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1.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; 37(12):1108-1117, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1818313

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been a global pandemic. Safe and effective vaccination is critical to ending the epidemic of COVID-19. Although randomized clinical trials are considered the "gold standard" for evaluating intervention effects of vaccines, they have notable limitations. As mass vaccination campaigns against COVID-19 commence worldwide, vaccine effectiveness needs to be assessed for a range of outcomes across diverse populations in a noncontrolled setting. Meanwhile, SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge during the global pandemic and may facilitate escape from current vaccine immune protection. Hence, COVID19 vaccines faced many challenges, such as safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the COVID-19 Vaccine in special populations, the duration of protective effectiveness, viral mutations and breakthrough infection, antibody-dependent enhancement effect, and pathogenic autoimmune and so on. This article summarizes th.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765969

ABSTRACT

The adaptive immune system, along with the innate immune system, are the two main biological processes that protect an organism from pathogens. The adaptive immune system is characterized by the specificity and extreme diversity of its antigen receptors. These antigen receptors are the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies of the B cells and the T cell receptors (TR) of the T cells. The IG are proteins that have a dual role in immunity: they recognize antigens and trigger elimination mechanisms, to rid the body of foreign cells. The synthesis of the immunoglobulin heavy and light chains requires gene rearrangements at the DNA level in the IGH, IGK, and IGL loci. The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is one of the most widely used nonhuman primate species in biomedical research. In this manuscript, we provide a thorough analysis of the three IG loci of the Mmul_10 assembly of rhesus monkey, integrating IMGT previously existing data. Detailed characterization of IG genes includes their localization and position in the loci, the determination of the allele functionality, and the description of the regulatory elements of their promoters as well as the sequences of the conventional recombination signals (RS). This complete annotation of the genomic IG loci of Mmul_10 assembly and the highly detailed IG gene characterization could be used as a model, in additional rhesus monkey assemblies, for the analysis of the IG allelic polymorphism and structural variation, which have been described in rhesus monkeys.

3.
Journal of General Virology ; 102(11), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1722771

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread worldwide as a severe pandemic, and a significant portion of the infected population may remain asymptomatic. Given this, five surveys were carried out between May and September 2020 with a total of 3585 volunteers in the municipality of Foz do Igua..u, State of Paran.., a triple border region between Brazil/Argentina/Paraguay. Five months after the first infection, volunteers were re-analysed for the production of IgG anti-Spike and anti-RBD-Spike, in addition to analyses of cellular immunity. Seroconversion rates ranged from 4.4% to a peak of 37.21% followed by a reduction in seroconversion to 21.1% in September, indicating that 25% of the population lost their circulating anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies 3 months after infection. Analyses after 5 months of infection showed that only 17.2% of people still had anti-RBD-Spike antibodies, however, most volunteers had some degree of cellular immune response. The strategy of letting people become naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2 to achieve herd immunity is flawed, and the first contact with the virus may not generate enough immunogenic stimulus to prevent a possible second infection.

4.
Immunology ; 166(1): 68-77, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685320

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection results in different outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to mild or severe disease and death. Reasons for this diversity of outcome include differences in challenge dose, age, gender, comorbidity and host genomic variation. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms may influence immune response and disease outcome. We investigated the association of HLAII alleles with case definition symptomatic COVID-19, virus-specific antibody and T-cell immunity. A total of 1364 UK healthcare workers (HCWs) were recruited during the first UK SARS-CoV-2 wave and analysed longitudinally, encompassing regular PCR screening for infection, symptom reporting, imputation of HLAII genotype and analysis for antibody and T-cell responses to nucleoprotein (N) and spike (S). Of 272 (20%) HCW who seroconverted, the presence of HLA-DRB1*13:02 was associated with a 6·7-fold increased risk of case definition symptomatic COVID-19. In terms of immune responsiveness, HLA-DRB1*15:02 was associated with lower nucleocapsid T-cell responses. There was no association between DRB1 alleles and anti-spike antibody titres after two COVID vaccine doses. However, HLA DRB1*15:01 was associated with increased spike T-cell responses following both first and second dose vaccination. Trial registration: NCT04318314 and ISRCTN15677965.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Genet ; 12: 774916, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581351

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic era launched an immediate and broad response of the research community with studies both about the virus and host genetics. Research in genetics investigated HLA association with COVID-19 based on in silico, population, and individual data. However, they were conducted with variable scale and success; convincing results were mostly obtained with broader whole-genome association studies. Here, we propose a technical review of HLA analysis, including basic HLA knowledge as well as available tools and advice. We notably describe recent algorithms to infer and call HLA genotypes from GWAS SNPs and NGS data, respectively, which opens the possibility to investigate HLA from large datasets without a specific initial focus on this region. We thus hope this overview will empower geneticists who were unfamiliar with HLA to run MHC-focused analyses following the footsteps of the Covid-19|HLA & Immunogenetics Consortium.

6.
Front Genet ; 12: 774922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574199

ABSTRACT

The rapid, global spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the current pandemic has triggered numerous efforts in clinical and research settings to better understand the host genetics' interactions and the severity of COVID-19. Due to the established major role played by MHC/HLA polymorphism in infectious disease course and susceptibility, immunologists and geneticists have teamed up to investigate its contribution to the SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 progression. A major goal of the Covid-19|HLA & Immunogenetics Consortium is to support and unify these efforts. Here, we present a review of HLA immunogenomics studies in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and reflect on the role of various HLA data, their limitation and future perspectives.

7.
Life (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438659

ABSTRACT

The present cross-sectional study consists of a comprehensive analysis of epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in relation to their immunogenetic profiles. We studied 125 COVID-19 patients comprising different stages of disease severity; non-hospitalized (mild n = 69) and hospitalized (n = 56). Analysis of disease characteristics revealed no major differences between males and females of each group of patients while hospitalized patients were older and presented with comorbidities. A positive allele association was observed for HLA-DRB1*01 in total COVID-19 patients versus healthy controls. Subgrouping of COVID-19 patients in mild and hospitalized further identified a statistically significant increase in HLA-DRB1*01 in mild COVID-19 patients versus controls. The frequency of A*11, A*23, and DRB1*09 alleles was higher, while the frequency of C*12 was lower, in hospitalized patients versus healthy controls albeit with uncorrected statistical significance. The identification of specific allele associations may provide useful future markers for disease susceptibility in order to allow successful clinical management of COVID-19 patients.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 698193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354865

ABSTRACT

HLA molecules are key restrictive elements to present intracellular antigens at the crossroads of an effective T-cell response against SARS-CoV-2. To determine the impact of the HLA genotype on the severity of SARS-CoV-2 courses, we investigated data from 6,919 infected individuals. HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 allotypes grouped into HLA supertypes by functional or predicted structural similarities of the peptide-binding grooves did not predict COVID-19 severity. Further, we did not observe a heterozygote advantage or a benefit from HLA diplotypes with more divergent physicochemical peptide-binding properties. Finally, numbers of in silico predicted viral T-cell epitopes did not correlate with the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. These findings suggest that the HLA genotype is no major factor determining COVID-19 severity. Moreover, our data suggest that the spike glycoprotein alone may allow for abundant T-cell epitopes to mount robust T-cell responses not limited by the HLA genotype.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Adult , Computer Simulation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Genotype , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
Virus Res ; 286: 198040, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328562

ABSTRACT

The interactions between chemokine receptors and their ligands may affect susceptibility to infectious diseases as well as their clinical manifestations. These interactions mediate both the traffic of inflammatory cells and virus-associated immune responses. In the context of viral infections, the human C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) receives great attention from the scientific community due to its role as an HIV-1 co-receptor. The genetic variant CCR5Δ32 (32 base-pair deletion in CCR5 gene) impairs CCR5 expression on the cell surface and is associated with protection against HIV infection in homozygous individuals. Also, the genetic variant CCR5Δ32 modifies the CCR5-mediated inflammatory responses in various conditions, such as inflammatory and infectious diseases. CCR5 antagonists mimic, at least in part, the natural effects of the CCR5Δ32 in humans, which explains the growing interest in the potential benefits of using CCR5 modulators for the treatment of different diseases. Nevertheless, beyond HIV infection, understanding the effects of the CCR5Δ32 variant in multiple viral infections is essential to shed light on the potential effects of the CCR5 modulators from a broader perspective. In this context, this review discusses the involvement of CCR5 and the effects of the CCR5Δ32 in human infections caused by the following pathogens: West Nile virus, Influenza virus, Human papillomavirus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Poliovirus, Dengue virus, Human cytomegalovirus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Enterovirus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Hantavirus. Subsequently, this review addresses the impacts of CCR5 gene editing and CCR5 modulation on health and viral diseases. Also, this article connects recent findings regarding extracellular vesicles (e.g., exosomes), viruses, and CCR5. Neglected and emerging topics in "CCR5 research" are briefly described, with focus on Rocio virus, Zika virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Rhinovirus. Finally, the potential influence of CCR5 on the immune responses to coronaviruses is discussed.


Subject(s)
Flavivirus/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/immunology , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Receptors, CCR5/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Flavivirus/classification , Genetic Variation , Genotype , HIV-1 , Humans , Mice
10.
Bioessays ; 43(9): e2100087, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323859

ABSTRACT

Vaccines represent preventative interventions amenable to immunogenetic prediction of how human variability will influence their safety and efficacy. The genetic polymorphism among individuals within any population can render possible that the immunity elicited by a vaccine is variable in length and strength. The same immune challenge (virus and/or vaccine) could provoke partial, complete or even failed protection for some individuals treated under the same conditions. We review genetic variants and mechanistic relationships among chemokines, chemokine receptors, interleukins, interferons, interferon receptors, toll-like receptors, histocompatibility antigens, various immunoglobulins and major histocompatibility complex antigens. These are the targets for variation among macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, T- and B-lymphocytes, and complement. The technology platforms (mRNA, viral vectors, proteins) utilized to produce vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infections may each trigger genetically distinct immune reactogenic profiles. With DNA biobanking and immunoprofiling of recipients, global COVID-19 vaccinations could launch a new era of personalized healthcare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Biological Specimen Banks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(8): 528-532, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318062

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Brazil is nowadays one of the epicentres of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and new therapies are needed to face it. In the context of specific immune response against the virus, a correlation between Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I (MHC-I) and the severity of the disease in patients with COVID-19 has been suggested. Aiming at better understanding the biology of the infection and the immune response against the virus in the Brazilian population, we analysed SARS-CoV-2 protein S peptides in order to identify epitopes able to elicit an immune response mediated by the most frequent MHC-I alleles using in silico methods. METHODS: Our analyses consisted in searching for the most frequent Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-A, HLA-B and HLA-C alleles in the Brazilian population, excluding the genetic isolates; then, we performed: molecular modelling for unsolved structures, MHC-I binding affinity and antigenicity prediction, peptide docking and molecular dynamics of the best fitted MHC-I/protein S complexes. RESULTS: We identified 24 immunogenic epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 protein S that could interact with 17 different MHC-I alleles (namely, HLA-A*01:01; HLA-A*02:01; HLA-A*11:01; HLA-A*24:02; HLA-A*68:01; HLA-A*23:01; HLA-A*26:01; HLA-A*30:02; HLA-A*31:01; HLA-B*07:02; HLA-B*51:01; HLA-B*35:01; HLA-B*44:02; HLA-B*35:03; HLA-C*05:01; HLA-C*07:01 and HLA-C*15:02) in the Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS: Being aware of the intrinsic limitations of in silico analysis (mainly the differences between the real and the Protein Data Bank (PDB) structure; and accuracy of the methods for simulate proteasome cleavage), we identified 24 epitopes able to interact with 17 MHC-I more frequent alleles in the Brazilian population that could be useful for the development of strategic methods for vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Epitope Mapping , Epitopes , HLA Antigens/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Brazil , Gene Frequency , HLA Antigens/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 230, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections are a major disease burden worldwide. While they are caused by external pathogens, host genetics also plays a part in susceptibility to infections. Past studies have reported diverse associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and infections, but many were limited by small sample sizes and/or focused on only one infection. METHODS: We performed an immunogenetic association study examining 13 categories of severe infection (bacterial, viral, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, genital, hepatitis, otitis, pregnancy-related, respiratory, sepsis, skin infection, urological and other infections), as well as a phenotype for having any infection, and seven classical HLA loci (HLA-A, B, C, DPB1, DQA1, DQB1 and DRB1). Additionally, we examined associations between infections and specific alleles highlighted in our previous studies of psychiatric disorders and autoimmune disease, as these conditions are known to be linked to infections. RESULTS: Associations between HLA loci and infections were generally not strong. Highlighted associations included associations between DQB1*0302 and DQB1*0604 and viral infections (P = 0.002835 and P = 0.014332, respectively), DQB1*0503 and sepsis (P = 0.006053), and DQA1*0301 with "other" infections (a category which includes infections not included in our main categories e.g. protozoan infections) (P = 0.000369). Some HLA alleles implicated in autoimmune diseases showed association with susceptibility to infections, but the latter associations were generally weaker, or with opposite trends (in the case of HLA-C alleles, but not with alleles of HLA class II genes). HLA alleles associated with psychiatric disorders did not show association with susceptibility to infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that classical HLA alleles do not play a large role in the etiology of severe infections. The discordant association trends with autoimmune disease for some alleles could contribute to mechanistic theories of disease etiology.


Subject(s)
HLA-A Antigens , Mental Disorders , Alleles , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA-A Antigens/genetics , HLA-DQ beta-Chains/genetics , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Haplotypes , Humans , Mental Disorders/genetics
13.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(1): 283-289, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178997

ABSTRACT

The potential protective or pathogenic role of the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection has been vigorously debated. While COVID-19 patients consistently generate a T lymphocyte response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, evidence of significant immune dysregulation in these patients continues to accumulate. In this study, next generation sequencing of the T cell receptor beta chain (TRB) repertoire was conducted in hospitalized COVID-19 patients to determine if immunogenetic differences of the TRB repertoire contribute to disease course severity. Clustering of highly similar TRB CDR3 amino acid sequences across COVID-19 patients yielded 781 shared TRB sequences. The TRB sequences were then filtered for known associations with common diseases such as EBV and CMV. The remaining sequences were cross-referenced to a publicly accessible dataset that mapped COVID-19 specific TCRs to the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We identified 158 SARS-CoV-2 specific TRB sequences belonging to 134 clusters in our COVID-19 patients. Next, we investigated 113 SARS-CoV-2 specific clusters binding only one peptide target in relation to disease course. Distinct skewing of SARS-CoV-2 specific TRB sequences toward the nonstructural proteins (NSPs) encoded within ORF1a/b of the SARS-CoV-2 genome was observed in clusters associated with critical disease course when compared to COVID-19 clusters associated with a severe disease course. These data imply that T-lymphocyte reactivity towards peptides from NSPs of SARS-CoV-2 may not constitute an effective adaptive immune response and thus may negatively affect disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Hospitalization , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Proteins/immunology , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Complementarity Determining Regions/immunology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Polyproteins/chemistry , Polyproteins/immunology , Polyproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Time Factors , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129736

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is induced by SARS-CoV-2 and may arise as a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from an asymptomatic condition to a life-threatening disease associated with cytokine storm, multiorgan and respiratory failure. The molecular mechanism behind such variability is still under investigation. Several pieces of experimental evidence suggest that genetic variants influencing the onset, maintenance and resolution of the immune response may be fundamental in predicting the evolution of the disease. The identification of genetic variants behind immune system reactivity and function in COVID-19 may help in the elaboration of personalized therapeutic strategies. In the frenetic look for universally shared treatment plans, those genetic variants that are common to other diseases/models may also help in addressing future research in terms of drug repurposing. In this paper, we discuss the most recent updates about the role of immunogenetics in determining the susceptibility to and the history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We propose a narrative review of available data, speculating about lessons that we have learnt from other viral infections and immunosenescence, and discussing what kind of aspects of research should be deepened in order to improve our knowledge of how host genetic variability impacts the outcome for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenetics , ABO Blood-Group System/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA Antigens/blood , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Brain Behav Immun ; 91: 731-739, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064859

ABSTRACT

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a complex genetic system that encodes proteins which predominantly regulate immune/inflammatory processes. It can be involved in a variety of immuno-inflammatory disorders ranging from infections to autoimmunity and cancers. The HLA system is also suggested to be involved in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity, especially through microglia regulation and synaptic pruning. Consequently, this highly polymorphic gene region has recently emerged as a major player in the etiology of several major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder and with less evidence for major depressive disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We thus review here the role of HLA genes in particular subgroups of psychiatric disorders and foresee their potential implication in future research. In particular, given the prominent role that the HLA system plays in the regulation of viral infection, this review is particularly timely in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
HLA Antigens/genetics , Mental Disorders/genetics , Virus Diseases/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Bipolar Disorder/genetics , COVID-19/psychology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Haplotypes/genetics , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Schizophrenia/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/immunology
16.
Immunol Rev ; 296(1): 205-219, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998975

ABSTRACT

This article provides a review of studies evaluating the role of host (and viral) genetics (including variation in HLA genes) in the immune response to coronaviruses, as well as the clinical outcome of coronavirus-mediated disease. The initial sections focus on seasonal coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. We then examine the state of the knowledge regarding genetic polymorphisms and SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. The article concludes by discussing research areas with current knowledge gaps and proposes several avenues for future scientific exploration in order to develop new insights into the immunology of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Resistance/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
17.
Oncoimmunology ; 9(1): 1857112, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990263

ABSTRACT

Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) is a pattern-recognition receptor that detects bacterial as well as endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns to trigger innate immune responses by myeloid cells. A single nucleotide polymorphism, rs867228 (allelic frequency 19-20%), in the gene coding for FPR1 accelerates the manifestation of multiple carcinomas, likely due to reduced anticancer immunosurveillance secondary to a defect in antigen presentation by dendritic cells. Another polymorphism in FPR1, rs5030880 (allelic frequency 12-13%), has been involved in the resistance to plague, correlating with the fact that FPR1 is the receptor for Yersinia pestis. Driven by the reported preclinical effects of FPR1 on lung inflammation and fibrosis, we investigated whether rs867228 or rs5030880 would affect the severity of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Data obtained on patients from two different hospitals in Paris refute the hypothesis that rs867228 or rs5030880 would affect the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Neoplasms/genetics , Plague/genetics , Receptors, Formyl Peptide/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Plague/microbiology , Plague/pathology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Obes Med ; 20: 100303, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-929296

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has shown a substantial variation in the rate and severity by which it impacts different demographic groups. Specifically, it has shown a predilection towards obese patients as well as well as other vulnerable groups including predilection of males over females, old age over young age and black races over Caucasian ones. Single cell sequencing studies have highlighted the role of cell polarity and the co-expression of proteases, such as Furin, along with ACE2 in the genesis of coronavirus disease rather than exclusively link tissue involvement with ACE2 levels thought previously. It has also forged a connection between the genetic and immune cellular mechanisms underlying COVID infection and the inflammatory state of obese patients, offering a more accurate explanation as to why obese patients are at increased risk of poor COVID outcomes. These commonalities encompass macrophage phenotype switching, genetic expression switching, and overexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, depletion of the regulatory cytokines, in situ T cell proliferation, and T cell exhaustion. These findings demonstrate the necessity of single cell sequencing as a rapid means to identify and treat those who are most likely to need hospital admission and intensive care, in the hopes of precision medicine. Furthermore, this study underlines the use of immune modulators such as Leptin sensitizers, rather than immune suppressors as anti-inflammation therapies to switch the inflammatory response from a drastic immunological type 1 response to a beneficial type 2 effective one.

19.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(4): 516-525.e5, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743914

ABSTRACT

B cells are critical for the production of antibodies and protective immunity to viruses. Here we show that patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display early recruitment of B cells expressing a limited subset of IGHV genes, progressing to a highly polyclonal response of B cells with broader IGHV gene usage and extensive class switching to IgG and IgA subclasses with limited somatic hypermutation in the initial weeks of infection. We identify convergence of antibody sequences across SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, highlighting stereotyped naive responses to this virus. Notably, sequence-based detection in COVID-19 patients of convergent B cell clonotypes previously reported in SARS-CoV infection predicts the presence of SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibody titers specific for the receptor-binding domain. These findings offer molecular insights into shared features of human B cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody Formation , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunogenetics , Immunoglobulin A/genetics , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
20.
Indian J Clin Biochem ; 35(3): 260-273, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548686

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), that began in Wuhan Province, China was labelled as an International Public Health Emergency on January 30, 2020 and later was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on March 11, 2020. The causative agent, SARS-CoV-2 was the third coronavirus responsible for causing major disease outbreaks in human population after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) caused by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV respectively. The patients of COVID-19 present with a clinical feature resembling mild form of viral pneumonia which in certain cases progress to a severe form characterised by adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and/or multiorgan failure leading to death. The transition from mild to severe form of COVID-19 is affected by a lot of factors like age, co-morbidities etc. In the absence of an absolute cure, it is essential to explore the molecular pathogenesis of the disease to identify people at risk of developing severity so that alternative treatment modalities may be planned. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the general characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and highlight the inflammatory changes and immune dysregulation that may help in identification of molecular predictors of disease severity.

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