided into groups based on their need for oxygen at the time of CT scan acquisition. RESULTS: 18 out of 50 patients needed >2 L/min supplemental oxygen and this group demonstrated a significantly lower median percentage of total blood flow in the BV5 vessels compared to the 32 patients who needed < 2 L/min supplemental oxygen (41.61% vs 46.89%, p=0.023). Both groups had significantly less blood as a proportion in BV5 vessels compared to healthy volunteers. CONCLUSION: This data is consistent with the hypothesis that reduced blood volume within small (BV5) pulmonary vessels is associated with higher need for supplemental oxygen and more severe gas exchange anomalies in COVID-19 infections.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081861

ABSTRACT

d-Arabinofuranosyl-pyrimidine and -purine nucleoside analogues containing alkylthio-, acetylthio- or 1-thiosugar substituents at the C2' position were prepared from the corresponding 3',5'-O-silylene acetal-protected nucleoside 2'-exomethylenes by photoinitiated, radical-mediated hydrothiolation reactions. Although the stereochemical outcome of the hydrothiolation depended on the structure of both the thiol and the furanoside aglycone, in general, high d-arabino selectivity was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the arabinonucleosides was studied on tumorous SCC (mouse squamous cell) and immortalized control HaCaT (human keratinocyte) cell lines by MTT assay. Three pyrimidine nucleosides containing C2'-butylsulfanylmethyl or -acetylthiomethyl groups showed promising cytotoxicity at low micromolar concentrations with good selectivity towards tumor cells. SAR analysis using a methyl ß-d-arabinofuranoside reference compound showed that the silyl-protecting group, the nucleobase and the corresponding C2' substituent are crucial for the cell growth inhibitory activity. The effects of the three most active nucleoside analogues on parameters indicative of cytotoxicity, such as cell size, division time and cell generation time, were investigated by near-infrared live cell imaging, which showed that the 2'-acetylthiomethyluridine derivative induced the most significant functional and morphological changes. Some nucleoside analogues also exerted anti-SARS-CoV-2 and/or anti-HCoV-229E activity with low micromolar EC50 values; however, the antiviral activity was always accompanied by significant cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pyrimidine Nucleosides , Thiosugars , Humans , Mice , Animals , Arabinonucleosides/chemistry , Arabinonucleosides/pharmacology , Nucleosides/pharmacology , Nucleosides/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Acetals , Sulfhydryl Compounds/chemistry , Purines , Structure-Activity Relationship
9.
J Int Med Res ; 50(10): 3000605221129543, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079249

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection caused the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is common among patients with COVID-19, and GI symptoms can appear earlier than respiratory symptoms. Except for direct infectious effects, patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk of complications requiring gastroenterological management. Diarrhea is the most common GI symptom in patients with COVID-19 and occurs in up to half of them. Other GI symptoms, such as anorexia, discomfort, nausea, abdominal pain, loss of taste sensation, and vomiting, have been reported. GI symptoms are associated with a poor prognosis. Fecal viral excretion may have clinical significance because of the possible fecal-oral transmission of infection. In the present narrative review article, six different aspects of studies published to date are summarized as follows: GI manifestations of COVID-19, the roles of fecal-oral transmission, poor prognosis of GI symptoms; abnormal abdominal imaging findings, COVID-19 in patients with irritable bowel disease, and prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the digestive endoscopy room. Timely understanding of the association between COVID-19 and the digestive system and effective preventive measures are critical to improve this disease and help clinicians take appropriate measures to mitigate further transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Echocardiography ; 39(11): 1401-1411, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078440

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cardiac involvement in recovered COVID-19 patients assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Subjects recently recovered from COVID-19 and with an abnormal left ventricular global longitudinal strain were enrolled. Cardiac MRI in all the enrolled subjects was done at baseline (within 30-90 days following recovery from COVID-19) with a follow-up scan at 6 months in individuals with an abnormal baseline scan. Additionally, 20 age-and sex-matched individuals were enrolled as healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: All the 30 enrolled subjects were symptomatic during active COVID-19 disease and were categorized as mild: 11 (36.7%), moderate: 6 (20%), and severe: 13 (43.3%). Of the 30 patients, 16 (53.3%) had abnormal CMR findings. Myocardial edema was reported in 12 (40%) patients while 10 (33.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). No difference was observed in terms of conventional left ventricular (LV) parameters; however, COVID-19-recovered patients had significantly lower right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction, RV stroke volume, and RV cardiac index compared to HCs. Follow-up scan was abnormal in 4/16 (25%) with LGE persisting in three patients (who had severe COVID-19 [3/4;75%]). Subjects with severe COVID-19 had a greater frequency of LGE (53.8%) and myocardial edema (61.5%) as compared to mild and moderate cases. Myocardial T1 (1284 ± 43.8 ms vs. 1147.6 ± 68.4 ms; p < .0001) and T2 values (50.8 ± 16.7 ms vs. 42.6 ± 3.6 ms; p = .04) were significantly higher in post COVID-19 subjects compared to HCs. Similarly, T1 and T2 values of severe COVID-19 patients were significantly higher compared to mild and moderate cases. CONCLUSIONS: An abnormal CMR was seen in half of the recovered patients with persistent abnormality in one-fourth at 6 months. Our study suggests a need for closer follow-up among recovered subjects in order to evaluate for long-term cardiovascular sequelae. COVID-19 causes structural changes in the myocardium in a small segment of patients with partial spontaneous resolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Stroke Volume , Myocardium/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ventricular Function, Left , Predictive Value of Tests
11.
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2074927

ABSTRACT

The first publication of micro‐ and nanotechnology in medicine was in 1798 with the use of the Cowpox virus by Edward Jenner as an attenuated vaccine against Smallpox. Since then, there has been an explosion of micro‐ and nanotechnologies for medical applications. The breadth of these micro‐ and nanotechnologies is discussed in this piece, presenting the date of their first report and their latest progression (e.g., clinical trials, FDA approval). This includes successes such as the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) vaccines from Pfizer, Moderna, and Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) as well as the most popular nanoparticle therapy, liposomal Doxil. However, the enormity of the success of these platforms has not been without challenges. For example, we discuss why the production of Doxil was halted for several years, and the bankruptcy of BIND therapeutics, which relied on a nanoparticle drug carrier. Overall, the field of micro‐ and nanotechnology has advanced beyond these challenges and continues advancing new and novel platforms that have transformed therapies, vaccines, and imaging. In this review, a wide range of biomedical micro‐ and nanotechnology is discussed to serve as a primer to the field and provide an accessible summary of clinically relevant micro‐ and nanotechnology platforms. [ FROM AUTHOR]

12.
Eur J Radiol ; 152: 110341, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076084

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a new epidemic of COVID associated mucormycosis (CAM) emerged in India. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this deadly disease are of paramount importance in improving patient survival. MRI is the cornerstone of diagnosis of early extrasinus disease, particularly intracranial complications which have traditionally been associated with a high mortality rate. In this review, we depict the sinonasal, perisinus, orbital and intracranial involvement in CAM. Special emphasis is laid on intracranial disease which is categorized into vascular, parenchymal, meningeal, bony involvement and perineural spread. Vascular complications are the most common form of intracranial involvement. Some unusual yet interesting imaging findings such as nerve abscesses involving the optic, trigeminal and mandibular nerves and long segment vasculitis of the internal carotid artery extending till its cervical segment are also illustrated. In our experience, patient outcome in CAM (survival rate of 88.5%) was better compared to the pre-pandemic era. Presence of intracranial disease also did not affect prognosis as poorly as traditionally expected (survival rate of 82.8%). Involvement of brain parenchyma was the only subset of intracranial involvement that was associated with higher mortality (p value 0.016). The aim of this review is to familiarise the reader with the MR imaging spectrum of CAM with special focus on intracranial complications and a brief account of their impact on patient prognosis in our experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia ; 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075491

ABSTRACT

The thirteenth annual workshop of the European Network for Breast Development and Cancer (ENBDC) Laboratories Annual Workshop took place on the 28-30 April 2022 in Weggis, Switzerland and focused on methods in mammary gland biology and breast cancer. Sixty scientists participated in the ENBDC annual workshop which had not been held in person since 2019 due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. Topics spanned the mammary gland biology field, ranging from lactation biology and embryonic development, single cell sequencing of the human breast, and stunning cutting-edge imaging of the mouse mammary gland and human breast as well as breast cancer research topics including invasive progression of the pre-invasive DCIS stage, metabolic determinants of endocrine therapy resistance, models for lobular breast cancer, and how mutational landscapes of normal breast during age and pregnancy determine cancer risk. The latest findings from participating researchers were presented through oral presentations and poster sessions and included plenty of unpublished work.

14.
Pediatr Radiol ; 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe life-threatening manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that often presents with acute cardiac dysfunction and cardiogenic shock. While recovery from acute illness is excellent, the long-term myocardial impact is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiac MRI findings in children 6-9 months after their hospitalization with MIS-C against MRI findings in healthy controls to assess for residual myocardial disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively performed cardiac MRI on 13 children 6-9 months following their hospitalization with MIS-C: eight of these children had a history of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) < 50%, persistent symptoms, or electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities and underwent clinical MRI; five of these children without cardiac abnormalities during their hospitalization underwent research MRIs. We compared their native T1 and T2 mapping values with those of 20 normal controls. RESULTS: Cardiac MRI was performed at 13.6 years of age (interquartile range [IQR] 11.9-16.4 years) and 8.2 months (IQR 6.8-9.6 months) following hospitalization. Twelve children displayed normal ejection fraction: left ventricle (LV) 57.2%, IQR 56.1-58.4; right ventricle (RV) 53.1%, IQR 52.0-55.7. One had low-normal LVEF (52%). They had normal extracellular volume (ECV) and normal T2 and native T1 times compared to controls. There was no qualitative evidence of edema. One child had late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with normal ejection fraction, no edema, and normal T1 and T2 times. When stratifying children who had MIS-C according to history of LVEF <55% on echocardiography, there was no difference in MRI values. CONCLUSION: Although many children with MIS-C present acutely with cardiac dysfunction, residual myocardial damage 6-9 months afterward appears minimal. Long-term implications warrant further study.

15.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(9), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072199

ABSTRACT

Background Patient rotation, foreign body overlying anatomy, and anatomy out of field of view can have detrimental impacts on the diagnostic quality of portable chest x-rays (PCXRs), especially as the number of PCXR imaging increases due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although preventable, these "quality failures" are common and may lead to interpretative and diagnostic errors for the radiologist. Aims In this study, we present a baseline quality failure rate of PCXR imaging as observed at our institution. We also conduct a focus group highlighting the key issues that lead to the problematic images and discuss potential interventions targeting technologists that can be implemented to address imaging quality failure rate. Materials and methods A total of 500 PCXRs for adult patients admitted to a large university hospital between July 12, 2021, and July 25, 2021, were obtained for evaluation of quality. The PCXRs were evaluated by radiology residents for failures in technical image quality. The images were categorized into various metrics including the degree of rotation and obstruction of anatomical structures. After collecting the data, a focus group involving six managers of the technologist department at our university hospital was conducted to further illuminate the key barriers to quality PCXRs faced at our institution.. Results Out of the 500 PCXRs evaluated, 231 were problematic (46.2%). 43.5% of the problematic films with a repeat PCXR within one week showed that there was a technical problem impacting the ability to detect pathology. Most problematic films also occurred during the night shift (48%). Key issues that lead to poor image quality included improper patient positioning, foreign objects covering anatomy, and variances in technologists' training. Three interventions were proposed to optimize technologist performance that can lower quality failure rates of PCXRs. These include a longitudinal educational curriculum involving didactic sessions, adding nursing support to assist technologists, and adding an extra layer of verification by internal medicine residents before sending the films to the radiologist. The rationale for these interventions is discussed in detail so that a modified version can be implemented in other hospital systems. Conclusion This study illustrates the high baseline error rate in image quality of PCXRs at our institution and demonstrates the need to improve on image quality. Poor image quality negatively impacts the interpretive accuracy of radiologists and therefore leads to wrong diagnoses. Increasing educational resources and support for technologists can lead to higher image quality and radiologist accuracy.

16.
Neuropsychological Trends ; - (31):43-54, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072137

ABSTRACT

Brain, the most powerful object in the universe, consumes only a few watts of energy. To replicate it, a nuclear power plant will be necessary, and this powerhouse is the sole controller of the human body. Normally, the brain is divided into two parts, with the left and right hemispheres working independently. The right half of the brain tends to cause mental tension and anxiety, exacerbating the present physiological condition like the current COVID-19 outbreak. A survey was done in the Durg district of Chhattisgarh, which is one of the hardest hit epicenters of the COVID-19 second wave in India. According to this survey, the majority of women of all ages are right brained, meaning their right hemisphere predominates over their left. They are more likely to suffer from mental illnesses than men because they are more inventive and creative thinkers. To avoid this circumstance, stress-relieving activities have been developed.

17.
International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases ; 6(5):8-18, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071977

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) has a great impact on our daily living and makes our lives more efficient and productive. Especially during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, AI has played a key role in response to the global health crisis. There has been a boom in AI innovation and its use since the pandemic. However, despite its widespread adoption and great potential, most people have little knowledge of AI concepts and realization of its potential. The objective of this white paper is to communicate the importance of AI and its benefits to society. The report covers AI applications in six different topics from medicine (AI deployment in clinical settings, imaging and diagnostics, and acceleration of drug discovery) to more social aspects (support older adults in long-term care homes, and AI in supporting small and medium enterprises. The report ends with nine steps to consider for moving forward with AI implementation during and post pandemic period. These include legal and ethical data collection and storage, greater data access, multidisciplinary collaboration, and policy reform.

18.
2021 Ieee International Conference on Smart Computing (Smartcomp 2021) ; : 276-285, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070441

ABSTRACT

Identification of people with elevated body temperature can reduce or dramatically slow down the spread of infectious diseases like COVID-19. We present a novel fever-screening system, (FS)-S-3, that uses edge machine learning techniques to accurately measure core body temperatures of multiple individuals in a free-flow setting. (FS)-S-3 performs real-time sensor fusion of visual camera with thermal camera data streams to detect elevated body temperature, and it has several unique features: (a) visual and thermal streams represent very different modalities, and we dynamically associate semantically-equivalent regions across visual and thermal frames by using a new, dynamic alignment technique that analyzes content and context in real-time, (b) we track people through occlusions, identify the eye (inner canthus), forehead, face and head regions where possible, and provide an accurate temperature reading by using a prioritized refinement algorithm, and (c) we robustly detect elevated body temperature even in the presence of personal protective equipment like masks, or sunglasses or hats, all of which can be affected by hot weather and lead to spurious temperature readings. (FS)-S-3 has been deployed at over a dozen large commercial establishments, providing contact-less, free-flow, real-time fever screening for thousands of employees and customers in indoors and outdoor settings.

19.
Ieee Open Journal of the Computer Society ; 3:172-184, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070434

ABSTRACT

Despite significant improvements over the last few years, cloud-based healthcare applications continue to suffer from poor adoption due to their limitations in meeting stringent security, privacy, and quality of service requirements (such as low latency). The edge computing trend, along with techniques for distributed machine learning such as federated learning, has gained popularity as a viable solution in such settings. In this paper, we leverage the capabilities of edge computing in medicine by evaluating the potential of intelligent processing of clinical data at the edge. We utilized the emerging concept of clustered federated learning (CFL) for an automatic COVID-19 diagnosis. We evaluate the performance of the proposed framework under different experimental setups on two benchmark datasets. Promising results are obtained on both datasets resulting in comparable results against the central baseline where the specialized models (i.e., each on a specific image modality) are trained with central data, and improvements of 16% and 11% in overall F1-Scores have been achieved over the trained model trained (using multi-modal COVID-19 data) in the CFL setup on X-ray and Ultrasound datasets, respectively. We also discussed the associated challenges, technologies, and techniques available for deploying ML at the edge in such privacy and delay-sensitive applications.

20.
Ieee Access ; 10:104169-104177, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070272

ABSTRACT

Specific 5G Release 17 work items are dealing with critical medical applications. Moreover, the adoption of mobile health (m-health) and e-health has been accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper first examines the requirements of critical medical applications that 5G is expected to support. Then it illustrates possible data protection, management, and privacy issues. Finally, it shows a first implementation of an m-health framework supporting physical distance management. Experimental results show that, by exploiting 5G connectivity and the computing capacity provided by an accelerated edge cloud, the proposed framework can detect physical distance violations faster than a user equipment (UE)-based implementation, while saving UE energy.

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