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1.
10th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, ICBCB 2022 ; : 6-12, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961388

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storms, an overaggressive immune response due to the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, have been identified to play a significant role in COVID-19 infections. Studies have shown that TNF-α and IFN-γ are integral to the process, however, its genetic mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. Herein, the key changes in the gene expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ induced cytokine storms are identified through differential gene analysis on the publicly available GEO GSE160163 dataset. GO and KEGG enrichment were used to annotate identified DEGs, and a PPI network was constructed based on the STRING database. A total of 446 differentially expressed genes were identified. Up-regulated genes and downregulated genes were enriched in viral immune response and infection pathways, and steroid biosynthesis and metabolic pathways, respectively. PPI construction revealed 1,834 interactions between 428 proteins, indicating their biological connectivity. Module analysis identified nine (9) hub genes: STAT1, CXCL10, CD274, CXCL9, IRF1, PSMB9, CD86, STAT3, and CXCR4, involved in viral immune response and three (3) significant modules involved in NOD-like receptor signaling, steroid biosynthesis, and viral infections. These identified DEGs, hub genes, and their respective enriched pathways aid us in understanding the molecular mechanisms of cytokine storms, as well as provide potential gene targets and druggable receptors for the treatment of cytokine storms. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 761(7), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1960943

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to investigate and identifying the possible source of virus in animals and identifying the vector media of the disease and the methods of its spread and working hard to search for a successful vaccine for immunization against infection, in addition to establishing specialized units to predict new versions of the virus in the years to come.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The development of memory B cells after asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is not well understood. METHODS: We compared Spike antibody titers, pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titers, and memory B cell responses among SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive Marine recruits who either reported asymptomatic or symptomatic infection. RESULTS: 36 asymptomatic participants exhibited similar Spike IgG titers, Spike IgA titers, and pseudovirus neutralization titers compared to 30 symptomatic participants. Pseudovirus neutralization and Spike IgG titers showed significant positive correlations with frequency of memory B cells. CONCLUSIONS: Among young adults, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection induced antibody and memory B cell responses comparable to mild symptomatic infection.

5.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 81, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962866

ABSTRACT

Recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy are at increased risk for unfavorable outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines remains undetermined in this vulnerable population, we therefore conducted a pooled analysis to evaluate the immune response after vaccination. A total of 46 studies were finally included, comprising 4757 HSCT and 174 CAR-T recipients. Our results indicated that HSCT and CAR-T recipients had an attenuated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination compared with healthy individuals, while time interval between transplant and vaccination, immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and lymphocyte counts at vaccination significantly affected the humoral response in HSCT recipients. In addition, seroconversion was significantly higher in patients with BCMA-based CAR-T than those with CD19-based CAR-T. Thus, an adapted vaccination strategy for HSCT and CAR-T recipients may be required, and further research on the effect of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine and the role of cellular response after vaccination is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Humans , Immunity , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 94(5):1757-2307, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1957722

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 74 articles (2 commentaries, 17 letters to the editor, 8 reviews, 40 research articles, 7 short communications) that discusses topics related to COVID-19 and its variants. Topics include new drugs against COVID-19, detection of variants, antibody response, evolution and phylogeny, monoclonal antibodies, symptoms, among others.

7.
Cells ; 11(15)2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957237

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that is caused by a highly contagious and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This infection started to spread across the world in 2019 and rapidly turned into a global pandemic, causing an urgent necessity for treatment strategies development. The mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 can trigger an immune response, providing genetic information that allows the production of spike glycoproteins. MiRNAs play a crucial role in diverse key cellular processes, including antiviral defense. Several miRNAs are described as key factors in SARS-CoV-2 human infection through the regulation of ACE2 levels and by the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication and spike expression. Consequently, these molecules have been considered as highly promising biomarkers. In numerous human malignancies, it has been recognized that miRNAs expression is dysregulated. Since miRNAs can target SARS-CoV-2-associated mRNAs, in cancer patients, the deregulation of these molecules can impair the immune response to the vaccines. Therefore, in this review, we propose a miRNA profile of seven SARS-CoV-2-related miRNAs, namely miR-214, miR-98-5p, miR-7-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-15b-5p, that are deregulated in a high number of cancers and have the potential to be used as prognostic biomarkers to stratify cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Front Oncol ; 12: 840451, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957191

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively analyzed SARS-CoV-2 vaccination antibody responses in a cohort of 273 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders or plasma cell dyscrasias who were seen at a single tertiary cancer center. Semi-quantitative anti-spike protein serologic testing was performed with enzyme immunoassay method. We found that the antibody response rate to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was 74.7% in our patient cohort with no difference based on gender, age or race. The highest response rate was found in patients with Multiple Myeloma (MM) (95.5%). The response rates found in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), and Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (LG-NHL) were 73.2%, 61.5% and 53% respectively. We also evaluated the effects of receiving active chemo-immunotherapy on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination antibody response. We found that the patients on treatment had lower response than the patients off treatment (62.1% versus 84.4% p<0.001). Thirty-four of 58 LG-NHL patients were receiving anti-lymphoma treatment with a lower SARS-CoV-2 vaccination response as compared to the patients who were not on treatment (29.4% v 87.5% p<0.001). We observed a similar pattern in CLL patients receiving treatment (48.1 v 76.0 p:0.049). We found that only disease type and treatment status (on-treatment vs. off- treatment), but not gender, age or race were significant predictors of non-response in the multivariable logistic regression model. The interaction between disease type and treatment status was not statistically significant by multivariate analysis. In conclusion, receiving anti-cancer treatment was found to play a significant role in decreasing the response to COVID-19 vaccination.

9.
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 16(2):204-212, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957619

ABSTRACT

The main role of platelets is traditionally assigned to participation in hemostasis reactions. In recent years, the data have appeared on the non-hemostatic platelet-related role and their active participation in inflammatory reactions. These platelet functions are predetermined by their ability to activate and secrete various immunomodulatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, activated platelets can directly interact with viral receptors. Recently, there has been growing the knowledge regarding platelet-related regulation of diverse cell types. The result of this interaction is, among others, the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates, the focusing of neutrophils at the sites of injury, and generation of a scaffold for developing extracellular traps. Thus, platelets are not only participants in coagulation processes, but also important players in the inflammatory process. This lecture details the issues of platelets controlling and modulating host response to viral infection, as well as potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

10.
Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society ; 73(2):3951-3960, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957595

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), immunochromatographic (ICG), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods for the detection of rotavirus (RV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV). Faeces samples were collected from 90 diarrhoeic calves (male and female) up to one month of age and the immune response against RV and BCV infection was assessed by using AgELISA, ICG, and RT-PCR. To determine the performance and accuracy of each diagnostic method in comparison to the diagnostic gold standard (RT-PCR) method, different statistical tests including receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and concordance correlation were used. Results revealed the prevalence of RV and BCV and RV+BCV according to RT-PCR were equal to 8.89 (95% CI: 6.64-10.07), 14.44 (95% CI: 11.23-6.90), and 2.22 (95% CI: 0.89-3.72), respectively. The best agreement and the highest sensitivity and specificity were obtained between the RT-PCR and AgELISA (100% and 94.3%), and also the ICG test (95% and 94.3%) was less accurate method in comparison to ELISA method for identifying RV and BCV, but a good correlation and concordance between ICG diagnostic techniques and RT-PCR were observed. To put it in a nutshell, our results demonstrate that the AgELISA is the most accurate technique in comparison to RT-PCR, however the ICG assay can help improve the speed of diagnosis RV and BCV infections in dairy field. New scientific strategies for promoting accuracy and transparency of ICG-based technique in early diagnosis of the cause of calf diarrhoea should be used. Altogether, we suggest that positive ICG samples should be tested by AgELISA or RT-PCR techniques to avoid false results in farm animals.

11.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956794

ABSTRACT

There are two approaches to scientific investigation, the common approach (proving one’s theory) and Popper’s approach (falsification of one’s theories). Popper’s approach has advantages as well as dangers (being perceived as not sure of one’s theories, or even be hostile to them—an ‘auto-traitor’). Nevertheless, the Popper approach can bridge the gap between inhibition (directly observable) and inhibitory regulation (not directly observable). Suppression of immune responses by antigen-specific antibody has led to theories regarding immunoregulation by immune products. There are many immune products capable of regulating immune responses. The inhibitory outcomes of this regulation have been called coinhibition and immune checkpoint inhibition. Coinhibition should be used when regulation begins at the cell surface or in the cell cytoplasm, which opens up the possibility of antigen-specific regulation. Immune checkpoint inhibition should be used when the initiating inhibitory event occurs in the nucleus, such as by directly affecting the cell cycle, where the concept of antigen-specific regulation is more difficult to invoke. These forms of immunoregulation could be corrupted by viral infections, such as in COVID-19 infections.

12.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:347-348, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956768

ABSTRACT

Background: New Classification of Periodontal and Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions having worked into 2017 has defined candida-associated periodontal lesions as “Non-plaque-induced gingival diseases” associated with specific infection (list point 2.3). Patients with diagnosis Periodontal candidosis have been observed at the Division of Periodontology SPBGMU and City Periodontal Center “PAKS” more than for 25 years with an average quantity of 3-5 new cases a year. There had been formed a typical pattern for setting diagnosis and treatment. As a risk group was recognized, patients who predominantly had such general conditions as diabetes, immunosuppressive therapy, and heavy smokers. Since 2020 the pattern has been completely changed due to changing general conditions of the patients who consisted of the group and increasing quantity of periodontal candidosis about threefold. The core of the group has consisted of predominantly patients who recently had COVID-19 and/or underwent immunosuppressive therapy. Description of the procedure: Diagnostic procedure: Level 1. Anamnesis, clinical record, standard periodontal charting, estimation of periodontal and hygienical indices, absence or present mucosa lesions. CBCT Level 2. Clinical fluorescence diagnostic-wave length 400 ± 10 nm estimation gingival and mucosa condition. The cultural test for Candida detecting. Level 3. Cytology Treatment: in addition to SRP procedure there prescribed local and systemic antifungal therapy. 1. Photodynamic therapy (toluidine blue photosensitizer) 2. Local antifungal therapy - rinsing by Clotrimazole solution 3. Systemic antifungal therapy - Fluconazole 150 mg once in day 4. Modification of host response - Imudon 6 six in day 5. Toothpaste with the alkalic antifungal agent -sodium bicarbonate. Outcomes: Outcome control: Clinical investigation, the cultural test for Candida. Case: Female age 47 had a severe COVID-19 case, 3 months later she had rising level of activity periodontitis without response on usual periodontal therapy. Conclusions: Candida-associated periodontitis is difficult for diagnostic and treatment disease which use to occur quietly rare but nowadays have vastly increased.

13.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:348-349, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956766

ABSTRACT

Background: Necrotizing periodontal diseases (NPD) are fuso-spirochetal infections causing ulceration and destruction of periodontal tissues and associate with impaired host response. Elevated bacterial levels of Prevotella intermedia, Veillonella and Streptococci present in NPD lesions were detected in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Description of the procedure: A 40-year-old female, non-smoker patient was referred to the clinic with complaints of fever, halitosis, bad taste, severe gingival pain and bleeding. The patient reported a history of COVID-19 a month prior to any symptoms. Extra and intraoral examinations revealed submandibular lymphadenopathy, plaque accumulation, necrotic areas covered with pseudo-membranes, spontaneous gingival bleeding and suppuration. Alveolar bone loss was detected in the radiographic examination. Since periodontal pocket formation was present, the clinical diagnosis of the case was necrotizing gingivitis as a result of previously occurred periodontitis. During the first visit, necrotic areas were gently swabbed with 3% H2O2 moistened cotton pellets and oral hygiene instructions were given. Systemic antibiotic (metronidazole 500 mg 2 × 1) was prescribed for 5 days and rinsing with 0.12% chlorhexidine and 3% H2O2 was recommended. Three days later, since the acute complaints were reduced, clinical periodontal parameters were recorded and nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) was performed in 4 sessions in 2 weeks. One month after NSPT, all clinical periodontal parameters were recorded again. Outcomes: Following NSPT with the combination of systemic antibiotic regimen, all symptoms were resolved leading to the dissolution of necrotic areas. All clinical parameters were improved after NSPT. Conclusions: This case may be an evidence that COVID-19 could be a contributing factor for the appearance of NPD. Since COVID-19 leads to an altered immune response of the patient, a suitable environment becomes present orally for bacteria causing infections that result in NPD. The importance of routine intra-oral examination for COVID-19 patients is highlighted.

14.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e248, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956704

ABSTRACT

A 58-year-old man known to dermatology services, established on guselkumab for psoriasis and methotrexate for psoriatic arthritis, attended with an acute onset purpuric rash distributed over both his lower limbs, one day after his third dose of SARS-CoV-2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (booster). He had received his initial vaccinations 6 months prior with no reported reactions. He denied any previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or recent symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. There had been no new recent medications and no systemic symptoms were reported. Examination revealed a nonblanching, palpable, purpuric rash distributed over both lower limbs, clinically in keeping with cutaneous vasculitis. Baseline observations were satisfactory including blood pressure and temperature. Bedside investigations included a urinalysis which revealed no proteinuria or haematuria. Punch biopsies were taken and were consistent with a leucocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV). He was managed symptomatically with potent topical steroids with good clinical response. LCV is classified as a cutaneous, small vessel vasculitis, exclusively characterized by deposition of immune complexes in the dermal capillaries and venules (Baigrie D, Bansal P, Goyal A, Crane JS. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing, 2021). LCV following both first and second SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations has been documented in recent literature with a few reports following a third booster dose, and in particular within an immunocompromised population. This particular case has raised questions regarding delayed immune response following SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in this subgroup. The pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced LCV has not been extensively researched;however, it is felt to be caused by offtarget immune activation after the vaccination (Dicks AB, Gray BH. Images in vascular medicine: leukocytoclastic vasculitis after COVID-19 vaccine booster. Vasc Med 2022;27: 100-1).

15.
International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology ; 14(3):138-160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955704

ABSTRACT

Despite the introduction of vaccines and drugs for SARS-CoV-2, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread throughout the world. In severe COVID-19 patients, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been detected in the blood, lung cells, and bronchoalveolar lavage, which is referred to as a cytokine storm, a consequence of overactivation of the NLR family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and resultant excessive cytokine production. The hyperinflammatory response and cytokine storm cause multiorgan impairment including the central nervous system, in addition to a detriment to the respiratory system. Hyperactive NLRP3 inflammasome, due to dysregulated immune response, is the primary cause of COVID-19 severity. The severity could be enhanced due to viral evolution leading to the emergence of mutated variants of concern, such as delta and omicron. In this review, we elaborate on the inflammatory responses associated with the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in COVID-19 pathogenesis, the mechanisms for the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pathway involved, cytokine storm, and neurological complications as long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Also discussed is the therapeutic potential of NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors for the treatment of COVID-19.

16.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4629-4641, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954696

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has undergone multiple mutations since its emergence, and its latest variant, Omicron (B.1.1.529), is the most contagious variant of concern (VOC) which poses a major and imminent threat to public health. Since firstly reported by World Health Organization (WHO) in November 2021, Omicron variant has been spreading rapidly and has become the dominant variant in many countries worldwide. Omicron is the most mutated variant so far, containing 60 mutations in its genome, including 37 mutations in the S-protein. Since all current COVID-19 vaccines in use were developed based on ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strains, whether they are protective against Omicron is a critical question which has been the center of study currently. In this article, we systemically reviewed the studies regarding the effectiveness of 2- or 3-dose vaccines delivered in either homologous or heterologous manner. The humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by various vaccine regimens to protect against Omicron variant are discussed. Current understanding of the molecular basis underlying immune escape of Omicron was also analyzed. These studies indicate that two doses of vaccination are insufficient to elicit neutralizing antibody responses against Omicron variant. Nevertheless, Omicron-specific humoral immune responses can be enhanced by booster dose of almost all type vaccines in certain degree, and heterologous vaccination strategy may represent a better choice than homogenous regimens. Intriguingly, results of studies indicate that all current vaccines are still able to elicit robust T cell response against Omicron. Future focus should be the development of Omicron variant vaccine, which may induce potent humoral as well as cellular immune responses simultaneously against all known variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842949, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952325

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Viral replication in the respiratory tract induces the death of infected cells and the release of pathogen- associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PAMPs give rise to local inflammation, increasing the secretion of pro- inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which attract immune cells from the blood into the infected lung. In most individuals, lung-recruited cells clear the infection, and the immune response retreats. However, in some cases, a dysfunctional immune response occurs, which triggers a cytokine storm in the lung, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Severe COVID-19 is characterized by an impaired innate and adaptive immune response and by a massive expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs function as protective regulators of the immune response, protecting the host from over-immunoreactivity and hyper-inflammation. However, under certain conditions, such as chronic inflammation and cancer, MDSCs could exert a detrimental role. Accordingly, the early expansion of MDSCs in COVID-19 is able to predict the fatal outcome of the infection. Here, we review recent data on MDSCs during COVID-19, discussing how they can influence the course of the disease and whether they could be considered as biomarker and possible targets for new therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 833085, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952321

ABSTRACT

In the COVID-19 pandemic year 2021, several countries have implemented a vaccine certificate policy, the "Green Pass Policy" (GPP), to reduce virus spread and to allow safe relaxation of COVID-19 restrictions and reopening of social and economic activities. The rationale for the GPP is based on the assumption that vaccinated people should maintain a certain degree of immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Here we describe and compare, for the first time, the humoral immune response to mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, Ad26.COV2.S, and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines in terms of antibody titer elicited, neutralizing activity, and epitope reactogenicity among 369 individuals aged 19 to 94 years. In parallel, we also considered the use of a rapid test for the determination of neutralizing antibodies as a tool to guide policymakers in defining booster vaccination strategies and eligibility for Green Pass. Our analysis demonstrates that the titer of antibodies directed towards the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 Spike is significantly associated with age and vaccine type. Moreover, natural COVID-19 infection combined with vaccination results, on average, in higher antibody titer and higher neutralizing activity as compared to fully vaccinated individuals without prior COVID-19. We also found that levels of anti-Spike RBD antibodies are not always strictly associated with the extent of inhibition of RBD-ACE2 binding, as we could observe different neutralizing activities in sera with similar anti-RBD concentrations. Finally, we evaluated the reactivity to four synthetic peptides derived from Spike protein on a randomly selected serum sample and observed that similar to SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination elicits a heterogeneous antibody response with qualitative individual features. On the basis of our results, the use of rapid devices to detect the presence of neutralizing antibodies, even on a large scale and repeatedly over time, appears helpful in determining the duration of the humoral protection elicited by vaccination. These aspects and their implications for the GPP are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 88(1):3457-3463, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955275

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a global health crisis caused by SARS-CoV-2 and associated with higher morbidity and mortality in patients on maintenance Haemodialysis (HD). Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but especially those with End-stage renal disease (ESRD), treated with maintenance HD tend to have a reduced immune response to infection or vaccination. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the immune response following vaccination with the COVID-19 vaccines in patients with maintenance HD and the factors associated with it. Patients and methods: This prospective observational comparative study included 44 patients with ESRD on maintenance HD had been done in the Internal Medicine and Clinical Pathology Departments, Zagazig University Hospital. Another 20 vaccinated non-renal patients were considered controls. SARS-COV2 IgG was estimated using an ELISA assay. Results: There is a lower significant value of SARS COVID igG in renal dialysis patients compared to the control group regarding sex, smoking habit, and obesity. Also, there is a lower significant value of SARS COVID IgG in renal dialysis patients compared to the control group regarding the history of COVID19 infection before vaccination and occurrence of post-vaccine adverse effects. There is a higher significant SARS COVID igG value for males and smokers in the control group. Conclusion: Hemodialysis patients demonstrate a hyporesponsiveness to vaccination against COVID-19. Although most patients on maintenance hemodialysis developed a substantial humoral response following the COVID vaccine, it was significantly lower than controls. © 2022, Ain Shams University Faculty of Medicine. All rights reserved.

20.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 64: 103937, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with MS treated with anti-CD20 therapies and fingolimod often have attenuated responses to initial COVID-19 vaccination. However, uncertainties remain about the benefit of a 3rd (booster) COVID-19 vaccine in this group. METHODS: PwMS without a detectable IgG response following COVID-19 vaccines 1&2 were invited to participate. Participants provided a dried blood spot +/- venous blood sample 2-12 weeks following COVID-19 vaccine 3. Humoral and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleocapsid antigen were measured. RESULTS: Of 81 participants, 79 provided a dried blood spot sample, of whom 38 also provided a whole blood sample; 2 provided only whole blood. Anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike IgG seroconversion post-COVID-19 vaccine 3 occurred in 26/79 (33%) participants; 26/40 (65%) had positive T-cell responses. Overall, 31/40 (78%) demonstrated either humoral or cellular immune response post-COVID-19 vaccine 3. There was no association between laboratory evidence of prior COVID-19 and seroconversion following vaccine 3. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of pwMS who were seronegative after initial COVID-19 vaccination seroconverted after booster (third) vaccination, supporting the use of boosters in this group. Almost 8 out of 10 had a measurable immune response following 3rd COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
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