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1.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 893045, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987534

ABSTRACT

Background: Although children with COVID-19 account for fewer hospitalizations than adults, many develop severe disease requiring intensive care treatment. Critical illness due to COVID-19 has been associated with lymphopenia and functional immune suppression. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) potently suppress T cells and are significantly increased in adults with severe COVID-19. The role of MDSCs in the immune response of children with COVID-19 is unknown. Aims: We hypothesized that children with severe COVID-19 will have expansion of MDSC populations compared to those with milder disease, and that higher proportions of MDSCs will correlate with clinical outcomes. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study on a convenience sample of children hospitalized with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 and pre-pandemic, uninfected healthy controls (HC). Blood samples were obtained within 48 h of admission and analyzed for MDSCs, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells by flow cytometry. Demographic information and clinical outcomes were obtained from the electronic medical record and a dedicated survey built for this study. Results: Fifty children admitted to the hospital were enrolled; 28 diagnosed with symptomatic COVID-19 (10 requiring ICU admission) and 22 detected by universal screening (6 requiring ICU admission). We found that children with severe COVID-19 had a significantly higher percentage of MDSCs than those admitted to the ward and uninfected healthy controls. Increased percentages of MDSCs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were associated with CD4+ T cell lymphopenia. MDSC expansion was associated with longer hospitalizations and need for respiratory support in children admitted with acute COVID-19. Conclusion: These findings suggest that MDSCs are part of the dysregulated immune responses observed in children with severe COVID-19 and may play a role in disease pathogenesis. Future mechanistic studies are required to further understand the function of MDSCs in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In spite of compelling evidence demonstrating safety and immunogenicity of adenoviral-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the general population, its effects in socially vulnerable elderly individuals are poorly understood. Here we aimed to investigate the efficacy of two doses of combined vector vaccine, the Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik-V vaccine), at 14, 42, and 180 days after immunization, in a nursing home for underprivileged population and homeless individuals. METHODS: A phase 3, open-label clinical trial involving administration of two adenoviral vectors (Ad26-Ad5) vaccine, in elderly individuals over the ages of 60 years was performed. SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD-specific IgG antibodies at days 21-, 42- and 180 post-vaccination was analyzed in sera of individuals receiving two doses of the Sputnik-V vaccine with an interval of 21 days. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses, measured by intracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was determined by flow cytometry following antigen-specific cultures. RESULTS: A total of 72 elderly adults with a mean age of 72.6 ± 9.5 years-old was selected after applying the inclusion criteria, all corresponding to an underprivileged population. Two-doses vaccination with Sputnik-V vaccine elicited an antibody-mediated immune response (revealed by quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies, CMIA) 70% at day 21, 90% at day 42, and 66.1% at day 180. Fully vaccinated individuals had robust SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses, evidenced by TNF production in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in all time periods analyzed. CONCLUSION: Six months after receipt of the second dose of the Gam-COVID-Vac vaccine, SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels declined substantially among the tested population, whereas CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell-mediated immunity remained at high levels. These data suggest that two doses of combined adenoviral-based vaccine elicits a considerable level of SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in elderly individuals, highlighting its safety and immunogenicity in this highly vulnerable population.

3.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 118: 110576, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889770

ABSTRACT

Immunosenescence is a term used to describe the age-related changes in the immune system. Immunosenescence is associated with complex alterations and dysregulation of immune function and inflammatory processes. Age-related changes in innate immune responses including alterations in chemotactic, phagocytic, and natural killing functions, impaired antigen presenting capacity, and dysregulated inflammatory response have been described. The most striking and best characterized feature of immunosenescence is the decline in both number and function of T cells. With age there is decreased proliferation, decreased number of antigen-naïve T cells, and increased number of antigen-experienced memory T cells. This decline in naïve T cell population is associated with impaired immunity and reduced response to new or mutated pathogens. While the absolute number of peripheral B cells appears constant with age, changes in B cell functions including reduced antibody production and response and cell memory have been described. However, the main alteration in cell-mediated function that has been reported across all species with aging is those observed in in T cell. These T cell mediated changes have been shown to contribute to increased susceptibility to infection and cancer in older adults. In addition to functional and phenotype alterations in immune cells, studies demonstrate that circulating concentrations of inflammatory mediators in older adults are higher than those of young. This low grade, chronic inflammatory state that occurs in the context of aging has been termed "inflammaging". This review will focus on age-related changes in the immune system including immunosenescence and inflammation as well as the functional consequences of these age-related alterations for the aged.


Subject(s)
Immunosenescence , Aged , Humans , Immune System/physiology , Immunity, Innate , Immunosenescence/physiology , Inflammation
4.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855725

ABSTRACT

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations mostly related to visceral adiposity, which in turn promotes glucose intolerance and a chronic systemic inflammatory state, characterized by immune cell infiltration. Such immune system activation increases the risk of severe disease subsequent to viral infections. Strong correlations between elevated body mass index (BMI), type-2-diabetes and increased risk of hospitalization after pandemic influenza H1N1 infection have been described. Similarly, a correlation between elevated blood glucose level and SARS-CoV-2 infection severity and mortality has been described, indicating MetS as an important predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Adipose secretome, including two of the most abundant and well-studied adipokines, leptin and interleukin-6, is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and obesity-related low-grade inflammation. Similarly, skeletal muscle hormones-called myokines-released in response to physical exercise affect both metabolic homeostasis and immune system function. Of note, several circulating hormones originate from both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and display different functions, depending on the metabolic context. This review aims to summarize recent data in the field of exercise immunology, investigating the acute and chronic effects of exercise on myokines release and immune system function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Metabolic Syndrome , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Immunity , Inflammation , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 614: 183-190, 2022 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850693

ABSTRACT

Maternal insults during pregnancy induces an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in offspring, but the neuropathological changes in this process remains not to be established. To shed light on this, the transcriptome datasets of maternal blood samples with children later diagnosed with ASD and typical development, and tissue samples of multiple brain regions from ASD patients and human neurodevelopment were conducted to identify the non-chasm differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to generate the spatio-temporal dynamic change. Combined enrichment and interaction network analysis revealed that non-chasm DEGs with similar expression trajectories in the same brain regions, were involved in neural, immune and metabolic GO functions and KEGG pathways, respectively, suggesting that did not performed exactly the same functions. Interestingly, our results found that non-chasm DEGs in frontal cortex and temporal cortex were associated with COVID-19, suggesting that as an environmental risk factor COVID-19 affects an increased risk of ASD.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Brain , Child , Female , Fetus , Humans , Pregnancy , Transcriptome
6.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 77(7): 1366-1370, 2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected older adults. Frailty has been associated with impaired vaccine response in other vaccine types, but the impact of frailty on mRNA vaccine response is undefined. METHODS: Observational study of adults aged 55 and older from 1 U.S. health care system between January 22, 2021 and September 16, 2021 with self-reported Moderna or Pfizer COVID-19 mRNA vaccine and an electronic frailty index (eFI) score from their medical record (n = 1 677). Participants' frailty status was compared with positive antibody detection (seroconversion) following full vaccination and subsequent loss of positive antibody detection (seroreversion) using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of 1 677 older adults with median (interquartile range) age, 67 (62 and 72) years, and frailty status (nonfrail: 879 [52%], prefrail: 678 [40%], and frail: 120 [7.2%]), seroconversion was not detected in 23 (1.4%) over 60 days following full vaccination. Frail individuals were less likely to seroconvert than nonfrail individuals, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.75, 95% confidence interval (CI; 1.04, 13.5). Seroreversion was detected in 50/1 631 individuals (3.1%) over 6 months of median follow-up antibody testing. Frail individuals were more likely to serorevert than nonfrail individuals, adjusted OR 3.02, 95% CI (1.17, 7.33). CONCLUSION: Overall antibody response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination was high across age and frailty categories. While antibody detection is an incomplete descriptor of vaccine response, the high sensitivity of this antibody combined with health-system data reinforce our conclusions that frailty is an independent predictor of impaired antibody response to the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Frailty should be considered in vaccine studies and prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
J Food Biochem ; 46(3): e13884, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759204

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) is a lethal virus that causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019), the respiratory illness that has caused the COVID-19 pandemic. Even though multiple pharmacological trials are ongoing, there is no proof that any treatment will effectively cure or prevent COVID-19. Currently, COVID-19-infected patients are being managed with non-specific medications to suppress the symptoms and other associated co-morbidities. Nitric oxide is a bio-signaling molecule that has been shown to be effective for treating several viral infections in humans. Household Natural foods rich in nitrites and nitrates (NO donors) have been scientifically proven to have therapeutic benefits against immune-related respiratory tract infections. It was understood that NO could inhibit the early stage of SARS CoV-2 invasion into the human cell. Fruits and vegetables containing nitrites and nitrates have been revised and are now thought to be potential anti-CoV agents for effective control of other associated systemic disorders. The purpose of this review is to highlight some key facts about the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 infection with foods rich in nitric oxide and its donors. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Improving the body's immune system is the early step to be considered as a preventive measure to stop the spreading of COVID-19 infection. Emerging research continues to mount that dietary nitrates/nitrites from plant foods are being healthy as well as keep us away from infectious diseases. They are now incorporated into low-risk adjuvant therapy for various infections and systemic disorders. This concept portrays the regular consuming foods such as fruits and vegetables that are rich in nitric oxide which have the potential to promote health, improve general well-being, and reduce the risk associated with the highly contagious diseases. Hence, we recommend adding nitrates and nitrites-containing food to the regular diet to improve the self-immunity as well as to fight against COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Health Promotion , Humans , Immune System , Nitric Oxide Donors , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vegetables
8.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725910

ABSTRACT

Vitamin C has a number of acitvities that could contribute to its immune-modulating effects. The only question is whether we should provide ourselves with only the right level of it, or do we need much more during a pandemic? The possibility of reducing the incidence of viral diseases in a well-nourished population through the use of dietary supplements based on vitamin C is not supported in the literature. Despite this, the belief that an extra intake of vitamin C can increase the efficacy of the immune system is still popular and vitamin C is advertised as a remedy to prevent infectious disease. This article refers to the justification of the use of vitamin C in high doses as an anti-SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis in healthy subjects. Does it make sense or not? As it turns out, any effects of vitamin C supplementation may be more prominent when the baseline vitamin C level is low, for example in physically active persons. People with hypovitaminosis C are more likely to respond to vitamin C administration. No studies regarding prevention of COVID-19 with high-dose vitamin C supplementation in healthy subjects were found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ascorbic Acid , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Healthy Volunteers , Humans
9.
Clocks Sleep ; 4(1): 66-79, 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715151

ABSTRACT

Sleep and circadian rhythms are closely involved in the immune system and its regulation. Here, we describe this relationship and provide recommendations regarding the influence of sleep and circadian rhythms on vaccination success. We review studies investigating how viral susceptibility is influenced by changes in immunological parameters as a consequence of sleep deprivation. Short sleep duration and poor sleep efficiency both appear to be strong factors leading to greater vulnerability. In addition, both sleep duration and the time of day of the vaccination seem to be associated with the magnitude of the antibody response after vaccination. Based on these findings, a recommendation would consist of a sleep duration of 7 h or more every night to both reduce the risk of infection and to optimize the efficacy of vaccination with respect to circadian timing. Improving sleep quality and its circadian timing can potentially play a role in preventing infection and in vaccination benefits. In conclusion, sufficient (or longer) sleep duration is important in both reducing susceptibility to infection and increasing antibody response after vaccination.

10.
Current Traditional Medicine ; 7(5):6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1677619

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19), a highly contagious ssRNA +ve sense virus that emerged in late 2019, has created a global panic. With no effective therapy available, the virus has significantly affected the world population causing millions of death. Therefore, it is the utmost need to look towards all the possible strategies to benefit the community. Objectives: In view of the current global pandemic, we tried to discuss the potential benefits of two cost-effective alternative approaches, i.e., physical exercise and yoga. Methods: The editorial is based on a literature search available on PubMed, Google Scholar, and WHO portal. Search terminologies include "yoga," "physical exercise," "COVID-19," "viral infections," and a combination of these words. Results: A literature search defines yoga and physical exercise efficacy in different viral diseases, including HIV, influenza, and HSV. It ameliorates the Quality of Life (QoL) by improving both the physical and mental well-being of an individual. This is mainly done by promoting the better functioning of the immune system (increases CD4+ and CD8+ cells and reduces pro-inflammatory response). Conclusions: Regular involvement of these activities in day-to-day life may limit latent virus reactivations and reduce infection chances.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 304: 66-77, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are associated with immune dysregulation as measured by serum levels of biological markers of immunity. Adults with mental disorders have also been reported to have attenuated post vaccine immune response. The COVID-19 pandemic has invited the need to determine whether individuals with mental disorders exhibit differential immune response following the administration of vaccines for other infections. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and PsycInfo was conducted from inception to May 2021 investigating vaccine response in persons with mental disorders, as measured by biological markers of immunity (i.e., antibodies, cytokines). RESULTS: Thirteen articles were identified which evaluated vaccine efficacy in persons with mental disorders. Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) or schizophrenia revealed attenuated immune response to vaccination, or no statistical difference compared to control subjects. Individuals with anorexia nervosa or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) displayed no attenuated post-vaccination antibody level. Individuals with insomnia displayed lower levels of antibodies after vaccination, whereas individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) displayed no difference in vaccine response compared to control subjects. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this review include the relatively few articles included (n = 13) and small sample sizes (less than thirty subjects) in the majority of articles. CONCLUSION: Vaccine response in adults with a mental disorder remains inconclusive. Notwithstanding the heterogeneity and relatively small number of studies, available evidence does suggest attenuated immune response across disparate vaccinations. Future research is required to confirm vaccine efficacy in persons with mental disorders, especially regarding immune responses to COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Pandemics , Vaccination
12.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(10): 748-759, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483467

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has become a global public health crisis. Some patients who have recovered from COVID-19 subsequently test positive again for SARS-CoV-2 RNA after discharge from hospital. How such retest-positive (RTP) patients become infected again is not known. In this study, 30 RTP patients, 20 convalescent patients, and 20 healthy controls were enrolled for the analysis of immunological characteristics of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer cells were not substantially decreased in RTP patients, but the expression of activation markers on these cells was significantly reduced. The percentage of granzyme B-producing T cells was also lower in RTP patients than in convalescent patients. Through transcriptome sequencing, we demonstrated that high expression of inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID1) and low expression of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 10 (IFITM10) were associated with insufficient activation of immune cells and the occurrence of RTP. These findings provide insight into the impaired immune function associated with COVID-19 and the pathogenesis of RTP, which may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying RTP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Reinfection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1/genetics , Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reinfection/genetics , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
13.
Brain Behav Immun ; 97: 186-192, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether immune protein panels add significant information to correlates of cognition. BACKGROUND: Immune mechanisms in vascular cognitive aging are incompletely characterized. DESIGN/METHODS: A subsample of the prospective Northern Manhattan Study underwent detailed neuropsychological testing. Cognitive scores were converted into Z-scores and categorized into four domains (memory, language, processing speed, and executive function) based on factor analysis. Blood samples were analyzed using a 60-plex immunoassay. We used least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) procedures to select markers and their interactions independently associated with cognitive scores. Linear regression models assessed cross-sectional associations of known correlates of cognition with cognitive scores, and assessed model fit before and after addition of LASSO-selected immune markers. RESULTS: Among 1179 participants (mean age 70 ± 8.9 years, 60% women, 68% Hispanic), inclusion of LASSO-selected immune markers improved model fit above age, education, and other risk factors (p for likelihood ratio test < 0.005 for all domains). C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 11 (CCL 11, eotaxin), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9 (CXCL9), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and serpin E1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were associated with each of the domains and with overall cognitive function. Immune marker effects were comparable to conventional risk factors: for executive function, each standard deviation (SD) increase in CCL11 was associated with an effect equivalent to aging three years; for memory, HGF had twice the effect of aging. CONCLUSIONS: Immune markers associate with cognitive function in a multi-ethnic cohort. Further work is needed to validate these findings and determine optimal treatment targets.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Aged , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Prospective Studies
14.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(24): 6969-6978, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431163

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, poses a significant threat to public health worldwide, and diabetes is considered a risk factor for the rapid progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19. Limited immune function is a clinical feature of COVID-19 patients, and diabetes patients have defects in innate and adaptive immune functions, which may be an important reason for the rapid progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. We review the possible multiple effects of immune impairment in diabetic patients on the immune responses to COVID-19 to provide guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic patients with COVID-19.

15.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthy eating and physical activity are effective non-pharmacological approaches to boost immune function and contain the pandemic. We aimed to explore the associations and interactions between physical activity and healthy eating behavior with COVID-19-like symptoms (Slike-CV19S). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3947 outpatients, from 14 February to 2 March 2020, at nine health facilities in Vietnam. Data collection included sociodemographic characteristics, healthy eating behavior (using the healthy eating score (HES) questionnaire), physical activity (using the short form international physical activity questionnaire), and Slike-CV19S. The associations and interactions were tested using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Frequent intake of fruits (OR = 0.84; p = 0.016), vegetables (OR = 0.72; p = 0.036), and fish (OR = 0.43; p < 0.001) were associated with a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared with infrequent intake. Patients with higher HES levels (OR = 0.84; p = 0.033 for medium HES; OR = 0.77; p = 0.006 for high HES) or being physically active (OR = 0.69; p < 0.001) had a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared to those with low HES or physical inactivity, respectively. Patients with medium HES who were physically active (OR = 0.69; p = 0.005), or with high HES and physically active (OR = 0.58; p < 0.001), had a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared to those with low HES and physical inactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy eating behavior and physical activity showed single and combinative impacts on protecting people from Slike-CV19S. Strategic approaches are encouraged to improve healthy behaviors, which may further contribute to containing the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients/psychology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam , Young Adult
16.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 16(6): 271-272, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409073
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376810

ABSTRACT

We conducted a systematic review of the effects of a forest therapy program on adults' immune function. We used PICO-SD (participants, interventions, comparisons, outcomes, study design) to identify key items. The participants were adults over the age of 18 and the intervention was forest therapy. Our comparisons included studies that comparatively analyzed urban groups or groups that did not participate in forest therapy intervention. Cases without control groups were also included. Immunological outcome measures were included in measuring intervention outcomes. All experimental studies, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-equivalent control group designs (non-RCTs), and one-group pretest-posttest design were included in the study design. A total of 13 studies were included for comparison. Forest therapy programs were divided into lodging-type and session-type programs. The representative measures for evaluating the effects of immune function were the number of NK cells, the cytotoxic activity of NK cells, and cytotoxic effector molecules. Most studies reported improvement in these measures when comparing values after intervention with values before the forest therapy intervention. Therefore, forest therapy has been found to be effective in improving immune function. More RCT studies on the effects of forest therapy on immune function are necessary.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Adult , Forests , Humans , Immunity , Middle Aged
19.
J Food Biochem ; 46(3): e13884, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348146

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) is a lethal virus that causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019), the respiratory illness that has caused the COVID-19 pandemic. Even though multiple pharmacological trials are ongoing, there is no proof that any treatment will effectively cure or prevent COVID-19. Currently, COVID-19-infected patients are being managed with non-specific medications to suppress the symptoms and other associated co-morbidities. Nitric oxide is a bio-signaling molecule that has been shown to be effective for treating several viral infections in humans. Household Natural foods rich in nitrites and nitrates (NO donors) have been scientifically proven to have therapeutic benefits against immune-related respiratory tract infections. It was understood that NO could inhibit the early stage of SARS CoV-2 invasion into the human cell. Fruits and vegetables containing nitrites and nitrates have been revised and are now thought to be potential anti-CoV agents for effective control of other associated systemic disorders. The purpose of this review is to highlight some key facts about the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 infection with foods rich in nitric oxide and its donors. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Improving the body's immune system is the early step to be considered as a preventive measure to stop the spreading of COVID-19 infection. Emerging research continues to mount that dietary nitrates/nitrites from plant foods are being healthy as well as keep us away from infectious diseases. They are now incorporated into low-risk adjuvant therapy for various infections and systemic disorders. This concept portrays the regular consuming foods such as fruits and vegetables that are rich in nitric oxide which have the potential to promote health, improve general well-being, and reduce the risk associated with the highly contagious diseases. Hence, we recommend adding nitrates and nitrites-containing food to the regular diet to improve the self-immunity as well as to fight against COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Health Promotion , Humans , Immune System , Nitric Oxide Donors , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vegetables
20.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 12(3): 562-564, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340691

ABSTRACT

Individuals with chronic diseases have a higher risk of infection and show lung function impairment. Poor lifestyle choices such as physical inactivity, poor diet, stress, excess tobacco, and alcohol, and sleep disruption increase the risk of chronic inflammation and immune impairment but the evidence does not quantify the specific risk factor(s) and their correlation with the immune system impairment. COVID-19 related uncertainty has created a more urgent need to understand the need to identify interventions that could help in managing the risk factors, especially for healthy individuals who are at a higher risk of infection and/or immune system impairment. The role of three parameters, the Resting Heart Rate (HR), increased Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and lung function is considered as risk factors for systemic inflammation and chronic diseases. The evidence on Bhramari Pranayama is presented for possible lifestyle interventions to reduce the risk of infection, increase lung function, enhance autonomic function, and improve sleep quality in healthy individuals.

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