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1.
Economic Analysis and Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165222

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused turmoil in every aspect of life and may be prevalent for years. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether the pandemic reflects oil prices in China. We utilized a model to simulate and examine the energy, economic, and environmental effects of COVID-19, which affects a wide range of industries and households. The impact of the pandemic is considered in terms of customer expectations and factor input changes. Based on these changes, we find that factor input changes are the primary cause of the economic recession. We further find a parallel relationship between CO2 emissions and economic downturn. In addition, a reduction in transportation has significantly influenced the Gross Domestic product (GDP), which plunged during the pandemic period by 0.49%. Transportation negatively influences industrial production, railway sector, and air transportation by 10.17%, 1.76%, and 1.53%, respectively. Based on these findings, this study proposes important policy implications.

2.
9th International Workshop on Simulation for Energy, Sustainable Development and Environment, SESDE 2021 ; : 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2164747

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of a pandemic due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the present paper gives an overview of the impacts that this unprecedented situation has had on the environment, the economy and society so far. It will be explained in the paper in what way modeling and simulation helps to understand and to forecast the spread of disease by focusing on compartment models and agent-based models. The presentation of the extent of the consequences in the form of a literature review and the following derivation of recommendations for action highlight the weaknesses of the current economic system. In this respect, the key finding of the research showed that society would be more resilient towards crises like COVID-19 with a regionally and long-term oriented economy that puts social equity and environmental protection first. Therefore, political leaders must rethink the way business is done and should use the crisis as an opportunity to unite the rebuilding of the economy with sustainable development. Models and simulations can assist in finding an appropriate action plan. © 2021 9th International Workshop on Simulation for Energy, Sustainable Development and Environment, SESDE 2021. All rights reserved.

3.
International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies ; 9(3):360-372, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164543

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 and quarantine conditions caused great changes in people's lives. In addition, it deeply affected human life in different aspects. Many negative effects of Covid 19 emerged over time and caused many damages. First of all, this process, which had a deep impact on people's psychology, caused people to suffer from many psychological, mental and physiological diseases. It also left very deep economic effects and brought all sectors to a standstill in many countries of the world. Its economic effects deeply shook states as well as individuals. Although not as effective as the others, it left some political effects. In addition, it had some adverse effects on children and turned some negative behaviors into addiction. Thus, computer and internet addiction emerged in some children. The only observed positive effect of the process was on the environment. Due to the slowdown in industrial activities, some positive improvements were seen in nature again.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13):262-269, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162891

ABSTRACT

Beginning in March 2020, to reduce COVID-19 transmission, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief supporting voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services was delayed in 15 sub-Saharan African countries. We reviewed performance indicators to compare the number of VMMCs performed in 2020 with those performed in previous years. In all countries, the annual number of VMMCs performed decreased 32.5% (from 3,898,960 in 2019 to 2,631,951 in 2020). That reduction is largely attributed to national and local COVID-19 mitigation measures instituted by ministries of health. Overall, 66.7% of the VMMC global annual target was met in 2020, compared with 102.0% in 2019. Countries were not uniformly affected;South Africa achieved only 30.7% of its annual target in 2020, but Rwanda achieved 123.0%. Continued disruption to the VMMC program may lead to reduced circumcision coverage and potentially increased HIV-susceptible populations. Strategies for modifying VMMC services provide lessons for adapting healthcare systems during a global pandemic.

5.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Industrial Organization ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2162634

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented increase in the U.S. price of softwood lumber by more than 300%. The price increase has been attributed to constraints on supply and increased demand for lumber caused by a pandemic-induced boom in domestic housing construction and, more so, home improvements. However, the volatility in lumber prices after the COVID-19 outbreak remains unexplained. In this paper, we employ a theoretical model to explain the cause of price volatility. We examine why demand and supply functions for lumber might be quite inelastic over the period from March 2020 to April 2022, despite very small shifts in demand. This implies that slight movements in interest rates or changes in the prices of substitutes, for example, can lead to large jumps in prices. Price volatility harms consumers while greatly benefitting lumber producers. Overall, as a result of the pandemic, U.S. producers gained some $5.3 billion, while U.S. consumers lost $7.3 billion per quarter. © 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.

6.
14th IEEE International Conference of Logistics and Supply Chain Management, LOGISTIQUA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2161465

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 has been enormous, and the situation has been unprecedented. Consequently, most countries around the world impose mobility restrictions on their citizens. Society changes impact the demand for transportation, reducing the number of trips and altering modes of transportation, as well as affecting the price of living. Inequalities between various groups of the Soussian community have been further aggravated by the current health crisis. This is particularly relevant since there is already a gap between genders, and women are the most affected. In this paper, we attempt to identify the hierarchy of the travel patterns of females in the various delegations of the Grand Sousse, analyzing mobility behavior of women. Based on results from two household/travel surveys conducted before and during COVID (in 2019 and 2020), a descriptive analysis was conducted according to four categories: general mobility characteristics, travel rate, mobility characteristics (modal split and reasons for travel) and the trinomial;distance, time, and cost. The results of our analysis are consistent with similar analysis done by other researchers, with significant differences between genders, indicating that women are at greater risk of mobilizing in the 'Grand Sousse'. A large percentage of individuals impacted by this epidemic is females. By applying a detailed spatial reading of mobility characteristics, it was possible to clarify these differences under a significant variation in the daily mobility characteristics of women in favor of the best-equipped delegations. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
14th IEEE International Conference of Logistics and Supply Chain Management, LOGISTIQUA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2161460

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, people search sincerely and deeply for authenticated products with low impact on the environment. Especially with the current risks of fraud and counterfeiting and the successive crisis worldwide. The pandemic crisis Covid-19 makes the decision-makers convinced that the supply chain must be more resilient, robust, and sustainable to decrease the time that the supply chain remains disrupted or unfunctional when it faces an unexpected disruption or an unforeseen event wreaks havoc on a supply chain. This paper aims to review the use of blockchain technology(BT) in supply chains(SC). It presents a framework for achieving resilient supply chains by reviewing the literature and allowing the managers to take advantage of the benefits of Blockchain technology, overcome drawbacks, and delete barriers to the adoption of Blockchain technology. This paper presents the crucial features of Blockchain technology that will be an added value if the researchers and managers could take advantage of the positive side and overcome the negative one, which can potentially improve supply chain resilience (SCR). This research enables the stakeholders an overview of the advantages, disadvantages, and barriers of Blockchain technology that must be well managed to ensure an efficient implementation of Blockchain technology within a resilient supply chain. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
Tourism Management ; 96:104708, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159877

ABSTRACT

This study discusses the application of Doxey's irritation index in the face of existential crises. Building on the COVID-19 pandemic, data was collected at two time points (prior to the crisis and after the first wave). Our two sequences of data show that residents' attitudes are by no means fixed, with perceptions of overcrowding bouncing back and concerns about reduced economic benefits. In an attempt to develop ample descriptions of emerging concerns during existential crises, three archetypes of residents are identified and displayed using alluvial diagrams: (a) advocates of positive tourism impacts;(b) demanders of sustainable tourism;and (c) boycotters of further tourism developments. Theory is complemented by recalibrating the irritation index with an empirically-grounded existential crisis perspective that demonstrates shifting attitudinal patterns and provides grounds for discussions on the progress of Doxey's irritation index.

9.
Environmental Impact Assessment Review ; : 107013, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2158753

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 lockdown measures have impacted the environment with both positive and negative effects. However, how human populations have perceived such changes in the natural environment and how they may have changed their daily habits have not been yet thoroughly evaluated. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the social perception of the environmental changes produced by the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and the derived change in habits in relation to i) waste management, energy saving, and sustainable consumption, ii) mobility, iii) social inequalities, iv) generation of noise, v) utilization of natural spaces, and, vi) human population perception towards the future, and (2) the associations of these potential new habits with various socio-demographic variables. First, a SWOT analysis identified strengths (S), weaknesses (W), opportunities (O), and threats (T) generated by the pandemic lockdown measures. Second, a survey based on the aspects of the SWOT was administered among 2370 adults from 37 countries during the period from February to September 2021. We found that the short-term positive impacts on the natural environment were generally well recognized. In contrast, longer-term negative effects arise, but they were often not reported by the survey participants, such as greater production of plastic waste derived from health safety measures, and the increase in e-commerce use, which can displace small storefront businesses. We were able to capture a mismatch between perceptions and the reported data related to visits to natural areas, and generation of waste. We found that age and country of residence were major contributors in shaping the survey participants ‘answers, which highlights the importance of government management strategies to address current and future environmental problems. Enhanced positive perceptions of the environment and ecosystems, combined with the understanding that livelihood sustainability, needs to be prioritized and would reinforce environmental protection policies to create greener cities. Moreover, new sustainable jobs in combination with more sustainable human habits represent an opportunity to reinforce environmental policy.

10.
20th International Industrial Simulation Conference, ISC 2022 ; : 49-54, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2157187

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic lock-downs have led to the biggest fall in energy demand in over 70 years while also having an immense effect on the current energy mix. This study overviews the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the UK energy demand by analysing the associated electricity generation mix before and during COVID-19 pandemic. This analysis uses open-access data that is publicly available on the Official Carbon Intensity API for Great Britain. The scope of this paper is two-fold: first, to provide an overview of the lock-down measures in electricity demand and generation across the world, and second to identify the impact of lock-down restrictions on the British energy generation mix. It can be seen from the results that electricity generation by fossil fuels and renewable energy sources has shown opposite trends while the share of the later increased significantly during the lockdown period. © 2022 EUROSIS-ETI.

11.
Periplo Sustentable ; - (43):531-564, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2156713

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a major global health crisis. It has also been reported that its impact has been greater in the specific case of tourism, compared to the economy as a whole. Cancun, the highly positioned Mexican sun and beach destination, has an economy concentrated on tourism, which magnified the impacts of the contingency measures applied, particularly on the vulnerability of workers in the sector. The objective of this work is to identify the impacts on the social vulnerability of tourism workers in Cancun, derived from contingency measures during the shock of the pandemic in 2020. The research consisted of a quantitative study through a survey not probabilistic and convenience focused on working conditions, habitability and emotionality of workers in tourist services. The results allowed us to recognize the high, medium and low levels of impact on the social vulnerability of workers, with the average vulnerability being the highest proportion in the case of Cancun.

12.
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka ; 50(Special Issue):251-262, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2155477

ABSTRACT

With the emergency situation that arises with COVID-19, the intense containment strategies adopted by many countries had little or no consideration towards socio-economic ramifications or the impact on women, children, socio­economically underprivileged groups. The existence of many adverse impacts raises questions on the approaches taken and demands proper analysis, scrutiny and review of the policies. Therefore, a framework was developed using the artificial intelligence (Al) techniques to detect, model, and predict the behaviour of the COVID-19 pandemic containment strategies, understanding the socio-economic impact of these strategies on identified diverse vulnerable groups, and the development of AI-based solutions, to predict and manage a future spread of COVID or similar infectious disease outbreaks while mitigating the social and economic toil. Based on generated behaviour and movements, Al tools were developed to conduct contact tracing and socio-economic impact mitigation actions in a more informed, socially conscious and responsible manner in the case of the next wave of COVID-19 infections or a different future infectious disease. © 2022, National Science Foundation. All rights reserved.

13.
2022 Innovations in Intelligent Systems and Applications Conference, ASYU 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2152421

ABSTRACT

School closures due to the Covid-19 pandemic have changed education forever and we have witnessed the rise of online learning platforms. The education units of the countries made great efforts to adapt to this new order. The expanding, quick spread of the virus and careful steps have prompted the quest for reasonable choices for continuing education to guarantee students get appropriate education and are not impacted logically or mentally. Different methods were attempted to understand how students were affected by this big change. In addition to the significance of traditional surveys and consulting services, the utilization of social media analysis is used as a supportive approach. This paper analyzes the feedback of students on social media via tweets. Deep sentiment analysis is employed to identify embedded emotions such as negative, neutral, and positive. We also aimed to classify irrelevant tweets as the fourth category. Our experiments showed that the tweets are mostly biased toward negative emotions. © 2022 IEEE.

14.
Asian Association of Open Universities Journal ; 17(3):242-260, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2152301

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the complete lockdown of almost every part of the world, including all educational institutions, resulting in the prompt implementation of online education to facilitate the students to carry on their learning. These conditions made the researchers study the experiences of online education among students and teachers. The influences of online teaching-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic undoubtedly offered numerous opportunities besides raising some challenges which impacted the overall psychology of students and teachers. So, this paper aims to conduct a systematic review of the research papers focussing on opportunities, challenges and psychological impacts raised due to the sudden shift to online education among students and teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic.Design/methodology/approach>To conduct this systematic review, 19 articles published between July 2020 and May 2021 were considered and reported by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).Findings>It was found that online education influenced the interests and experiences of the students and teachers and has immensely impacted their overall psychology. So, for the effective implementation of online and blended education, psychological well-being of students and teachers should be taken care of with properly designed instructions, adequate infrastructure or resources and satisfactory technological skills.Research limitations/implications>In the present study, the students were not categorised according to their subjects or streams, i.e. science, commerce, humanities, medical, dental, postgraduate or undergraduate. All the students were categorised into two categories only: (1) college students and (2) school students. And also, teachers were not categorised and were presented as a whole, as school, college or university teachers.Practical implications>The current research identified the abrupt implementation of online education during the COVID-19 pandemic, which raised various challenges and psychological impacts among students and teachers besides offering them many opportunities in times of crisis.Social implications>Students and teachers constitute the educational community of society. They should get ample opportunities to develop skills for online education;challenges faced during online education should be identified and tackled, and the issues concerning the psychological well-being during online education for both teachers and students should be addressed to achieve sustained development of online education–blended learning environments.Originality/value>The paper is the original research work based on the systematic review and concludes with suggestions for the future of online and blended pedagogy while taking care of the psychological needs of students and teachers in online and blended learning environments.

15.
Sustainable Cities and Society ; : 104344, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2150573

ABSTRACT

Public bicycle can be a disease-resilient travel mode during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nonetheless, its evidence on public bicycle sharing is still inconclusive. This study used Bayesian structural time series models and causal impact inference for the data on the daily ridership of public bicycles in Seoul, South Korea, for 1826 days from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2021. The study found that the usage of public bicycles was robust against the COVID-19 pandemic even in densely populated Seoul. Compared with the pre-pandemic period, public bicycles’ usage was unaffected on days when weather conditions, such as snow, rain, and wind speed were not as severe, as well as on days with non-seasonal event factors, such as weekdays, public holidays, and traditional Korean holidays. In addition, its robustness against the pandemic became more pronounced as the number of bicycle racks increased and the intensity of social distancing increased. However, public bicycles were in demand primarily for leisure and exercise, not for travel, during the pandemic. Public bicycle sharing can be a disease-resilient travel mode. Continuous investment in infrastructure such as bicycle paths and public bicycle is required to become a more resilient travel mode against infectious diseases.

16.
Disasters ; 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136786

ABSTRACT

This research is among the first pieces of work to use the comprehensive school safety (CSS) framework to assess the impacts of floods on quality learning and education infrastructure. The CSS framework is employed here to identify the level of disruption to education services following floods in Jakarta, Indonesia, in 2013. The paper poses three key questions, concerning: (i) disruption to children's access to quality education during the flood emergency in 2013 and the early recovery phase; (ii) the impact of the floods on a school's physical infrastructure; and (iii) the effectiveness and level of success of the 2013 flood responses by relevant stakeholders. Combining quantitative and qualitative strategies, the paper examines the experiences of 100 schools in Jakarta. The findings suggest that the CSS framework offers a more nuanced approach to assessing post-disaster education needs. Moreover, it is also relevant for examining the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and relative losses in the education sector.

17.
Curr Infect Dis Rep ; : 1-12, 2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129133

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review: The COVID-19 pandemic has been responsible for more than 6.3 million deaths worldwide. During the pandemic, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has increased, contributing to the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. In this review, we aim to determine the spread and impact of antibiotic treatments in patients with COVID-19, focusing on underdeveloped and developing countries. Recent Findings: Meta-analysis revealed that bacterial co-infections and secondary infections are relatively rare in COVID-19 patients, corresponding to less than 20% of hospitalized patients. Even so, most of these patients have received antibiotic treatments. Summary: This review discusses how the COVID-19 pandemic could increase the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains to currently available antibiotics. Initially, we discussed the spread and impact of multidrug resistance of ESKAPE pathogens associated with nosocomial infections and analyzed their risk of secondary infections in patients with COVID-19. Then we highlight three factors related to the spread of resistant bacteria during the current pandemic: overprescription of antibiotics followed by self-medication. Finally, we discussed the lack of availability of diagnostic tests to discriminate the etiologic agent of a disease. All these factors lead to inappropriate use of antibiotics and, therefore, to an increase in the prevalence of resistance, which can have devastating consequences shortly. The data compiled in this study underscore the importance of epidemiological surveillance of hospital isolates to provide new strategies for preventing and controlling infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. In addition, the bibliographic research also highlights the need for an improvement in antibiotic prescribing in the health system.

18.
8th IEEE International Smart Cities Conference, ISC2 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2136383

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the meteorological and temporal impacts on shared e-scooters (SES) over 27 months of service in Munich. The objective is to explore the factors associated with SES utilization (hourly usage counts, median ride distances, and booking durations), focusing on time-variant variables (weather, holiday, time of the year, week, and day). This study employs the negative binomial (NB) and Consul's generalized Poisson (GP-1) regressions for modeling SES hourly demand. The Poisson regression is used for hourly medians of SES ride distances and booking durations. Random forest models evaluate the relative importance of meteorological and temporal variables for SES usage. In Munich, the popularity of SES grew over time. The peak booking numbers were on Fridays, Saturdays, and afternoons. Longer rides were on the weekends and holidays than on working days. The most extended trips were around midnight, posing the issue of riders' visibility. The COVID-19 lockdown negatively impacted SES bookings. Compared to winter, more and longer rides were between July and November. The weather impacted e-scooter usage with fewer bookings and shorter rides when raining and humid and more and longer trips when warm. Negative weather impacts for e-scooters may be partially due to a reduction in recreational use as weather discourages many outside activities. © 2022 IEEE.

19.
5th International Conference on Vocational Education and Electrical Engineering, ICVEE 2022 ; : 47-52, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2136343

ABSTRACT

Small Medium Enterprise (SMEs) are a type of business that has an important role increase in Gross Domestic Income (GDP) as well as backbone of economy in Indonesia. The decline in turnover, aspects of production, trade and labor are impact of Covid-19 pandemic. The method used integration of Balanced Score Card (BSC), FANP and FTOPSIS. BSC used determine measurement of SMEs indicators, FANP used determine weight of each indicator and FTOPSIS for ranking and mapping SMEs. The purpose research is to mapping of SMEs Batik with integration fuzzy ANP dan TOPSIS methods. The contribution of research is use BSC indicator, namely use of market places, and online product marketing, implementation of health protocols and Covid-19. Based on smallest Consistency Ratio (CR), the mapping results show that 52% of batik SMEs enter repair industry level, 23% of SMEs are at developing industry level, and 15% at advanced industrial level. Research contributes to cooperatives and SMEs players in recommending improvements to performance of SMEs based on Fuzzy with relevant indicators during Covid-19 pandemic. © 2022 IEEE.

20.
Cogent Social Sciences ; 8(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2134609

ABSTRACT

Shocks such as Covid-19 pandemic and natural disasters erode the resilience of many poor households against hunger by further threatening productive capacities. It is projected that over 690 million people around the world went hungry in 2019 and the COVID-19 pandemic is increasing the vulnerabilities and insufficiencies of global food systems. Food security is a human right and the government of South Africa is legally bound by the constitution to ensure food security for all. However, food insecurity in the country is owing to insufficient access to food because of structural poverty and inequality dynamics with a strong racial footprint rather than a shortage of food. Additionally, the rising cost of living, limited investment in agricultural development, and high dependency ratios especially in low-income households are some of the factors contributing to food insecurity in the country. Consequently, household-level food security is a major challenge to the South African government and policymakers. The government has strong social and economic rights commitments in place to achieve this goal and improve the lives of rural communities that are dependent on agriculture as a source of livelihood. Using household survey data, the study seeks to investigate the role played by cash transfers on household productive capacities and food security status within the context of a small pace of transition from homestead to irrigated farming in the former homelands of the Eastern Cape Province. The lower bound poverty line of R 758 (on average $57 USD), was used to determine household food security status. Simple random sampling was employed to select 158 respondents. The propensity score matching method was employed using the Nearest Neighbour and Kernel matching techniques to estimate the treatment effects and compare the outcomes of participation in irrigation farming and receipts of cash transfers in comparison with the non-irrigators. Both matching methods revealed that irrigation farming enhanced the per capita food expenditure by at least ZAR 2 738.88 and ZAR 2 790.37, which then improves household food security. The findings also revealed that cash transfers increase the farmers’ production activities by ZAR 1 467.90 and ZAR 1 478.00. Evidently, the cash transfers necessitate the purchase of more and improved production inputs and access to climate-smart practices such as irrigation, which then improves irrigators’ production capacities and, as a result, reduces vulnerability and improves livelihoods and food security. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.

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