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J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(2): 468-470, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002138


Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is an autoimmune disease that can be triggered by different events, including viral infections. It presents as thrombotic microangiopathy and can lead to severe complications that often require management in the intensive care unit (ICU). We report a patient who presented with acquired TTP following COVID-19 infection. A 44-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with severe anemia, acute kidney injury and respiratory failure due to COVID-19. Clinical and laboratory findings were suggestive for thrombotic microangiopathy. On day 8 laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of acquired TTP. The patient needed 14 plasma exchanges, treatment with steroids, rituximab and caplacizumab and 18 days of mechanical ventilation. She completely recovered and was discharged home on day 51. Acquired TTP can be triggered by different events leading to immune stimulation. COVID-19 has been associated with different inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. Considering the temporal sequence and the lack of other possible causes, we suggest that COVID-19 infection could have been the triggering factor in the development of TTP. Since other similar cases have already been described, possible association between COVID and TTP deserves further investigation.

COVID-19 , Plasma Exchange/methods , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Rituximab/administration & dosage , Single-Domain Antibodies/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Male , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/blood , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/etiology , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/physiopathology , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Treatment Outcome
Eur J Haematol ; 106(1): 72-81, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772443


OBJECTIVES: Patients with haematological disorders may be particularly vulnerable to respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; however, this is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, nationwide study including 66 patients in follow-up at Danish haematology departments with a malignant or non-malignant haematological disorder and with verified SARS-CoV-2 infection. Outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) admission and one-month survival rate. RESULTS: Mean age was 66.7 years, 60.6% were males, 90.9% had comorbidity, and 13.6% had a BMI ≥ 30. The most frequent diagnoses were chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/lymphoma (47.0%), multiple myeloma (16.7%) and acute leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (AL/MDS) (12.1%). Treatment for the haematological disease was ongoing in 59.1% of cases. Neutropenia was present in 6.5%, lymphopenia in 46.6% and hypogammaglobulinaemia in 26.3%. The SARS-CoV-2 infection was mild in 50.0%, severe in 36.4% and critical in 13.6%. After one month, 21.2% had been admitted to ICU, and 24.2% died. Mortality was highest in older patients, patients with severe/critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, high comorbidity score or high performance status score, purine analogue treatment and with AL/MDS. Although older patients and patients with comorbidities had the highest mortality rates, mortality was considerable among all haematological patients. CONCLUSION: Haematological patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection has a severe clinical course.

COVID-19/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/pathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
Front Immunol ; 11: 1991, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742729


Evidence from the global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has clearly demonstrated that individuals with pre-existing comorbidities are at a much greater risk of dying from COVID-19. This is of great concern for individuals living with these conditions, and a major challenge for global healthcare systems and biomedical research. Not all comorbidities confer the same risk, however, many affect the function of the immune system, which in turn directly impacts the response to COVID-19. Furthermore, the myriad of drugs prescribed for these comorbidities can also influence the progression of COVID-19 and limit additional treatment options available for COVID-19. Here, we review immune dysfunction in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact of pre-existing comorbidities on the development of COVID-19. We explore how underlying disease etiologies and common therapies used to treat these conditions exacerbate COVID-19 progression. Moreover, we discuss the long-term challenges associated with the use of both novel and repurposed therapies for the treatment of COVID-19 in patients with pre-existing comorbidities.

Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Risk , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2