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2.
Resuscitation ; 173: 71-75, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early studies found low survival rates for adults with COVID-19 infection and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). We evaluated the association of COVID-19 infection on survival outcomes in pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: Within Get-With-The-Guidelines®-Resuscitation, we identified pediatric patients who underwent CPR for an IHCA or bradycardia with poor perfusion between March and December, 2020. We compared survival outcomes (survival to discharge and return of spontaneous circulation for ≥20 minutes [ROSC]) between patients with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 infection and non-COVID-19 patients using multivariable hierarchical regression, with hospital site as a random effect and patient and cardiac arrest variables with a significant (p < 0.05) bivariate association as fixed effects. RESULTS: Overall, 1328 pediatric in-hospital CPR events were identified (590 IHCA, 738 bradycardia with poor perfusion), of which 46 (32 IHCA, 14 bradycardia) had suspected/confirmed COVID-19 infection. Rates of survival to discharge were similar between those with and without COVID-19 infection (39.1% vs. 44.9%; adjusted RR, 1.14 [95% CI: 0.55-2.36]), and these estimates were similar for those with IHCA and bradycardia with poor perfusion (adjusted RRs of 1.03 and 1.05; interaction p = 0.96). Rates of ROSC were also similar between pediatric patients with and without COVID-19 overall (67.4% vs. 76.9%; adjusted RR, 0.87 [0.43, 1.77]), and for the subgroups with IHCA or bradycardia requiring CPR (adjusted RRs of 0.95 and 0.86, interaction p = 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: In a large multicenter national registry of CPR events, COVID-19 infection was not associated with lower rates of ROSC or survival to hospital discharge in pediatric patients undergoing CPR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Survival Rate
3.
Resuscitation ; 173: 4-11, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676901

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To compare in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) rates and patient outcomes during the first COVID-19 wave in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2020 with the same period in previous years. METHODS: A retrospective, multicentre cohort study of 154 UK hospitals that participate in the National Cardiac Arrest Audit and have intensive care units participating in the Case Mix Programme national audit of intensive care. Hospital burden of COVID-19 was defined by the number of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection admitted to critical care per 10,000 hospital admissions. RESULTS: 16,474 patients with IHCA where a resuscitation team attended were included. Patients admitted to hospital during 2020 were younger, more often male, and of non-white ethnicity compared with 2016-2019. A decreasing trend in IHCA rates between 2016 and 2019 was reversed in 2020. Hospitals with higher burden of COVID-19 had the greatest difference in IHCA rates (21.8 per 10,000 admissions in April 2020 vs 14.9 per 10,000 in April 2019). The proportions of patients achieving ROSC ≥ 20 min and surviving to hospital discharge were lower in 2020 compared with 2016-19 (46.2% vs 51.2%; and 21.9% vs 22.9%, respectively). Among patients with IHCA, higher hospital burden of COVID-19 was associated with reduced survival to hospital discharge (OR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.93 to 0.98; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with 2016-2019, the first COVID-19 wave in 2020 was associated with a higher rate of IHCA and decreased survival among patients attended by resuscitation teams. These changes were greatest in hospitals with the highest COVID-19 burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
Cardiol J ; 28(6): 816-824, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main purposes of this meta-analysis are to update the information about the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and to investigate the impact of being infected by by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on IHCA outcomes. METHODS: The current meta-analysis is an update and follows the recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). RESULTS: In analyses, pre- and intra-COVID-19 periods were observed for: shockable rhythms in 17.6% vs. 16.2% (odds ratio [OR]: 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-1.72; p = 0.65), return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in 47.4% vs. 44.0% (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.90-2.07; p = 0.15), 30-day mortality in 59.8% vs. 60.9% (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.75-1.22; p = 0.69) and overall mortality 75.8% vs. 74.7% (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.28; p = 0.35), respectively. In analyses, SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients were observed for: shockable rhythms in 9.6% vs. 19.8% (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.35-0.73; p < 0.001), ROSC in 33.9% vs. 52.1% (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.30-0.73; p < 0.001), 30-day mortality in 77.2% vs. 59.7% (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.28-3.38; p = 0.003) and overall mortality in 94.9% vs. 76.7% (OR: 3.20; 95% CI: 0.98-10.49; p = 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite ROSC, 30-day and overall mortality rate were not statistically different in pre- vs. intra-COVID-19 periods, a lower incidence of ROSC and higher 20-day mortality rate were observed in SARS-CoV-2 (+) compared to SARS-CoV-2 (-) patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Pak J Med Sci ; 38(2): 387-392, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590938

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine epidemiology of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in a tertiary care hospital, pre- and during pandemic. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of inpatients who experienced an in-hospital-cardiac arrest at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi between August 2019 and August 2020. Outcome variables were return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to discharge (StD) and analysis was also done comparing pre- and during pandemic period. Results: A total of 77 patients experienced at least one IHCA event during the 1-year study period. Comparing pre- and during pandemic, ROSC for women was higher during the pandemic albeit not significant (43% vs 50%) in comparison to men (54% vs 10%, p<0.001). During the pandemic, women with IHCA were significantly younger than men (µ ± sd; 36.8 ± 15.3 vs 55.9 ± 12.7, p=0.001,) whereas pre-pandemic, there was no gender differences in mean age. Non-shockable rhythm was more common (92.2%) than shockable rhythm (6.5%). Pre- and during pandemic, there were significant differences in the cause of IHCA for 4H4T (87% vs 100%) and cardiac (36% vs 9%). The proportion of hypoxic patients increased from 50% during pre-pandemic to 91% during the pandemic period, whereas hypo/hyperkalemia decreased from 53% to 34%. Conclusion: Despite the limitation of a small sample size, our study has provided important information regarding the epidemiology and outcomes of IHCA pre- and during pandemic in a busy Pakistani tertiary care hospital. Our finding that gender differences exist in survival pre- and during pandemic needs to be explored further with more hospitals doing comparative studies.

6.
Orv Hetil ; 162(46): 1831-1841, 2021 11 14.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523487

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. A koronavírus-betegség (COVID-19) okozta közvetlen mortalitáson túl, a járvány közvetett úton is hatással lehet a hirtelen szívhalálra. Egyre növekvo számú közlemény foglalkozik a járványnak a hirtelen szívhalálra kifejtett közvetett hatásával. A kijárási korlátozások és az egészségügyi rendszerek átszervezése hozzájárulhatott ahhoz, hogy a járvány alatt mind a kórházon kívüli, mind a kórházon belüli szívhalál elofordulása megemelkedett. Közegészségügyi intézkedések, mint a korlátozások és a kórházak átszervezése, megváltoztathatják az egészségügyi szolgáltatásokhoz való hozzáférést, ezért hozzájárulhattak az elmúlt évben tapasztalt emelkedett számú szívmegálláshoz. Közleményünk célja a SARS-CoV-2-járvány hirtelen szívhalálra kifejtett hatására vonatkozó, a nemzetközi irodalomban jelenleg megtalálható tanulmányok összefoglalása, melyek a kórházon kívüli szívmegállás elofordulásának háromszoros emelkedésérol számoltak be a járványt megelozo évhez képest. Általánosságban elmondható, hogy a kórházon kívüli szívmegállás a járvány ideje alatt nagyobb gyakorisággal járt nem sokkolandó ritmussal, hosszabb ido telt el a mentok kiérkezéséig, alacsonyabb volt a szemtanú által megkezdett újraélesztés, a spontán keringés visszatérésének, valamint a kórházi elbocsátásnak a gyakorisága. A járványnak a kórházon belüli szívmegállásra kifejtett hatása kevésbé vizsgált az irodalomban. Míg a hirtelen szívhalált követo mortalitás néhány kutatásban jelentos emelkedést mutatott, addig máshol nem volt különbség a járványt megelozo idoszakhoz képest. A COVID-19-pandémia ideje alatt jelentosen megnövekedett kórházon kívüli és belüli szívmegállás hátterében a járványnak közvetett úton is szerepe lehet, a fertozés közvetlen hatása mellett. A túlélési lánc megbomlását számos helyen tapasztalták, ami hozzájárulhatott a kedvezotlen kimenetelhez. Mind a prehospitális, mind pedig a hospitális ellátás gyakorlatában bekövetkezo jelentos változások magyarázhatják a világ különbözo pontjain megfigyelt eltéréseket. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(46): 1831-1841. Summary. The direct effect of COVID-19 on mortality through acute respiratory failure is well-established. However, there are a growing number of publications suggesting that the prevalence and outcome of sudden cardiac death may also be indirectly affected by the pandemic. Public health measures, such as lockdowns and reorganisation of hospitals, can alter the access to healthcare services and therefore might have contributed to the excess number of cardiac arrests which were seen over the last year. Our aim was to review the currently available publications regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrests. A recent study reported a 3-fold growth in the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests during the 2020 COVID-19 period compared to the year before. In general, the number of non-shockable rhythms increased, bystander-witnessed cases and bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation were reduced and ambulance response times were significantly delayed during the pandemic. Return of spontaneous circulation and survival to discharge substantially decreased compared to the time before the pandemic. The difference between the rate of mortality following in-hospital cardiac arrest during and before the pandemic is controversial according to published data. The incidence of out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrests significantly increased during the pandemic compared to previous years suggesting direct effects of COVID-19 infection and indirect effects from new public health measures. The disruption of the chain of survival could have contributed to the increased mortality following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(46): 1831-1841.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals , Humans , Hungary , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 155, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Initial reports have described the poor outcome of unexpected cardiac arrest (CA) in intensive care unit (ICU) among COVID-19 patients in China and the USA. However, there are scarce data on characteristics and outcomes of such CA patients in Europe. METHODS: Prospective registry in 35 French ICUs, including all in-ICU CA in COVID-19 adult patients with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempt. Favorable outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale ranging from 0 to 3 at day 90 after CA. RESULTS: Among the 2425 COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU from March to June 2020, 186 (8%) experienced in-ICU CA, of whom 146/186 (78%) received CPR. Among these 146 patients, 117 (80%) had sustained return of spontaneous circulation, 102 (70%) died in the ICU, including 48 dying within the first day after CA occurrence and 21 after withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. Most of CA were non-shockable rhythm (90%). At CA occurrence, 132 patients (90%) were mechanically ventilated, 83 (57%) received vasopressors and 75 (51%) had almost three organ failures. Thirty patients (21%) had a favorable outcome. Sepsis-related organ failure assessment score > 9 before CA occurrence was the single parameter constantly associated with unfavorable outcome in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In-ICU CA incidence remains high among a large multicenter cohort of French critically ill adults with COVID-19. However, 21% of patients with CPR attempt remained alive at 3 months with good functional status. This contrasts with other recent reports showing poor outcome in such patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NTC04373759) in April 2020 ( https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04373759?term=acicovid&draw=2&rank=1 ).

8.
Cureus ; 13(6): e15365, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270243

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many patients are hospitalized, and those suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) have been previously reported to have poor outcomes. This is a single-center, retrospective, observational study conducted at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA. The inclusion criteria were: patients admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19 who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for IHCA. Patients were labeled as COVID-19 positive based on a laboratory-confirmed positive polymerase chain reaction test. Patients with do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders, those who were made comfort care, or enrolled in hospice were excluded. The study was approved by the hospital's institutional review board. A total of 155 patients with COVID-19 infection were admitted; 145/155 (93.5%) admitted to the medical floor and 10/155 (6.5%) to the medical intensive care unit (MICU). 36/145 (24.8%) floor patients were upgraded to MICU. Of the 46 patients treated in MICU, 17/46 (36.9%) were excluded for DNR status. From the remaining 29/46 (63.1%) patients, 19/29 (65.5%) patients survived, and 10/29 (34.5%) patients had IHCA. All 10/10 (100%) died after CPR without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The initial rhythm was non-shockable in all patients, with pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in 7/10 (70%) and asystole in 3/10 (30%) patients. Patients with COVID-19 infection who had an IHCA and underwent CPR had a 0% survival at our hospital. Discussions on advanced care options, especially CPR, with COVID-19 patients and their families, are important as the overall prognosis after CPR for IHCA is poor.

9.
Int J Emerg Med ; 14(1): 33, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant strain on healthcare resources and this requires diligent resource re-allocation. We aim to describe the incidence and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) during this period as compared to non-pandemic period. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care hospital in Singapore. The study compared the incidence and outcomes of code blue activations over a 3-month period from March to May 2020 (COVID-19 period) with the same months in 2019 (pre-COVID-19 period). The primary outcome of the study was the rate of survival to hospital discharge for IHCA. The secondary outcomes included incidence of all code blue activation per 1000 hospital admissions, incidence of IHCA per 1000 hospital admissions. OUTCOMES: The rate of survival to hospital discharge for IHCA was 5.88% in the COVID-19 period as compared to 10.0% in the pre-COVID-19 period [odds ratio (OR), 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26-1.95]. Compared to pre-COVID-19 period, there were more IHCA incidences per 1000 hospital admissions in the COVID-19 period (1.86 vs 1.03; OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.78-4.41). CONCLUSIONS: The study observed a trend towards higher incidence of IHCA and lower rate of survival to hospital discharge during COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-COVID-19 period.

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234757

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) led to an ongoing pandemic with a surge of critically ill patients. Very little is known about the occurrence and characteristic of cardiac arrest in critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated at the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim was to investigate the incidence and outcome of intensive care unit cardiac arrest (ICU-CA) in critically ill patients with COVID-19. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data of all consecutive adult patients with COVID-19 admitted (27 February 2020-14 January 2021) at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Of 183 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 18% (n = 33) had ICU-CA. The median age of the study population was 63 (55-73) years and 66% (n = 120) were male. Demographic characteristics and comorbidities did not differ significantly between patients with and without ICU-CA. Simplified Acute Physiological Score II (SAPS II) (ICU-CA: median 44 points vs. no ICU-CA: 39 points) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (median 12 points vs. 7 points) on admission were significantly higher in patients with ICU-CA. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was present in 91% (n = 30) with and in 63% (n = 94) without ICU-CA (p = 0.002). Mechanical ventilation was more common in patients with ICU-CA (97% vs. 67%). The median stay in ICU before CA was 6 (1-17) days. A total of 33% (n = 11) of ICU-CAs occurred during the first 24 h of ICU stay. The initial rhythm was non-shockable (pulseless electrical activity (PEA)/asystole) in 91% (n = 30); 94% (n = 31) had sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The median time to ROSC was 3 (1-5) minutes. Patients with ICU-CA had significantly higher ICU mortality (61% vs. 37%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that the presence of ARDS (odds ratio (OR) 4.268, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.211-15.036; p = 0.024) and high SAPS II (OR 1.031, 95% CI 0.997-1.065; p = 0.077) were independently associated with the occurrence of ICU-CA. A total of 18% of critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffered from a cardiac arrest within the intensive care unit. The occurrence of ICU-CA was associated with presence of ARDS and severity of illness.

11.
Cardiol J ; 28(4): 503-508, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose herein, was to perform a systematic review of interventional outcome studies in patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic period. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed of publications meeting the following PICOS criteria: (1) participants, patients > 18 years of age with cardiac arrest due to any causes; (2) intervention, cardiac arrest in COVID-19 period; (3) comparison, cardiac arrest in pre-COVID-19 period; (4) outcomes, detailed information for survival; (5) study design, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized or observational studies comparing cardiac arrest in COVID-19 and pre-COVID-19 period for their effects in patients with cardiac arrest. RESULTS: Survival to hospital discharge for the pre-pandemic and pandemic period was reported in 3 studies (n =1432 patients) and was similar in the pre-pandemic vs. the pandemic period, 35.6% vs. 32.1%, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-3.65; p = 0.16; I2 = 72%). Return of spontaneous circulation was reported by all 4 studies and were also similar in the pre and during COVID-19 periods, 51.9% vs. 48.7% (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.78-2.07; p = 0.33; I2 = 71%), respectively. Pooled analysis of cardiac arrest recurrence was also similar, 24.9% and 17.9% (OR 1.60; 95% CI 0.99-2.57; p = 0.06; I2 = 32%) in the pre and during COVID-19 cohorts. Survival with Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2 was higher in pre vs. during pandemic groups (27.3 vs. 9.1%; OR 3.75; 95% CI 1.26-11.20; p = 0.02). Finally, overall mortality was similar in the pre vs. pandemic groups, 65.9% and 67.2%, respectively (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.33-1.34; p = 0.25; I2 = 76%). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the pre-pandemic period, in hospital cardiac arrest in COVID-19 patients was numerically higher but had statistically similar outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Hospitals , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retrospective Studies
12.
Resusc Plus ; 6: 100121, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Management of patients with acute deterioration from novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a particular challenge for rapid response systems (RRSs) due to increased hospital strain and direct risk of infection to RRS team members. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize RRS structure and protocols adaptions during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Internet-based cross-sectional survey of RRS leaders, physicians, and researchers across the United States. RESULTS: Clinicians from 46 hospitals were surveyed, 40 completed a baseline survey (87%), and 19 also completed a follow-up qualitative survey. Most reported an increase in emergency team resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of sites performing simulation training sessions decreased from 88% before COVID-19 to 53% during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Most RRSs reported pandemic-related adjustments, most commonly through increasing resources and implementation of protocol changes. There was a reduction in the number of sites that performed simulation training.

13.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 30, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging virus, has caused a global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to high hospitalization rates worldwide. Little is known about the occurrence of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and high mortality rates have been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, characteristics and outcome of IHCA during the pandemic in comparison to an earlier period. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data prospectively recorded during 3-month-periods 2019 and 2020 at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). All consecutive adult patients with IHCA were included. Clinical parameters, neurological outcomes and organ failure/support were assessed. RESULTS: During the study period hospital admissions declined from 18,262 (2019) to 13,994 (2020) (- 23%). The IHCA incidence increased from 4.6 (2019: 84 IHCA cases) to 6.6 (2020: 93 IHCA cases)/1000 hospital admissions. Median stay before IHCA was 4 (1-9) days. Demographic characteristics were comparable in both periods. IHCA location shifted towards the ICU (56% vs 37%, p < 0.01); shockable rhythm (VT/VF) (18% vs 29%, p = 0.05) and defibrillation were more frequent in the pandemic period (20% vs 35%, p < 0.05). Resuscitation times, rates of ROSC and post-CA characteristics were comparable in both periods. The severity of illness (SAPS II/SOFA), frequency of mechanical ventilation and frequency of vasopressor therapy after IHCA were higher during the 2020 period. Overall, 43 patients (12 with & 31 without COVID-19), presented with respiratory failure at the time of IHCA. The Horowitz index and resuscitation time were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 (each p < 0.01). Favourable outcomes were observed in 42 and 10% of patients with and without COVID-19-related respiratory failure, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hospital admissions declined during the pandemic, but a higher incidence of IHCA was observed. IHCA in patients with COVID-19 was a common finding. Compared to patients with non-COVID-19-related respiratory failure, the outcome was improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Drug Utilization/trends , Electric Countershock/trends , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Patient Admission/trends , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(1): 1-8, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited epidemiological data are available on the outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Ovid to identify research articles that studied outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in COVID-19 patients. The primary outcome was survival at discharge. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and types of cardiac arrest. Pooled percentages with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for the prevalence of outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 7,891 COVID patients were included in the study. There were 621 (pooled prevalence 8%, 95% CI 4-13%) cardiac arrest patients. There were 52 (pooled prevalence 3.0%; 95% CI 0.0-10.0%) patients that survived at the time of discharge. ROSC was achieved in 202 (pooled prevalence 39%;95% CI 21.0-59.0%) patients. Mean time to ROSC was 7.74 (95% CI 7.51-7.98) min. The commonest rhythm at the time of cardiac arrest was pulseless electrical activity (pooled prevalence 46%; 95% 13-80%), followed by asystole (pooled prevalence 40%; 95% CI 6-80%). Unstable ventricular arrhythmia occurred in a minority of patients (pooled prevalence 8%; 95% CI 4-13%). CONCLUSION: This pooled analysis of studies showed that the survival post in-hospital cardiac arrest in COVID patients is dismal despite adequate ROSC obtained at the time of resuscitation. Nonshockable rhythm cardiac arrest is commoner suggesting a non-cardiac cause while cardiac related etiology is uncommon. Future studies are needed to improve the survival in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Resuscitation ; 160: 72-78, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused over 1 200 000 deaths worldwide as of November 2020. However, little is known about the clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients with active COVID-19 after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). AIM: We aimed to characterize outcomes from IHCA in patients with COVID-19 and to identify patient- and hospital-level variables associated with 30-day survival. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre retrospective cohort study across 11 academic medical centres in the U.S. Adult patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation and/or defibrillation for IHCA between March 1, 2020 and May 31, 2020 who had a documented positive test for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 were included. The primary outcome was 30-day survival after IHCA. RESULTS: There were 260 IHCAs among COVID-19 patients during the study period. The median age was 69 years (interquartile range 60-77), 71.5% were male, 49.6% were White, 16.9% were Black, and 16.2% were Hispanic. The most common presenting rhythms were pulseless electrical activity (45.0%) and asystole (44.6%). ROSC occurred in 58 patients (22.3%), 31 (11.9%) survived to hospital discharge, and 32 (12.3%) survived to 30 days. Rates of ROSC and 30-day survival in the two hospitals with the highest volume of IHCA over the study period compared to the remaining hospitals were considerably lower (10.8% vs. 64.3% and 5.9% vs. 35.7% respectively, p < 0.001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: We found rates of ROSC and 30-day survival of 22.3% and 12.3% respectively. There were large variations in centre-level outcomes, which may explain the poor survival in prior studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Arrest/mortality , Heart Arrest/virology , Hospitalization , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , United States
16.
Resusc Plus ; 4: 100054, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939226

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To define outcomes of patients with COVID-19 compared to patients without COVID-19 suffering in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study of IHCA cases. Patients with COVID-19 were compared to consecutive patients without COVID-19 from the prior year. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 30-day survival, and cerebral performance category (CPC) at 30-days were assessed. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients with COVID-19 suffering IHCA were identified and compared to 55 consecutive IHCA patients in 2019. The COVID-19 cohort was more likely to require vasoactive agents (67.3% v 32.7%, p = 0.001), invasive mechanical ventilation (76.4% v 23.6%, p < 0.001), renal replacement therapy (18.2% v 3.6%, p = 0.029) and intensive care unit care (83.6% v 50.9%, p = 0.001) prior to IHCA. Patients with COVID-19 had shorter CPR duration (10 min v 22 min, p = 0.002). ROSC (38.2% v 49.1%, p = 0.336) and 30-day survival (20% v 32.7%, p = 0.194) did not differ. A 30-day cerebral performance category of 1 or 2 was more common among non-COVID patients (27.3% v 9.1%, p = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Return of spontaneous circulation and 30-day survival were similar between IHCA patients with and without COVID-19. Compared to previously published data, we report greater ROSC and 30-day survival after IHCA in COVID-19.

17.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 109, 2020 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916350

ABSTRACT

In-hospital resuscitation practices have changed by necessity in the Covid-19 era, principally due to precautions intended to protect caregivers from infection. This has resulted in serious delays in resuscitation response.ILCOR has recently modified its guidelines to separate defibrillation from other interventions, recognizing that shock success is extremely time-dependent and that defibrillation poses relatively little risk of Covid-19 transmission. The new recommendation calls for sending one caregiver into the isolation room in order to initiate bedside monitoring and defibrillate if indicated, while the code team is donning their personal protective equipment. Implementing this change requires focused training in that specific role. This can be accomplished by intensively training a subset of clinical staff to assume the responsibility and act without hesitation when a code occurs.Focused defibrillation training promises to avoid compromising the care of patients experiencing tachyarrhythmic arrests in the setting of Covid-19. Such a training program might even result in better survival than before the pandemic for this subset of patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Electric Countershock , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Resuscitation , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Resuscitation ; 151: 18-23, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in Wuhan, China. METHODS: The outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia after IHCA over a 40-day period were retrospectively evaluated. Between January 15 and February 25, 2020, data for all cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempts for IHCA that occurred in a tertiary teaching hospital in Wuhan, China were collected according to the Utstein style. The primary outcome was restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and the secondary outcomes were 30-day survival, and neurological outcome. RESULTS: Data from 136 patients showed 119 (87.5%) patients had a respiratory cause for their cardiac arrest, and 113 (83.1%) were resuscitated in a general ward. The initial rhythm was asystole in 89.7%, pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in 4.4%, and shockable in 5.9%. Most patients with IHCA were monitored (93.4%) and in most resuscitation (89%) was initiated <1 min. The average length of hospital stay was 7 days and the time from illness onset to hospital admission was 10 days. The most frequent comorbidity was hypertension (30.2%), and the most frequent symptom was shortness of breath (75%). Of the patients receiving CPR, ROSC was achieved in 18 (13.2%) patients, 4 (2.9%) patients survived for at least 30 days, and one patient achieved a favourable neurological outcome at 30 days. Cardiac arrest location and initial rhythm were associated with better outcomes. CONCLUSION: Survival of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who had an in-hospital cardiac arrest was poor in Wuhan.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Heart Arrest/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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