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1.
Veterinary Research Forum ; 12(4):487-491, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1836467

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the alterations in selected indicators of immune responses and oxidative stress of broilers fed with nano-manganese. One hundred-sixty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into four groups with three replicates. Birds were fed the same basal diet supplemented with nano-manganese oxide, as 0.00 (control group), 50.00, 100, or 150 mg kg-1 of diet. The birds were vaccinated against avian influenza (AI), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) as the standard vaccination schedule. Blood sample was taken from the brachial vein of birds on 42th day. A significant decrease in antibody titer against sheep RBC was revealed in the nano-manganese 100 and 150 groups compared to the control group. In addition, the antibody titers against IB and ND were significantly lower in the all nano-manganese groups compared to the control group. No significant difference was observed for the antibody titer against AI and oxidative stress indices among the experimental groups. The findings in the present study suggested that nano-manganese at 50.00, 100 and 150 mg kg-1 levels might suppress humoral immune response in broilers which should be taken into consideration in supplementation.

2.
DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology ; 42(3):139-148, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835990

ABSTRACT

This study analyses the research publications data about Coronavirus before and after the Covid-19 outbreak, to answer vital questions relevant to the Coronavirus research. The objectives of this study are to compare the Coronavirus research publications and tries to distinguish the pre and post Covid-19 outbreak trend in Coronavirus research, in the context of research areas, publications growth pattern, country and institutional contributions, funding agencies, language distribution, publishers and journal preferences, etc. It also tries to visualise the institutional and country-wide collaboration patterns in the Coronavirus research using the VOSviewer visualisation software. This study is based on the data retrieved from the Web of Science database for two time-frames, such as 1965 to 31st December 2019, and 1st January 2020 to 30th June 2021. This study reveals that, 89 per cent of the Coronavirus research publications were brought out after the Covid-19 outbreak, and research on Coronavirus has been undertaken in diversified areas in contrast to the prior period where it was mainly on virology, veterinary science, infectious diseases, microbiology, immunology, etc. It shows that USA and China continued to stand on top of the Coronavirus publications share, and the research collaboration between various countries and institutions has improved during 2020-21. It shows that over 97 per cent of the Coronavirus publications are in the English and the majority of the publications are in the journals published by Elsevier in both periods. During 2020-21 the Journal of Virology lost its upper hand in publishing the Coronavirus research publications.

3.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(12):47-53, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1835591

ABSTRACT

Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical efficacy of Qingfei Paidu decoction in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)and to explore the possible mechanism.

4.
Transplantology ; 2(2):183, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834906

ABSTRACT

Post-transplant neutropenia (PTN) is frequently reported in the first-year after transplantation. Although prevalence and clinical consequences are widely described, there are no guidelines to manage diagnosis and treatment. We report here a case of persistent PTN occurred in a patient undergoing a kidney transplant from an AB0-incompatible living donor. The desensitization protocol consisted of Rituximab administration and immunoadsorption while the pre-transplant protocol, which was initiated 14 days before the transplant, included Tacrolimus, Mofetil Mycophenolate (MMF), antimicrobial and antiviral prophylaxis. Induction therapy consisted of anti-thymocyte globulins and steroids, while maintenance after transplantation consisted of steroid, tacrolimus and MMF. When the first occurrence of leukopenia was observed six weeks after the transplant, firstly antimicrobial/antiviral prophylaxis was stopped and later also MMF treatment was interrupted but severe neutropenia relapsed after MMF resuming treatment. Immunological and virological causes were excluded. The patient was treated with Filgrastim. Bone marrow biopsy, which was performed to exclude a hematological cause of severe persistent neutropenia, revealed a bone marrow hypoplasia with neutrophils maturation interrupted at the early stages. This case highlights the need to establish diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for PTN which take in consideration all the therapeutic steps including the pre-transplant phase in particular in the context of AB0i where immunosuppression is more consistent.

5.
Nutrients ; 14(7):26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834851

ABSTRACT

Obesity, and obesity-associated conditions such as hypertension, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, are important risk factors for severe Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The common denominator is metaflammation, a portmanteau of metabolism and inflammation, which is characterized by chronically elevated levels of leptin and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These induce the "Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 1 and 3" (SOCS1/3), which deactivates the leptin receptor and also other SOCS1/3 sensitive cytokine receptors in immune cells, impairing the type I and III interferon early responses. By also upregulating SOCS1/3, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 adds a significant boost to this. The ensuing consequence is a delayed but over-reactive immune response, characterized by high-grade inflammation (e.g., cytokine storm), endothelial damage, and hypercoagulation, thus leading to severe COVID-19. Superimposing an acute disturbance, such as a SARS-CoV-2 infection, on metaflammation severely tests resilience. In the long run, metaflammation causes the "typical western" conditions associated with metabolic syndrome. Severe COVID-19 and other serious infectious diseases can be added to the list of its short-term consequences. Therefore, preventive measures should include not only vaccination and the well-established actions intended to avoid infection, but also dietary and lifestyle interventions aimed at improving body composition and preventing or reversing metaflammation.

6.
Immuno ; 1(4):583, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834820

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota has diverse microbial components, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The interaction between gut microbiome components and immune responses has been studied extensively over the last decade. Several studies have reported the potential role of the gut microbiome in maintaining gut homeostasis and the development of disease. The commensal microbiome can preserve the integrity of the mucosal barrier by acting on the host immune system. Contrastingly, dysbiosis-induced inflammation can lead to the initiation and progression of several diseases through inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. In this review, we describe the multifaceted effects of the gut microbiota on several diseases from the perspective of mucosal immunological responses.

7.
Immuno ; 1(4):468, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834819

ABSTRACT

Viral infections represent a major health problem worldwide. Due to the wide variety of etiological agents and their increasing resistance to anti-virals and antibiotics treatments, new strategies for effective therapies need to be developed. Scientific evidence suggests that probiotics may have prophylactic and therapeutic effects in viral diseases. Indeed, these microorganisms interact harmoniously with the intestinal microbiota and protect the integrity of the intestinal barrier as well as modulate the host immune system. Currently, clinical trials with probiotics have been documented in respiratory tract infections, infections caused by human immunodeficiency viruses, herpes, human papillomavirus and hepatic encephalopathy. However, the benefits documented so far are difficult to extrapolate, due to the strain-dependent effect. In addition, the dose of the microorganism used as well as host characteristics are other parameters that should be consider when advocating the use of probiotics to treat viral infections. This review addresses the scientific evidence of the efficacy of probiotics in clinical strains perspective in viral infectious diseases in the last 10 years.

8.
Immuno ; 1(3):15, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834815

ABSTRACT

Discrepancies in lifespan and healthy-life span are predisposing populations to an increasing burden of age-related disease. Accumulating evidence implicates aging of the immune system, termed immunosenescence, in the pathogenesis of multiple age-related diseases. Moreover, immune dysregulation in the elderly increases vulnerability to infection and dampens pathogen-specific immune responses following vaccination. The health challenges manifesting from these age related deficits have been dramatically exemplified by the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Approaches to either attenuate or reverse functional markers of immunosenescence are therefore urgently needed. Recent evidence suggests systemic immunomodulation via non-specific vaccination with live-attenuated vaccines may be a promising avenue to at least reduce aged population vulnerability to viral infection. This short review describes current understanding of immunosenescence, the historical and mechanistic basis of vaccine-mediated immunomodulation, and the outstanding questions and challenges required for broad adoption.

9.
Immuno ; 1(3):212, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834814

ABSTRACT

The increased prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, especially during the COVID-19 outbreak, necessitates the search for natural immune- and cognitive-enhancing agents. 10-Hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid (10-H2DA), the main fatty acid of royal jelly, has several pharmacological activities. Given the fundamental role of astrocytes in regulating immune responses of the central nervous system, we used cortical astrocytes to examine the effect of 10-H2DA on the expression of genes associated with neuroinflammation and the production of neurotrophins, as well as cellular resistance to H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Astrocytes, pretreated with a range of concentrations of 10-H2DA for 24 h, were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 3 h, after which the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) and neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF, and IGF-1) was evaluated. In the absence of LPS, 10-H2DA had no significant effect on the mRNA expression of neurotrophins or cytokines except for IL-1β, which significantly increased with low doses of 10-H2DA (3 µM). 10-H2DA (10 µM) pretreatment of LPS-stimulated cells did not significantly inhibit the expression of cytokine encoding genes;however, it significantly lowered the mRNA expression of GDNF and tended to decrease BDNF and IGF-1 expression compared with LPS alone. Additionally, 10-H2DA did not protect astrocytes against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Our data indicate no anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, or neurotrophic effect of 10-H2DA in astrocytes undergoing inflammation or oxidative stress. The effect of IGF-1 inhibition by 10-H2DA on neuronal ketogenesis needs investigation.

10.
Immuno ; 1(1):17, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834812

ABSTRACT

Prevalent coagulopathy and thromboembolism are observed in severe COVID-19 patients with 40% of COVID-19 mortality being associated with cardiovascular complications. Abnormal coagulation parameters are related to poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Victims also displayed presence of extensive thrombosis in infected lungs. Vitamin K is well-known to play an essential role in the coagulation system. Latest study revealed an existing correlation between vitamin K deficiency and COVID-19 severity, highlighting a role of vitamin K, probably via coagulation modulation. In agreement, other recent studies also indicated that anti-coagulant treatments can reduce mortality in severe cases. Altogether, potential mechanisms linking COVID-19 with coagulopathy in which vitamin K may exert its modulating role in coagulation related with disease pathogenesis are established. In this review, we discuss the recent evidence supporting COVID-19 as a vascular disease and explore the potential benefits of using vitamin K against COVID-19 to improve disease outcomes.

11.
Immuno ; 1(1):15, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834811
12.
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience ; 16, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834470

ABSTRACT

Although myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) has a specific and distinctive profile of clinical features, the disease remains an enigma because causal explanation of its pathobiological matrix is lacking. Several potential disease mechanisms have been identified, including immune abnormalities, inflammatory activation, mitochondrial alterations, endothelial and muscular disturbances, cardiovascular anomalies, and dysfunction of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Yet, it remains unclear whether and how these pathways may be related and orchestrated. Here we explore the hypothesis that a common denominator of the pathobiological processes in ME/CFS may be central nervous system dysfunction due to impaired or pathologically reactive neuroglia (astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes). We will test this hypothesis by reviewing, in reference to the current literature, the two most salient and undisputed features of ME/CFS, and by investigating how these might be linked to dysfunctional neuroglia. From this Review we suggest that the multifaceted pathobiology of ME/CFS could be attributed in a unifying manner to neuroglial dysfunction. Because the two features – post exertional malaise and decreased cerebral blood flow – are now also recognized as central hallmarks in a subset of post-acute sequelae COVID-19 patients, we suggest that our findings may extend to this entity, too.

13.
J Appl Lab Med ; 2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous serology assays are available for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies but are limited in that only one/two target antigen(s) can be tested at a time. Here, we describe a novel multiplex assay that simultaneously detects and quantifies IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), receptor-binding domain (RBD), and N-terminal domain (NTD) in a single well. METHODS: Sensitivity was determined using samples (n = 124) from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive individuals. Pre-pandemic (n = 100) and non-COVID respiratory infection positive samples (n = 100) were used to evaluate specificity. Samples were analyzed using COVID-19 IgG multiplex serology assay from Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and using commercial platforms from Abbott, EUROIMMUN, and Siemens. RESULTS: At > 14 days post-PCR, MSD assay displayed >98.0% sensitivity (S: 100%, 95% CI, 98.0%-100.0%; N: 98.0%, 95% CI, 97.2%-98.9%; RBD: 94.1%, 95% CI, 92.6%-95.6%; NTD: 98.0%, 95% CI, 97.2%-98.9%) and 99% specificity (95% CI, 99.3%-99.7%) for antibodies to all four antigens. Parallel assessment of antibodies to more than one antigen improved the sensitivity to 100% (95% CI, 98.0%-100.0%) while maintaining 98% (95% CI, 97.6%-98.4%) specificity regardless of the combinations used. When AU/mL concentrations of IgG antibodies from the MSD assay were compared against the corresponding IgG signals acquired from the single target commercial assays, the following correlations were observed: Abbott (vs MSD N, R2=0.73), Siemens (vs MSD RBD, R2=0.92), and EUROIMMUN (vs MSD S, R2=0.82). CONCLUSION: MSD assay offers an accurate and a comprehensive assessment of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with higher sensitivity and equivalent specificity compared to the commercial IgG serology assays.

14.
Vaccine ; 40(23):3087-3088, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1829618

ABSTRACT

Why are Influenza Vaccination Rates Low in Children with Asthma? A study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that flu vaccination rates among children with current asthma ranged from a low of 48.7% in Oregon to a high of 72.9% in New Jersey with a median rate of 63% for 24 reporting states. Other practitioner barriers included difficulty identifying at-risk children, keeping track of immunization schedules and contraindications, lack of appropriate influenza-related educational materials, and the absence of reminder systems for both providers and patients. A pediatric practice can use CA for outreach to caretakers of asthma patients in a specific zip code for instance, customizing language and recommendations, and providing culturally appropriate images.

15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 45(21), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1828408

ABSTRACT

Background: Production of affordable coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in low- and middle-income countries is needed. NDV-HXP-S is an inactivated egg-based recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccine expressing the spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It's being developed by public sector manufacturers in Thailand, Vietnam, and Brazil;herein are initial results from Thailand.

16.
Journal of the Dow University of Health Sciences ; 16(1):41-45, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1824381

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of CoronaVirus-19 (COVID-19) is an alarming situation worldwide as it poses a considerable threat to the healthcare system. Various study results suggested the effect of COVID-19 on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including asthma. The present study aims to review, describe and assess the impact of COVID-19 on asthma patients. The results of the current review suggest a non-significant impact of asthma on COVID-19 outcomes. However, the impact of COVID-19 on asthmatics is complex that may vary according to the clinical severity, patient age, or genetics in different populations. Hence it is needed to conduct studies with a large number of cohorts in different populations that may provide us with conclusive results. The use of corticosteroids is not recommended, but some studies suggested that by monitoring certain factors corticosteroids can be used for COVID-19 patients suffering from asthma. The future care of asthmatic patients in COVID-19 should include self-management, remote interventions, and social distancing.

17.
Weishengwuxue Tongbao = Microbiology ; - (4):1375, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824207

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine has played an important role in the prevention and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia ("COVID-19" pneumonia for short), complementing the advantages of Western medicine, promoting the innovative development of traditional Chinese medicine, and is also an innovative model for the cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine talents. In order to explore the design and implementation effect of the integration of traditional Chinese and Western medicine teaching in medical immunology integrating traditional Chinese medicine technology for the prevention and treatment of "new crown" pneumonia, a class of 2019 Chinese medicine major in Baotou Medical College was taken as the research object, and the content of the textbook "Medical Immunology", Chinese Medical prevention and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia diagnosis and treatment plan and related scientific research results, reorganize teaching content, combine various classroom teaching designs before, during and after class to reconstruct classroom teaching, through classroom group reports, after-school group tasks, "rain classroom" The scores of tests and other items are used to evaluate the teaching effect, and after the course is completed, a teaching satisfaction survey is conducted for students. The results showed that the average score of students' classroom teaching was 84.507±4.391, and the five indicators of satisfaction exceeded 95%, indicating that the integrated teaching mode of Chinese and Western medicine in medical immunology can enable students to master basic medical knowledge well and deeply understand the inner connection of Chinese and Western medicine. , to play the role of an innovative Chinese medicine talent training model. This paper can provide a reference teaching mode of Chinese and Western medicine integration for other medical majors, and promote the development of Chinese and Western medicine integration teaching in medical courses.

18.
Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal ; 15(1):305-312, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822618

ABSTRACT

SARS COV-2is a very dangerous virus that has led to many deaths. H. Influenzais a bacteria that causes many infections inside the human body, such as pneumonia. In this study, a total of (60)blood samples were taken from patients infected with SARS COV-2shared with H. Influenza infection who attended Ibn-Al-Baladi Hospital/Baghdad city during the period from 15th January to 1st December 2021. Venous blood samples were also taken from (60) healthy individuals as a control group. The results showed that the distribution rate of the SARS COV-2 IgG and H. influenza IgG among the male patients was twice44 (73.3%)more than the distribution rate among female patients. The prevalence of SARS COV-2 IgG and H. influenza IgG was shown to be the highest among the age group (>51) years, followed by the age group (21-30) years. The cases of SARS COV-2and H. influenza infections among the studied patients according to residency were shown to be almost equal among rural and urban residents 30,30 (49.2%,50.8%) respectively. Regarding the relationship between SARS COV-2 IgG and H. influenza IgG and CRP levels, the mean level of CRP in the patients was (73.72±17.05) and in the the controls was (8.71±1.12), while the mean level of H. influenza IgG in the patients was (1.05±0.23) and in the control group was (0.3±0.02), whereas the mean level of SARS COV-2 IgG was (7.00±2.15) in the patients andwas (0.35 ±0.19) in the controls with a highly significant differences (HS). The number and percentage of patients with positive SARS COV-2 and H. influenza IgG was 38(95.0%) who had high levels of GOT up to 65 U/L, while 2(50%) of those patients had GOT >65 U/L, while the Negative infections with SARS COV-2 IgG, H. influenza IgG 17(85.0%) had up 65 U/L and 3(15.0 %) had>65 U/L level (P =0.03).In addition, high levels of GPT, Alkaline phosphates, urea and creatinine were recorded among patients groups when compared with the healthy controls.

19.
Vaccines ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822473

ABSTRACT

In response to the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, which partially escaped the vaccine-induced immunity provided by two doses of vaccination with CoronaVac (Sinovac), the National Vaccine Committee recommended the heterologous CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 (Oxford–AstraZeneca), a prime– boost vaccine regimen. This pilot study aimed to describe the immunogenicity and adverse events of the heterologous CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 regimen, in comparison with homologous CoronaVac, and homologous ChAdOx1. Between May and August 2021, we recruited a total of 354 participants from four vaccination groups: the CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 vaccinee (n = 155), the homologous CoronaVac vaccinee (n = 32), the homologous ChAdOx1 vaccinee (n = 47), and control group of COVID-19 patients (n = 120). Immunogenicity was evaluated by measuring the level of IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (anti-SRBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit and the level of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against variants of concern (VOCs) using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and pseudovirus neutralization test (pVNT). The safety profile was recorded by interviewing at the 1-month visit after vaccination. The anti-SRBD level after the second booster dose of the CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 group at 2 weeks was higher than 4 weeks. At 4 weeks after the second booster dose, the anti-SRBD level in the CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 group was significantly higher than ei-ther homologous CoronaVac, the homologous ChAdOx1 group, and Control group (p < 0.001). In the CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 group, the PRNT50 level against the wild-type (434.5 BAU/mL) was the high-est;followed by Alpha variant (80.4), Delta variant (67.4), and Beta variant (19.8). The PVNT50 level was also found to be at its highest against the wild-type (432.1);followed by Delta variants (178.3), Alpha variants (163.9), and Beta variant (42.2), respectively. The AEs in the CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 group were well tolerated and generally unremarkable. The CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 heterologous regimen induced higher immunogenicity and a tolerable safety profile. In a situation when only CoronaVac-ChAdOx1 vaccines are available, they should be considered for use in responding to the Delta variant.

20.
Vaccines ; 10(4):17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822462

ABSTRACT

First-generation vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 do not provide adequate immune protection. Therefore, we engineered a divalent gene construct combining the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein and the immunodominant region of the viral nucleocapsid. This fusion protein was produced in either E. coli or a recombinant baculovirus system. Subsequently, the fusion protein was mixed with adjuvant and administered to mice in a prime-booster mode. Mice (72%) produced an IgG response against both proteins (titer: 10(-4)-10(-5)) 14 days after the first booster injection, which was increased to 100% by a second booster. Comparable IgG responses were detected against the delta, gamma and omicron variants of the RBD region. Durability testing revealed IgGs beyond 90 days. In addition, cytolytic effector cell molecules were increased in lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood. Ex vivo stimulation of T cells by nucleocapsid and RBD peptides showed antigen-specific upregulation of CD44 among the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells of vaccinated mice. No side effect was documented in the central nervous system. Cumulatively, these data represent a proof-of-principle approach alternative to existing mRNA vaccination strategies.

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