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1.
Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery ; 18(1 Supplement):84S, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245371

ABSTRACT

Objective: Is to find out which revascularization methods have less of risk factors and complications after the surgery and long-term period. Method(s): From January 2018 to December 2019 were operated 134 patients with LAD CTO. 48 of them underwent MIDCAB: 36 (75%) males and 12 (25%) females;aged 58.7 +/-8.7;7 (14.6%) with previous diabetes;10 (20.8%) with previous PCI of LAD with drug-eluting stent. In the PCI group there were 86 patients: 52 (60.5%) males and 34 (39.5%) females;aged 64.8 +/-8.3;23 (26.7%) with previous diabetes. Result(s): Hospital mortality was 0 (0%) in MIDCAB unlike 1 (1.2%) in PCI. Myocardial infarction was 0 (0%) in both the groups. In MIDCAB the number of conversions to onpump and sternotomy was 0 (0%), there were 6 (12.5%) pleuritis with pleural puncture and 3 (6.2%) with long wound-aches. The hospitalization period was 10.7+/-2.9 days for MIDCAB and 9.9 +/-3.9 days for PCI. In the PCI group 2.0 +/-1.0 drug-eluting stents were used. In-hospital costs were higher for PCI 3809 unlike 3258 for MIDCAB. After one year in MIDCAB group died 2 (4.2%) patients, from noncardiac causes. In PCI group died 3 (3.5%) patients, all from cardiac causes. Because of pandemic COVID-19 were checked only 48 patients by angiography and general clinical examination: 25 after MIDCAB and 23 after PCI. 5 patients have a graft failure, caused by surgical mistakes. 4 patients have stents restenosis and 1 has LAD's reocclusion. Conclusion(s): Both methods of revascularization for LAD CTO are demonstrated similar results. EuroSCORE II (P = 0.008) and glomerular filtrating rate (P = 0.004) are significant potential risk factors for mortality in both groups, age is potential risk factor for graft failure (P = 0.05). Dyslipidemia is significant risk factor for LAD restenosis in PCI group (P = 0.02). MIDCAB is associated with lower incidence of revascularization repeat and in-hospital mortality in the literature data and it costs lower than PCI for LAD CTO as our study has shown.

2.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S41, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243304

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many facets of healthcare including patients delaying medical care for potentially life-threatening conditions. This study sought to compare specific key outcomes related to ischemic stroke that occurred before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed mortality rates, morbidity rates, and the administration of thrombolytics in patients with ischemic stroke admitted to emergency departments (ED) in the Stroke Belt, a region of the United States with historically worse stroke outcomes. Method(s): Cerner Real-World Data was used to identify patients residing in the Stroke Belt (Southeastern United States) who were admitted to the ED with ICD-10 codes indicating acute ischemic stroke. We determined in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates, morbidity rates (physical disability tracked 1-year post-ischemic stroke), and administration of thrombolytics for acute ischemic stroke patients before the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2019-February 2020) and during the pandemic (March 2020-February 2021). Result(s): In the defined period prior to COVID-19, 2,338 patients presented to the ED with ischemic strokes (49.5% male;mean age 64.8, SD:15.23;69.6% white). During COVID-19, 2,052 ischemic stroke patients presented to the ED (50.9% male;mean age 65.8, SD:15.04;71.5% white). Our analyses show a significant decrease in thrombolytic administration during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic (12.2% and 14.5%, respectively;p<0.05). There was no significant difference in rates of in-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, or morbidity following ischemic strokes. Conclusion(s): The findings of our study suggest a reduction in ischemic stroke related ED encounters during the COVID-19 period, but no differences were observed in mortality and morbidity rates in ischemic stroke compared to before the pandemic. Future studies are required to determine if these trends were true in other regions of the United States, as well as to investigate other potential covariates linked to outcomes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.Copyright © 2023

3.
Revista Medica del Hospital General de Mexico ; 85(2):72-80, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242016

ABSTRACT

Objective: Intensive care units (ICUs) collapsed under the global wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, we designed a clinical decision-making model that can help predict at hospital admission what patients with COVID-19 are at higher risk of requiring critical care. Method(s): This was a cross-sectional study in 119 patients that met hospitalization criteria for COVID-19 including less than 30 breaths per minute, peripheral oxygen saturation < 93%, and/or >= 50% lung involvement on imaging. Depending on the need for critical care, patients were retrospectively assigned to ICU and non-ICU groups. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were collected at admission and analyzed by classification and regression tree (CRT). Result(s): Forty-five patients were admitted to ICU and 80% of them were men older than 57.13 +/- 12.80 years on average. The leading comorbidity in ICU patients was hypertension. The CRT revealed that direct bilirubin (DB) > 0.315 mg/dl together with the neutrophil-to-monocyte ratio (NMR) > 15.90 predicted up to correctly in 92% of the patients the requirement of intensive care management, with sensitivity of 93.2%. Preexisting comorbidities did not influence on the tree growing. Conclusion(s): At hospital admission, DB and NMR can help identify nine in 10 patients with COVID-19 at higher risk of ICU admission.Copyright © 2022 Sociedad Medica del Hospital General de Mexico.

4.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Medical Series ; 20(1):34-41, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237567

ABSTRACT

This retrospective case-series analysis evaluated 403 fully vaccinated with Vero Cell or Sputnik V vaccines patients hospitalized in the 6th City Clinical Hospital of Minsk in the period between January 01 and February 28, 2022 with the main diagnosis of "coronavirus infection (COVID-19)". The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR or SARS-CoV-2 virus antigen tests, as well as chest computed tomography data. The study revealed higher prevalence of older patients (over 65 years) infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and hospitalized in early 2022, at the height of the wave of the pandemic due to the spread of the Omicron variant. Most patients (91.8 %) had moderate symptoms. More than half of them received oxygen support. A relatively small number of inpatient, only 8 persons (1.9 %), were hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) and four of them needed mechanical ventilation. Comor-bid conditions and high incidence of mortality (63.5 %) were common in ICU patients. Hypertension and obesity prevailed in the structure of comorbid pathology of all inpatient persons (74.2 and 24.3 %, respectively). Patients of therapeutic departments had relatively short length of stay in the hospital, as well as low in-hospital mortality (0.5 %) and low incidence of complications (5.3 %).Copyright © 2023 The authors.

5.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 16(5):13-18, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236199

ABSTRACT

We conducted a review and evaluated the already documents reports for the relationship among diabetes and COVID-19. The review outcome shows that the COVID-19 severity seems to be greater among patients with diabetes as comorbidity. So, strict glycemic control is imperative in patients infected with COVID-19. Thus, world-wide diabetes burden and COVID-19 pandemic must be deliberated as diabetes increases the COVID-19 severity. Established on this, it is precise significant to follow specific treatment protocols and clinical management in COVID-19 patients affected with diabetes to prevent morbidity and mortality.Copyright © 2023 The Authors.

6.
Farmakoekonomika ; 16(1):36-47, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236125

ABSTRACT

Objective: evaluation of the clinical and economic efficiency of using Levilimab in the treatment of moderate and severe COVID-19 based on real world data (RWD). Material and methods. A single-center observational retrospective case-control study was performed. According to the matching algorithm, 834 pairs of patients with moderate and 347 pairs with severe infection were selected, similar in gender, age, vaccination status, severity of the disease and the level of C-reactive protein. Results. The clinical efficiency of Levilimab with respect to in-hospital mortality was demonstrated both for the moderate course (6% in the Levilimab group and 10% in the standard therapy group;odds ratio (OR) 1.71;95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.47;p<0.01) and for the severe course of COVID-19 (63% and 82%, respectively;OR 2.70;95% CI 1.90-3.82;p<0.01). The costs per 1 treated patient were also higher in the Levilimab therapy groups: the difference in costs compared to the standard therapy group for patients with moderate disease was 54 665.30 rubles, with severe disease - 91 285.85 rubles. The estimated cost of the additional effectiveness of Levilimab for the moderate course of the disease was 13, 666.32 rubles, for the severe course - 4, 804.51 rubles. Conclusion. The use of Levilimab for the treatment of moderate and severe COVID-19 is feasible both from a clinical and economic points of view. Conducting RWD trials is an important tool to understand the effectiveness of medical technologies in real clinical practice.Copyright © 2023 IRBIS LLC. All Rights Reserved.

7.
Creative Cardiology ; 15(2):141-145, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236110

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect millions of people with increasing morbidity and mortality. Substantial variations exists in drug treatment of COVID-19. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) facilitates survival of select critically ill patients with COVID-19 with about 25-45% survival rate;survivors tend to be younger and have a shorter duration from diagnosis to cannulation. The practioners found the severe complications including concomitant neurological manifestations (from headache, anosmia, ageusia to encephalopathy, stroke and others) and multisystem inflammation syndrome (MIS) predominantly in children few weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection and characterized by persistent fever, vomiting, headache, Kawasaki - like rash and fatigue. Regarding MIS the authors did not find strong association between the complications rate and outcomes and regime of immunomodulation treatment. The neurological manifestations in pts with COVID-19 were associated with higher in-hospital mortality.Copyright © 2022 Sinergia Press. All rights reserved.

8.
Perfusion ; 38(1 Supplement):155, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235215

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the clinical benefits and potential risks of using venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) as a treatment for COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure. Method(s): Relevant studies were identified through searches of electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, from January 2020 to December 2022. We included observational studies on adult patients who received venovenous (VV) ECMO support for COVID-19-induced ARDS. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, 3-month mortality, and complications associated with VV ECMO. Statistical analysis was performed using R version 4.0.3 and the metafor and meta packages. Result(s): The final analysis included 39 studies comprising 10,702 patients. In-hospital mortality for adults receiving ECMO was 34.2% (95% CI: 28.5% - 40.3%;I2 = 93%), while the 3-month mortality rate was 50.2% (95% CI: 44.4% - 56.0%;I2 = 51%). Bleeding requiring transfusion occurred in 33.7% of patients (95% CI, 23.9 - 45.1;I2 = 96%). The pooled estimates for other complications were as follows: overall thromboembolic events 40.9% (95% CI, 24.8 - 59.3;I2 = 97%), stroke 8.7% (95% CI, 5.7 - 13.2;I2 = 72%), deep vein thrombosis 15.4% (95% CI, 9.7 - 23.6;I2 = 80%), pulmonary embolism 15.6% (95% CI, 9.3 - 25.1;I2 = 92%), gastrointestinal haemorrhage 8.1% (95% CI, 5.5 - 11.8;I2 = 56%), and the need for any renal replacement therapy in 38.0% of patients (95% CI, 31.6 - 44.8;I2 = 84%). Bacterial pneumonia occurred in 46.4% of patients (95% CI, 32.5 - 61.0;I2 = 96%). Conclusion(s): Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) may be an effective treatment option for COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory failure. The use of VV ECMO was associated with reduced in-hospital and 3-month mortality. However, bleeding is a common complication that should be closely monitored. Further research is needed to determine the optimal use of VV ECMO in this patient population and to identify factors that may predict a favourable response to treatment.

9.
Journal of the Intensive Care Society ; 24(1 Supplement):68, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234938

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Active cancer increases the odds of death among patients with COVID-19.1 Cancer patients may be at increased risk of complications and mortality from COVID-19 owing to the systemic effects of malignancy, immune suppression after chemotherapy, treatment-related complications and presence of co-morbidities.2 They may develop serious complications necessitating ICU admission. In a meta-analysis, the pooled mortality in cancer patients with COVID-19 admitted to an ICU was 60.2%.3 Our hospital is a tertiary referral cancer centre, and the ICU admitted cancer patients with Covid-19 throughout the pandemic. Objective(s): To determine the 30-day in-hospital mortality of adult cancer patients with Covid-19 admitted to the ICU. We also aimed to determine the factors associated with mortality in cancer patients with Covid-19. Method(s): After approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee, data of all cancer patients (age = 16 years) with Covid-19 admitted to the ICU between March 2020 and March 2021 were retrieved from the hospital records. In case of multiple ICU admissions, data from the first admission was recorded. Data recorded included demographic details, type of cancer (solid, haematological), surgical status, APACHE-II and SOFA scores, C-reactive protein, and interventions in ICU. The primary outcome was 30-day in-hospital mortality. Data were analysed using Man-Whitney test and chi-square test. A multivariable regression analysis was carried out to determine factors associated with mortality. Result(s): Data of 127 cancer patients with Covid-19 was analysed. The median [interquartile range, IQR] age was 55 (43-62) years, and there were 50 females (39.3%). Comorbidities were present in 46 (36%) patients, the commonest being diabetes (29 patients) and hypertension (31 patients). The median [IQR] APACHE-II and SOFA scores were 15[8-20] and 4[2-7], respectively. Overall, 62/127 patients died, and 30-day hospital mortality was 49%. There were 30 patients with haematological malignancy and 97 with solid tumours with 30-day in-hospital mortality rates of 46.7% and 49.5%, respectively;p = 0.84). Amongst patients with solid tumours, there was no difference in mortality in surgical patients compared to non-surgical patients (43.3% vs. 52.2%;p = 0.42). Table 1 summarises the parameters and interventions in survivors and non-survivors. On multivariable analysis, only the change in SOFA score from Day 1 to Day 3 was independently associated with outcome (Odds ratio 1.36 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.84, p-0.04). Conclusion(s): In patients with cancer and Covid-19 and age =16 years admitted to our ICU, the crude 30-day hospital mortality was 47%. There was no association of mortality with cancer type or surgical status. The only independent predictor of mortality was progression of organ failure. Cancer patients with Covid-19 have a reasonable outcome and should be given a trial of intensive care.

10.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand ; 104(4):S46-S50, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20233580

ABSTRACT

Background: Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In COVID-19 pandemic, stroke remains to be a medical emergency. To treat patients with acute ischemic stroke [AIS], early intravenous thrombolysis is highly time sensitive. This research investigated the impact of regionally imposed social and healthcare restrictions of COVID-19 on the time metrics in the management of AIS patients admitted at the stroke unit center in Srinagarind Hospital. Objective(s): Comparison of door to needle time for intravenous thrombolysis for AIS patients before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Material(s) and Method(s): The present study is a retrospective analysis of patients with AIS who received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator [tPA] from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2020 in Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen. The patients admitted before and after the COVID-19 outbreak [January 13, 2020, as officially announced by the World Health Organization] were screened to collect sociodemographic data, medical history information, and symptom onset status from clinical medical records and to compared door-to-needle time (DNT) for intravenous thrombolysis before and after the outbreak. Result(s): A total of 239 patients were included, of which 113 were enrolled before and 126 after the COVID-19 outbreak. According to the findings, DNT is 35.3 minutes before the pandemic and 35.8 minutes after the epidemic. Conclusion(s): COVID-19 has remarkable impacts on the management of AIS. However, DNT for before and after COVID-19 outbreak is nearly identical. It was established that administering intravenous thrombolysis to patients in the emergency room rather than the stroke unit allowed for speedier access. Therefore, a policy which provides quick AIS treatments in COVID-19 situations should be implemented.Copyright © 2023 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand.

11.
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica ; 67(4):549-550, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232838

ABSTRACT

Background: We reviewed patients with COVID-19 ARDS managed with VV-ECMO support at our center from March 2020 until February 2022. Material(s) and Method(s): We extracted data from electronic health records (Metavision and DIPS). We registered premorbid health status, ventilator-settings before initiation of ECMO, the time-course, and hospital mortality. Result(s): Thirty patients were managed at our hospital, with a median age of 57.2 years (28-65) and median BMI 28 (22-40). No patient had any serious comorbidity. Twenty-two patients received non-invasive ventilation prior to intubation (1-10 days). The median time on ventilator were 8.0 days (1-19) prior to ECMO and median tidal volume was 5.8 mL/kg PBW (3.1-7.5). Hypoxemia (median PaO2-FiO2 ratio 8 kPa, range 6-12 kPa) and hypercapnia (median PaCO2 11.9 kPa, range 4.2-18.5) [SEP1] despite lung protective ventilation were the main indications for VV-ECMO. Two patients had severe respiratory acidosis without hypoxemia. 18 patients developed serious complications while managed with ECMO (acute renal failure, clinically significant bleeding, sepsis, right ventricular heart failure, dislocation of cannulae). Seven patients received renal replacement therapy. Sixteen patients (53%) died. Thirteen patients (43%) died on ECMO, three (10%) after weaning, Twelve (40%) were discharged from hospital, two are currently in ICU (7%). The median duration of ECMO and ventilator treatment, was 27 (6-50) and 37 (9-78) days, respectively. Conclusion(s): Management of patients with COVID-19 ARDS with VV-ECMO is very resource-intensive, and accompanied by serious complications and high mortality. In-hospital mortality in our cohort was 53%, which is comparable with reports from other centers. However, the duration of ECMO, and pre-ECMO mechanical ventilation, were longer than typically reported.

12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(11)2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238893

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: This paper aims to assess temporal trends (2016-2020) in incidence, patient's characteristics, complications, length of hospital stay (LOHS) and in-hospital mortality (IHM) among patients with and without idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) undergoing lung transplantation (LTx). We also analyse the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on LTx in these populations. (2) Methods: A retrospective, population-based observational study was conducted using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database. Multivariable adjustment was conducted with logistic regression to analyse the IHM. (3) Results: We identified 1777 admissions for LTx during the study period, of which 573 (32.2%) were performed in patients with IPF. The number of hospital admissions for LTx rose from 2016 to 2020, both in patients with and without IPF, but a marked reduction was observed from year 2019 to year 2020. Over time, the proportion of single LTx decreased and bilateral LTx increased significantly in both groups. The incidence of LTx complications increased significantly over time along with the increase in the incidence of IPF. No significant differences in the incidence of complications or in the IHM between patients with and without IPF were found. Suffering any complication of the LTx and pulmonary hypertension were conditions positively associated with IHM in patients with and without IPF. The IHM remained stable from 2016 to 2020 in both study populations and was not affected by the COVID pandemic. (4) Conclusions: Patients with IPF account for almost a third of all lung transplants. The number of LTx increased over time in patients with and without IPF, but a marked reduction was observed from 2019 to 2020. Although the proportion of LTx complications increased significantly over time in both groups, the IHM did not change. IPF was not associated with increased complications or IHM after LTx.

13.
Infez Med ; 31(2): 209-214, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235324

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is known to cause a predominant respiratory disease, although extrapulmonary manifestations can also occur. One of the targets of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the hepatobiliary system. The present study aims to describe the correlation between the increase of liver damage markers (i.e. alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], total bilirubin [TB]) and COVID-19 outcomes (i.e., in-hospital mortality [IHM] and intensive care unit [ICU] transfer). Methods: All patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit of the St. Anna University-Hospital of Ferrara from March 2020 to October 2021 were retrospectively included in this single-centre study. ALT, AST and TB levels were tested in all patients and IHM or ICU transfer were considered as main outcomes. Co-morbidities were assessed using Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results: A total of 106 patients were retrieved. No hepatic marker was able to predict IHM, whereas all of them negatively predicted ICU transfer (ALT: OR 1.005, 95%CI 1.001-1.009, p= 0.011; AST: OR 1.018, 95%CI 1.006-1.030, p= 0.003; TB: OR 1.329, 95%CI 1.025-1.724, p= 0.032). Age was the only parameter significantly related to mortality. Conclusions: The present study, by correlating liver damage markers with COVID-19 outcome, showed that an increase of ALT, AST and TB predicted patients' severity, although not mortality.

14.
Acute Med Surg ; 10(1): e851, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235255

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical risk scores are widely used in emergency medicine, and some studies have evaluated their use in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no studies have evaluated their use in patients with the COVID-19 Delta variant. We aimed to study the performance of four different clinical scores (National Early Warning Score [NEWS], quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [qSOFA], Confusion, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, and Age ≥65 [CRB-65], and Kanagawa score) in predicting the risk of severe disease (defined as the need for intubation and in-hospital mortality) in patients with the COVID-19 Delta variant. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant infection between June 1 and December 31, 2021. The primary outcomes were the sensitivity and specificity of the aforementioned clinical risk scores at admission to predict severe disease. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) were compared between the clinical risk scores and we identified new cut-off points for all four scores. Results: A total of 249 adult patients were included, of whom 18 developed severe disease. A NEWS ≥7 at admission predicted severe disease with 72.2% sensitivity and 86.2% specificity. The NEWS (AUROC 0.88) was superior to both the qSOFA (AUROC 0.74) and the CRB-65 (AUROC 0.67), and there was no significant difference between the NEWS and Kanagawa score (AUROC 0.86). Conclusion: The NEWS at hospital admission predicted the severity of the COVID-19 Delta variant with high accuracy.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(10)2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234740

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes nationwide trends in HCC hospitalizations focusing on interventional liver-directed treatments and the influence of age and gender. Using data from the German Federal Statistical Office all hospitalizations for HCC between 2010 and 2020 were included. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables independently associated with the use of liver-directed therapies. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, data from 2020 were analyzed separately. A total of 134,713 hospitalizations (2010-2019) were included, increasing by 3.4% annually (12,707 to 13,143). The mean in-hospital stay (-15.0% [7.2 to 6.1 days]) and mortality (-23.2% [6.8 to 5.2%]) decreased while transarterial, surgical, and percutaneous ablative interventions increased by 38.6, 31.5, and 19.3%, respectively. In-hospital mortality was 7.7% in admissions with surgical treatment, while it was 0.6 and 0.5% for transarterial and percutaneous interventions. Mortality was higher in females (6.2 vs. 5.7%). Females (OR 0.89 [0.86,0.91], p < 0.001) and patients ≥80 years (OR 0.81 [0.79,0.84], p < 0.001) were less likely to receive liver-directed treatments. Liver-directed therapies were increasingly performed while in-hospital mortality and in-hospital stay decreased. Minimally invasive approaches showed lower mortality, shorter in-hospital stay, and lower costs compared to surgery. Proportionately, more women and older patients were hospitalized, receiving fewer liver-directed treatments while their mortality was higher.

17.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S116, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324373

ABSTRACT

Intro: Ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir has shown efficacy in reducing the rate of hospitalisation and 28-day mortality among unvaccinated populations with COVID-19. The role of Ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir among high risk hospitalised COVID-19 patients remained uncertain. Our study aimed to assess the efficacy of Ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir in reducing disease progression among high-risk hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Method(s): This is a retrospective case-control study (ratio 1:1) among hospitalised COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate severity, within 5 days of illness, and had at least one risk factor for severe disease. Treatment group (case) received Nirmatrelvir and Ritonavir twice daily for 5 days. Historical controls before the introduction of Ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir were obtained in the same hospital. Both groups received standard of care. The primary outcome was rate of clinical progression from non-hypoxia to hypoxia. Finding(s): 200 patients from January to July 2022 were included in the analysis, where 108 (54%) were male, mean age of 63.7 (SD 17.1), 95% completed primary COVID-19 vaccination and 91 (45.5%) had evidence of pneumonia (moderate severity). Most common comorbids were hypertension(65%), diabetes mellitus(40%) and overweight(36%). Clinical progression to hypoxia was significantly lower in the treatment group (4%) compared to the control group (18%) (OR=0.190, 95% CI: 0.0618 - 0.583). Comparing case to control, the rates of ICU admission were 1% vs 3%, mechanical ventilation 0% vs 2% and inpatient mortality 2% vs 2%. 97% patients completed Ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir in the treatment group. Conclusion(s): Among high-risk hospitalised COVID-19 patients who received ritonavir-boosted nirmatrevir, they were 81% less likely to experience desaturation. Ritonavir-boosted Nirmatrelvir remains beneficial among highly vaccinated populations during the Omicron wave in COVID-19 pandemic.Copyright © 2023

18.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 117(10 Supplement 2):S145, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324191

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Multiple meta-analyses have shown that over 15% patients with COVID-19 have at least one gastrointestinal complaint, most commonly diarrhea. The effects on the gastrointestinal system are thought to be mediated by the high expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and cellular serine proteases (TMPRSS2) in enterocytes, which cause altered intestinal permeability. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea as it relates to COVID-19 infection and to determine if having concomitant diarrhea had a significant impact on disease course. Method(s): A retrospective chart review of 164,730 patients in a hospital system who were older than 18 years of age and had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test from March 2020 to February 2022 was completed. Diarrhea was determined using ICD code or patient's symptoms. Patients with confounding variables such as IBD, IBS, Celiac, Clostridium difficile, and pancreatic insufficiency were excluded. Demographic clinical characteristics and outcomes, including inpatient admission and mortality, were compared in patients with and without diarrhea. The Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's exact or Chi-square test was used for continuous and categorical variables respectively and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate for significant differences in disease outcome between the two groups. (Table) Results: Of the 164,730 patients included, 14,648 (8.89%) had diarrhea at the time of SARS-CoV-2. 6,748/33,464 (20.16%) of inpatient admissions were associated with diarrhea. On multivariate analysis, diarrhea was an independent risk factor for inpatient hospitalization (OR 2.39, CI 95% 2.28-2.51, P, 0.001) and inpatient mortality (OR 1.15, CI 96% 1.06-1.26, P= 0.001) after controlling for age, gender, race, comorbidities that could impact patient outcome, use of immunomodulators and outpatient antibiotics. Conclusion(s): These findings show that, even with controlling for comorbidities with COVID-19, diarrhea was an independent factor for predicting inpatient mortality and inpatient admission in general. Patients who had diarrhea and COVID-19 were sicker, having more comorbid conditions than those without diarrhea in our cohort. Attention should be given to not only respiratory complaints of COVID-19, but also gastrointestinal complaints, as they are an indicator of poor prognosis and mortality.

19.
Heart Rhythm ; 20(5 Supplement):S603-S604, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323146

ABSTRACT

Background: As of December 2022, SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus resulted in over 6 million deaths worldwide.[1] It was realized early into the pandemic, that COVID-19 significantly impacts the Cardiovascular system. [2] Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities were particularly at higher risk of adverse outcomes during their hospitalizations. [3] Similarly, it can be safe to assume patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) should considered a high-risk population for the development of severe COVID infection with increased rates of significant cardiovascular complications. Objective(s): Based on this reasoning and the paucity of data available on this topic using a large database, we sought to investigate the outcomes of patients with ACHD who were admitted to the hospital with COVID-19. Method(s): The National Inpatient Sample database for 2020 was queried to identify adult hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19 and a secondary diagnosis of ACHD using International Classification of Diseases - 10 Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes. The primary outcome studied was inpatient mortality, while secondary outcomes included inpatient complications, mean length of stay (LOS), and total hospital charge (THC). Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to adjust for possible confounders and analyze the variables. Result(s): Out of 1,050,045 COVID-19 hospitalizations registered, 2,425 (0.23%) had ACHD as a secondary diagnosis. Encounters with ACHD who were hospitalized with COVID-19 had significantly higher adjusted odds of inpatient mortality (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 1.4, [95% CI: 1.05-1.88], p=0.022), Longer LOS (Mean 2.4 days, [95% CI: 1.35-3.40], p <0.001), and higher Total Hospital Charges (Mean $53,000, [95% CI: 20811-85190], p <0.001). A Forrest plot (Figure 1) demonstrates a graphical representation of the multivariate analysis of the significant in-hospital complications when adjusted for patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics. Conclusion(s): Among COVID-19 hospitalizations, those with a history of congenital heart diseases had significantly worse outcomes in terms of in-hospital mortality, sepsis;the need for endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors;developing acute kidney injury and pulmonary embolism, in addition to the longer length of stay, and higher total hospital charges. [Formula presented]Copyright © 2023

20.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S44, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323044

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to human health that is predicted to impact most heavily on sub-Saharan Africa, however there is a lack of clinical outcome data from drug-resistant infections in this setting. There are reasons to expect the COVID-19 pandemic to have both positive and negative impacts on AMR in Africa. We have recruited a series of prospective longitudinal cohorts from Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, Malawi and the surrounding communities in the Southern Region of Malawi. The data from these cohorts has been used to describe the aetiology of febrile illness, the burden of antimicrobial resistance in this setting and the distribution of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing bacteria in humans, animals and the environment. Amongst a cohort of patients presenting to QECH unwell with febrile illness, 67% were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We identified a diagnosis in 145 of 225 (64%) participants, most commonly tuberculosis (TB;34%) followed by invasive bacterial infections (17%), arboviral infections (13%), and malaria (9%). In a second cohort with drug resistant infection, resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was associated with an increased probability of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.44, 95% CI 1.02-2.04), longer hospital stays (1.5 days, 1.0-2.0) and decreased probability of discharge alive (HR 0.31, 0.22-0.45). In the community cohorts, a paucity of environmental health infrastructure and materials for safe sanitation was identified across all sites and ESBL-Enterobacterales were isolated from 41.8% of human stool, 29.8% of animal stool and 66.2% of river water samples and was associated with the wet season, living in urban areas, advanced age and in household-animal interactions. Life threatening febrile illness is common in Blantyre however, diagnostics are few, however the COVID-19 pandemic has led to rapid expansion of diagnostic capacity. We are, however frequently treating the wrong bugs with ceftriaxone, further there was significant expansion of azithromycin demand and usage during the pandemic. Current management of sepsis has not been optimised and ceftriaxone use is promoting carriage of ESBL bacteria out of the hospital and ESBL E. coli and K. pneumoniae are ubiquitous in the community, where environmental hygiene infrastructure and community antimicrobial stewardship are critically lacking.Copyright © 2023

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