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1.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(11), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2196824

ABSTRACT

The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been proven effective in the prevention of infection with high-risk HPV types, which can lead to the development of six HPV-related cancers. Puerto Rico (PR) adopted a mandatory HPV vaccination school-entry policy that took effect in August 2018. While school-entry requirements are generally accepted as an effective approach for increasing vaccination rates, there are few studies that have documented their impact on improving HPV vaccination rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the HPV school-entry policy in PR on HPV vaccine coverage. We used a pre-post natural experiment. The study population included adolescents registered in the PR Immunization Registry during 2008-2019. We calculated HPV vaccine initiation and up-to-date (UTD) vaccine coverage rates. We estimated age-standardized rates (ASR) and standardized rate ratio with 95%CI. Vaccine data corresponding to a total of 495,327 adolescents were included for analysis;50.9% were male and 49.1% were females. After policy implementation, a marked increase in raw HPV vaccine initiation among 11- to 12-year-old adolescents was observed across years 2017 (a pre-policy year), 2018, and 2019 (58.3%, 76.3%, and 89.8%, respectively). UTD coverage also showed a moderate increase after policy implementation among 11- to 12-year-old adolescents. The gap between sexes in vaccine initiation and UTD coverage narrowed over time;the ASRs in 2019 showed an increase of 19% in initiation and 7% increase in UTD relative to 2017 for males and females combined (both significant at p<0.05). This study demonstrated evidence of improvement in HPV vaccination rates following implementation of the school-entry policy and a narrowed sex gap in vaccine rates over time in PR. Future analyses should assess how the policy continues to affect vaccine coverage in subsequent years and how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted HPV vaccination uptake.

2.
PLoS Computational Biology ; 18(5), 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2196807

ABSTRACT

We analyze the effectiveness of the first six months of vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2 in Italy by using a computational epidemic model which takes into account demographic, mobility, vaccines data, as well as estimates of the introduction and spreading of the more transmissible Alpha variant. We consider six sub-national regions and study the effect of vaccines in terms of number of averted deaths, infections, and reduction in the Infection Fatality Rate (IFR) with respect to counterfactual scenarios with the actual non-pharmaceuticals interventions but no vaccine administration. Furthermore, we compare the effectiveness in counterfactual scenarios with different vaccines allocation strategies and vaccination rates. Our results show that, as of 2021/07/05, vaccines averted 29, 350 (IQR: [16, 454-42, 826]) deaths and 4, 256, 332 (IQR: [1, 675, 564-6, 980, 070]) infections and a new pandemic wave in the country. During the same period, they achieved a -22.2% (IQR: [-31.4%;-13.9%]) IFR reduction. We show that a campaign that would have strictly prioritized age groups at higher risk of dying from COVID-19, besides frontline workers and the fragile population, would have implied additional benefits both in terms of avoided fatalities and reduction in the IFR. Strategies targeting the most active age groups would have prevented a higher number of infections but would have been associated with more deaths. Finally, we study the effects of different vaccination intake scenarios by rescaling the number of available doses in the time period under study to those administered in other countries of reference. The modeling framework can be applied to other countries to provide a mechanistic characterization of vaccination campaigns worldwide.

3.
Revista Cubana de Salud Publica ; 48(2), 2022.
Article in Spanish | GIM | ID: covidwho-2169646

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cuba is a country with development in the biotechnology and medicines field, where pharmacoeconomic studies provide significant evidence for decision-making;mainly at present when the country is immersed in the "Task of Ordering" and at the same time is affected by the pandemic of the new coronavirus.

4.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(10):6612-6612, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2201953
5.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(10):6375-6379, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2201941

ABSTRACT

Background: In response to this coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccines reaching the predetermined levels of safety and efficacy were rolled out for use under emergency use approval/listing (EUA/EUL). The government of India has introduced three vaccines for emergency use as of today. Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the association between the Covishield vaccine and COVID-19 infection among adults (45 years) who undergo reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) COVID-19 testing.

6.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(10):6081-6086, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2201928

ABSTRACT

Background: Minority and low socioeconomic communities may face practical barriers to vaccination, including decreased access to health care and less trust in healthcare organizations;however, few studies have focused on these barriers as the cause of differential vaccine uptake. We worked with community partners to implement and evaluate two community-driven approaches to COVID-19 vaccination distribution-through faith-based organizations (FBOs) and outpatient clinics-with a focus on understanding the differences between the populations who accessed each distribution method. Methodology: Participants who came to the vaccination locations were approached and asked to complete a survey during their 15 min post-vaccination observation period. Differences between distribution locations were examined using Chi-square tests.

7.
Health Information Management ; 18(6):265-271, 2021.
Article in Persian | GIM | ID: covidwho-2205049

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During health crises, such as Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the spread of fake news and rumors makes it difficult to distinguish real news. Besides, despite dangers, some endanger public safety by avoiding vaccination. It is not clear to what extent the individuals understand the dangers, and are influenced by the fake news. To elucidate the causes of this risky behavior, this study examined the role of fake news detection and risk perception in vaccine acceptance among students of Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

8.
Canada Communicable Disease Report ; 48(7/8):292-302, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2204033

ABSTRACT

This study illustrates what may have happened, in terms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections, hospitalizations and deaths in Canada, had public health measures not been used to control the COVID-19 epidemic, and had restrictions been lifted with low levels of vaccination, or no vaccination, of the Canadian population. The timeline of the epidemic in Canada, and the public health interventions used to control the epidemic, are reviewed. Comparisons against outcomes in other countries and counterfactual modelling illustrate the relative success of control of the epidemic in Canada. Together, these observations show that without the use of restrictive measures and without high levels of vaccination, Canada could have experienced substantially higher numbers of infections and hospitalizations and almost a million deaths.

9.
Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases ; 96(2):56-60, 2022.
Article in Japanese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2203543

ABSTRACT

Objective: We investigated whether there was a difference in the antibody profile after Pfizer/BioNtech vaccination in persons who had already been infected with COVID-19 and those who had not. Method: Blood samples were obtained before, after the first dose and after the second dose of Pfizer/BioNtech vaccine inoculation in 4 subjects with a history of COVID-19 infection and 62 subjects without a history of COVID-19 infection after obtaining their informed consent. The differences in the antibody titers were examined between those with and without a prior history of COVID-19. Result: As compared with those without a prior history of COVID-19, those with a prior history of COVID-19 showed significantly higher antibody titers after the first inoculation, and the antibody titers were significantly higher than even those after the second inoculation of subjects without a prior history of COVID-19.

10.
D + C, Development and Cooperation ; 48(7/8):30-30, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2156658

ABSTRACT

A new era for boosting immunization progress worldwide has begun with the introduction of the Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030). The COVID-19 pandemic, which severely disrupted regular immunization programs, marked a turning point in this transformation in many respects. Importantly, the article highlights the pressing problems that must be resolved in the new IA2030 age as vaccination hesitation, false information, unequal access, governmental inertia, and commercial interest protection. In addition to these difficulties, they argue in favor of giving lost chances for immunization priority. Any time a person who is eligible for vaccination contacts health care providers but does not receive either one or both of the vaccine doses for which they are qualified, this is referred to as a missed opportunity for immunization. Unquestionably, global immunization rates have stagnated below the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. The worldwide suspension of routine immunization programs as a result of the COVID-19 epidemic has further hampered progress. Missed immunization chances are common but vary within and among nations, sometimes reaching 89%. In order to meet the Global Vaccine Action Plan's unmet objectives and provide catch-up vaccines to reverse the pandemic's negative effects on immunization progress, it is now crucial to address missed chances for vaccination. Fulfilling IA2030's vision will require a thorough understanding of the burden of missed opportunities for vaccination and its multidimensional determinants at national and sub-national levels, the implementation of context-appropriate corrective measures, and periodic progress monitoring, in line with its fourth strategic priority.

11.
Journal of Hainan Medical University ; 27(20):1521-1526, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2145384

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the inoculation status of Novel Coronavirus vaccine among college students in Hainan province and its related influencing factors, and to provide scientific basis for improving the inoculation rate of this population.

12.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(9):5077-5081, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2144213

ABSTRACT

Background: Frontline health care workers (FLHCW) like doctors and nurses are bound to treat COVID patients being themselves not immune to disease are at a greater risk of COVID infection than the general population. The study was started with objectives to find out the vaccine hesitancy towards the COVID vaccine and to find out the factors associated with vaccine hesitancy among FLHCW working in a designated COVID care center. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study carried out for a period of 6 months from Jan 2021 to June 2021 at a designated COVID care center. FLHCWs who were part of treating COVID patients were our study participants. Among them, FLHCWs who had not received even one dose of COVID vaccine (Covishield) were included in the study. FLHCWs who had been part of the COVID vaccine trial were excluded from the study. The sample size calculated based on a previous study found to be 240. The data collected were entered into a Microsoft office excel sheet, analyzed using SPSS v 22(IBM Corp). Descriptive statistics were applied, and parametric tests were used to compare among the groups with statistically significant P value lesser than 0.05Results: A total of 121 (52.6%) of FLHCWs were aged more than 30 years, 118 (51.5%) were male participants, 100 (43.5%) were paramedics by occupation, 51 (22.1%) had contracted COVID infection, 202 (87.8%) had received information, education, and communication (IEC) regarding COVID vaccine. FLHCWs more than 30 years, male participants, currently not working in COVIDward, FLHCWs who had not received IEC about COVIDvaccination and paramedics had higher scores of Vaccine hesitancy, and the difference was statistically significant indicating vaccine hesitancy.

13.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(9):5041-5054, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2144207

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the development and rollout of several vaccines worldwide at unprecedented pace. This systematic review of published literature has been undertaken to spread awareness among general physicians and ophthalmologists about the various reported adverse effects in the eye following COVID-19 vaccination. A systematic search was performed on 25 January 2022 through PuBMed, Medline and Google scholar for publications on ocular adverse effects after COVID-19 vaccination. One brief communication, four retrospective case series, sixteen case reports, and five letters to editors were included. Ocular manifestations most commonly appear in the uvea and retina. Other manifestations are seen on the eyelid, cornea and ocular surface, and in cranial nerves innervating the eye. The incidence rate of these manifestations is quite low after COVID-19 vaccinations. Our systematic review meticulously enumerates various adverse effects of COVID -19 vaccine on the eye. Most of these adverse effects are transient and observed to resolve without any sequelae except for cases of retinal and ophthalmic vascular occlusions and corneal graft rejections. An emphasis on close follow-up and a need to delay vaccination and modified therapy to control flare up of signs and symptoms in certain sub-populations, Graves' disease (autoimmune etiology), pre-existing uveal inflammation and corneal graft cases are warranted. We need long-term, larger, multicentric studies to substantiate our findings and establish the causal relationship with certainty. Mass vaccinations to curb this pandemic after outweighing the ocular risks associated with it is warranted.

14.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(1):4749-4756, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2125962

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory disorder affecting millions around the world. Practitioners from various sectors of the medical field are deliberating and daily exchanging knowledge to understand this disease, along with ongoing research related to the vaccines and medications for combating it. Design and methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted among the health care professionals of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using an online survey. A total 571 participants from Riyadh were used in this study and were contacted using social media.

15.
Africa Health ; 44(1):11-13, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2125283

ABSTRACT

This article highlights the importance of global mechanisms in place to complement effective regional, national and sub-national approaches to handling the pandemics. It presents the legitimacy and the case for local input, regional themes observed, and means by which local responses can be enabled. In conclusion, the voice of those deeply engaged in their regions and localities and trusted by the people they serve, are essential to getting the path to an effective, game-changing global convention right. A global regime that enhances these voices and their strategies could meaningfully affect the lives of the many people counting on the success of the discussed initiative.

16.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(1):6727-6743, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2124901

ABSTRACT

Aim: The presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is an indicator of protective immunity for most viral infections. This study investigated the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies NAbs (IgM & IgG) following vaccination with three common potential vaccines (Pfizer, AstraZeneca and Sino pharm), in Nasiriya city /south of Iraq. Methods. From September 2021 to April 2022.158 participants who had completed COVID-19 vaccination (50 persons for each) were recruited and tested using Covid-19 neutralizing antibody kits, for NAbs evaluation. Results. Majority of the participants were 21-40 years old of age. NAbs were observed in 100% of enrolled individuals (vaccinated or not) but with significant difference in the IgM and IgG titers in correlate to the vaccine type, but there weren't with other demographic factors effect. Nine days after second vaccine dose, spike protein neutralizing antibody levels were two-fold higher of IgM and 5-fold higher of IgG, exceeding titers of non-vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-naive control. Pfizer vaccine type against COVID-19 gave the highest IgM and IgG titers during the 6 months' trial, with the lowest declining rate. AstraZeneca vaccine type provided an intermediate IgM and IgG titer with a rapid declining rate, while Sino pharm vaccine offered a low IgM and IgG titers with slowly decreasing rate with time.

17.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(2 Suppl):S1-S50, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2124312

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contain 106 s that cover a wide range of the most recent scientific and clinical findings concerning COVID-19. Immunology, immunizations, resiliency, innovations in care delivery, inequities in care, telemedicine, identification of risk factors, innovative treatments, and education were among the topics covered.

18.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:20, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2112045

ABSTRACT

On 12 May 2022, the ECDC reclassified Omicron sub-lineages BA.4 and BA.5 from variant of interest to variants of concern. Since their discovery in January and February 2022, respectively, BA.4 and BA.5 have dominated South Africa. In Portugal, BA.5 variant proportions have been rising, along with COVID-19 cases and test positive. As of 8 May 2022, the Portuguese National Institute of Health estimated that 37% of positive cases were BA.5. BA.5's daily growth advantage over BA.2 is 13%, equal to South Africa's 12%. With that growth, BA.5 dominated Portugal by 22 May 2022. Symptomatic BA.4 or BA.5 illness is unlikely to protect uninfected people. Vaccinated sera performed better in invitro experiments, however existing vaccinations lose protection against the Omicron version over time. BA.4 and BA.5 are not worse than prior Omicron lineages. This suggests that in the coming weeks and months, these mutations may increase COVID-19 cases in the EU and EEA. BA.4 and BA.5 are now rare in the EU and EEA, but their rapid growth rates predict they will dominate in the following months. The limited data suggests no substantial increase in infection severity compared to the circulating lineages BA.1 and BA.2. As in earlier waves, COVID-19 cases may increase hospital and ICU admissions. Sensitive, representative testing, genomic surveillance, and rapid sequence reporting are essential for early variant detection. Representative testing policies are needed to accurately quantify the proportion of these variants to ongoing viral circulation and the amount to which they may contribute to population-wide adverse outcomes like hospital or ICU admissions. In cases of persistent high or growing viral circulation, the ECDC observed that rapid delivery of a second mRNA COVID-19 booster dose in those 80 years and older was optimum.

19.
HPS Weekly Report ; 56:25, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2112034

ABSTRACT

Public Health Scotland (PHS) has called for eligible people, such as the elderly or those with a weakened immune system, to receive the spring booster vaccination, in order to help reduce the risk of serious illness, or admission to hospital, due to COVID-19 infection. The spring booster dose will usually be offered around six months since the previous dose of COVID-19 vaccine, though some people may be invited sooner than this, at least three months following their last dose, to help protect them against any increase in COVID-19 infections.

20.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 35(3):344-350, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2056451
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