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1.
Chaos, Solitons and Fractals ; 159, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1843286

ABSTRACT

Most available behavioral epidemiology models have linked the behavioral responses of individuals to infection prevalence. However, this is a crude approximation of reality because prevalence is typically an unobserved quantity. This work considers a general endemic SIR epidemiological model where behavioral responses are incidence-based i.e., the agents perceptions of risks are based on available information on infection incidence. The differences of this modeling approach with respect to the standard ‘prevalence-based’ formulations are discussed and its dynamical implications are investigated. Both current and delayed behavioral responses are considered. We show that depending on the form of the ‘memory’ (i.e., in mathematical language, of the information delaying kernel), the endemic equilibrium can either be globally stable or destabilized via Hopf bifurcations yielding to stable recurrent oscillations. These oscillations can have a very long inter-epidemic periods and a very wide amplitude. Finally, a numerical investigation of the interplay between these behavior-related oscillations and seasonality of the contact rate reveals a strong synergic effect yielding to a dramatic amplification of oscillations. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

2.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336070

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Globally, there have been more than 404 million cases of SARS-CoV-2, with 5.8 million confirmed deaths, as of February 2022. South Africa has experienced four waves of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, with the second, third, and fourth waves being driven by the Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants, respectively. A key question with the emergence of new variants is the extent to which they are able to reinfect those who have had a prior natural infection. We developed two approaches to monitor routine epidemiological surveillance data to examine whether SARS-CoV-2 reinfection risk has changed through time in South Africa, in the context of the emergence of the Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529) variants. We analyze line list data on positive tests for SARS-CoV-2 with specimen receipt dates between 04 March 2020 and 31 January 2022, collected through South Africa's National Notifiable Medical Conditions Surveillance System. Individuals having sequential positive tests at least 90 days apart were considered to have suspected reinfections. Our routine monitoring of reinfection risk included comparison of reinfection rates to the expectation under a null model (approach 1) and estimation of the time-varying hazards of infection and reinfection throughout the epidemic (approach 2) based on model-based reconstruction of the susceptible populations eligible for primary and second infections. Results: 105,323 suspected reinfections were identified among 2,942,248 individuals with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 who had a positive test result at least 90 days prior to 31 January 2022. The number of reinfections observed through the end of the third wave in September 2021 was consistent with the null model of no change in reinfection risk (approach 1). Although increases in the hazard of primary infection were observed following the introduction of both the Beta and Delta variants, no corresponding increase was observed in the reinfection hazard (approach 2). Contrary to expectation, the estimated hazard ratio for reinfection versus primary infection was lower during waves driven by the Beta and Delta variants than for the first wave (relative hazard ratio for wave 2 versus wave 1: 0.71 (CI95: 0.60-0.85);for wave 3 versus wave 1: 0.54 (CI95: 0.45-0.64)). In contrast, the recent spread of the Omicron variant has been associated with an increase in reinfection hazard coefficient. The estimated hazard ratio for reinfection versus primary infection versus wave 1 was 1.75 (CI95: 1.48-2.10) for the period of Omicron emergence (01 November 2021 to 30 November 2021) and 1.70 (CI95: 1.44-2.04) for wave 4 versus wave 1. Individuals with identified reinfections since 01 November 2021 had experienced primary infections in all three prior waves, and an increase in third infections has been detected since mid-November 2021. Many individuals experiencing third infections had second infections during the third (Delta) wave that ended in September 2021, strongly suggesting that these infections resulted from immune evasion rather than waning immunity. Conclusion: Population-level evidence suggests that the Omicron variant is associated with substantial ability to evade immunity from prior infection. In contrast, there is no population-wide epidemiological evidence of immune escape associated with the Beta or Delta variants. This finding has important implications for public health planning, particularly in countries like South Africa with high rates of immunity from prior infection. Further development of methods to track reinfection risk during pathogen emergence, including refinements to assess the impact of waning immunity, account for vaccine-derived protection, and monitor the risk of multiple reinfections will be an important tool for future pandemic preparedness.

3.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335896

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the vaccination process in Germany, a large share of the population is still susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we face the spread of novel variants. Until we overcome the pandemic, reasonable mitigation and opening strategies are crucial to balance public health and economic interests. Methods: We model the spread of SARS-CoV-2 over the German counties by a graph-SIR-type, metapopulation model with particular focus on commuter testing. We account for political interventions by varying contact reduction values in private and public locations such as homes, schools, workplaces, and other. We consider different levels of lockdown strictness, commuter testing strategies, or the delay of intervention implementation. We conduct numerical simulations to assess the effectiveness of the different intervention strategies after one month. The virus dynamics in the regions (German counties) are initialized randomly with incidences between 75-150 weekly new cases per 100,000 inhabitants (red zones) or below (green zones) and consider 25 different initial scenarios of randomly distributed red zones (between 2 and 20 % of all counties). To account for uncertainty, we consider an ensemble set of 500 Monte Carlo runs for each scenario. Results: We find that the strength of the lockdown in regions with out of control virus dynamics is most important to avoid the spread into neighboring regions. With very strict lockdowns in red zones, commuter testing rates of twice a week can substantially contribute to the safety of adjacent regions. In contrast, the negative effect of less strict interventions can be overcome by high commuter testing rates. A further key contributor is the potential delay of the intervention implementation. In order to keep the spread of the virus under control, strict regional lockdowns with minimum delay and commuter testing of at least twice a week are advisable. If less strict interventions are in favor, substantially increased testing rates are needed to avoid overall higher infection dynamics. Conclusions: Our results indicate that local containment of outbreaks and maintenance of low overall incidence is possible even in densely populated and highly connected regions such as Germany or Western Europe. While we demonstrate this on data from Germany, similar patterns of mobility likely exist in many countries and our results are, hence, generalizable to a certain extent.

4.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335762

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused over 350 million cases and over five million deaths globally. From these numbers, over 10 million cases and over 200 thousand deaths have occurred on the African continent as of 22 January 2022. Prevention and surveillance remain the cornerstone of interventions to halt the further spread of COVID-19. Google Health Trends (GHT), a free Internet tool, may be valuable to help anticipate outbreaks, identify disease hotspots, or understand the patterns of disease surveillance. We collected COVID-19 case and death incidence for 54 African countries and obtained averages for four, five-month study periods in 2020-2021. Average case and death incidences were calculated during these four time periods to measure disease severity. We used GHT to characterize COVID-19 incidence across Africa, collecting numbers of searches from GHT related to COVID-19 using four terms: 'coronavirus', 'coronavirus symptoms', 'COVID19', and 'pandemic'. The terms were related to weekly COVID-19 case incidences for the entire study period via multiple linear regression analysis and weighted linear regression analysis. We also assembled 72 predictors assessing Internet accessibility, demographics, economics, health, and others, for each country, to summarize potential mechanisms linking GHT searches and COVID-19 incidence. COVID-19 burden in Africa increased steadily during the study period as in the rest of the world. Important increases for COVID-19 death incidence were observed for Seychelles and Tunisia over the study period. Our study demonstrated a weak correlation between GHT and COVID-19 incidence for most African countries. Several predictors were useful in explaining the pattern of GHT statistics and their relationship to COVID-19 including: log of average weekly cases, log of cumulative total deaths, and log of fixed total number of broadband subscriptions in a country. Apparently, GHT may best be used for surveillance of diseases that are diagnosed more consistently. GHT-based surveillance for an ongoing epidemic might be useful in specific situations, such as when countries have significant levels of infection with low variability. Overall, GHT-based surveillance showed little applicability in the studied countries. Future studies might assess the algorithm in different epidemic contexts.

5.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335573

ABSTRACT

The sanitary crisis of the past two years has focused the public's attention on quantitative indicators of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. The daily reproduction number Rt, defined by the average number of new infections caused by a single infected individual at time t, is one of the best metrics for estimating the epidemic trend. In this paper, we give a complete observation model for sampled epidemiological incidence signals obtained through periodic administrative measurements. The model is governed by the classic renewal equation using an empirical reproduction kernel, and subject to two perturbations: a time-varying gain with a weekly period and a white observation noise. We estimate this noise model and its parameters by extending a variational inversion of the model recovering its main driving variable Rt. Using Rt, a restored incidence curve, corrected of the weekly and festive day bias, can be deduced through the renewal equation. We verify experimentally on many countries that, once the weekly and festive days bias have been corrected, the difference between the incidence curve and its expected value is well approximated by an exponential distributed white noise multiplied by a power of the magnitude of the restored incidence curve.

6.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(6-s):92-99, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1836314

ABSTRACT

Background: A Corona virus pandemic now has had a huge impact on quality of life all around the world. People's mental health has been affected by quarantine. The economic delays could have long term impacts on the psychology of students as they are more likely to be graduated later than they have expected. The number of factors contributed to gravitate the psychological disturbances including online education, financial worries and academic pressure. Aims and Objectives: This Study was to determine the level of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Students during COVID-19 Pandemic. Furthermore, to see if there's a correlation between demographic profile and the DASS-21. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the healthcare students using DASS-21 which included a conventional DASS questionnaire along with demographic characteristics. A Google form link was shared through social media-WhatsApp and E-mail and data was collected and analyzed using excel sheet to examine the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among students.

7.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 87:1982-1990, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1836286

ABSTRACT

Background: The recent worldwide pandemic of COVID-19 has been a serious, multidimensional problem that has left a detrimental worldwide impact on individuals of all ages and several organ systems. The typical manifestation of kidney involvement is acute kidney injury (AKI);however, there is a lack of consensus data regarding AKI epidemiology in COVID-19. Objective: The aim of the current work was to study the incidence and prognosis of acute kidney injury among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Subjects and methods: This retrospective, observational cohort study was conducted on 163 COVID19 patients diagnosed by RT-PCR and carried in Inpatient and ICU of Geriatric Isolation Hospital, Ain Shams University hospitals for COVID19. Results: As regard predictors for AKI;each of presence of chronic kidney disease, mechanical ventilation, CRP > 74, and TLC >13 had high predictive value for occurrence of AKI among hospitalized COVID 19 patients. Conclusion: It could be concluded that AKI in COVID-19 patients is associated with a high mortality rate in ICUCOVID-19 patients. Our findings suggest that COVID-19 patients, particularly ICU COVID-19 patients, should be closely monitored for the development of AKI. Early identification of AKI, as well as prompt intervention, can improve COVID-19 patient outcomes. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine is the property of Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Cureus ; 14(3): e23270, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835780

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a community hospital in McAllen, Texas, USA. Such incidence was reported to be as high as 31% in early 2020, and in the range of 3.1%-13.6% in mid-2020, with no later studies addressing this issue. We identified a total of 47 COVID-19 hospitalized patients during August 2021, among whom four (8.5%) had a documented VTE. They were all on prophylactic anticoagulation from the time of admission, and none of them had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or a prior history of VTE. The incidence was equal between ICU and non-ICU patients. Pre-existing hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, but not high body mass index (BMI) or diabetes mellitus, appeared to be among risk factors for VTE in these patients. All four VTE patients were of Hispanic ethnicity, while only half of all 47 patients were Hispanic. The study concluded that in late 2021 the rate of VTE remained to be higher in COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 patients in hospitals despite routine and early implementation of prophylactic anticoagulation in this patient population.

9.
Access Microbiology ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1831588

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged as a global health crisis in 2020. The first case in India was reported on 30 January 2020 and the disease spread throughout the country within months. Old persons, immunocompromised patients and persons with co-morbidities, especially of the respiratory system, have a more severe and often fatal outcome to the disease. In this study we have analysed the socio-demographic trend of the COVID-19 outbreak in Nagpur and adjoining districts.

10.
Arch Public Health ; 80(1): 10, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most epidemiologic reports focus on lower extremity amputation (LEA) caused specifically by diabetes mellitus. However, narrowing scope disregards the impact of other causes and types of limb amputation (LA) diminishing the true incidence and societal burden. We explored the rates of LEA and upper extremity amputation (UEA) by level of amputation, sex and age over 14 years in Saskatchewan, Canada. METHODS: We calculated the differential impact of amputation type (LEA or UEA) and level (major or minor) of LA using retrospective linked hospital discharge data and demographic characteristics of all LA performed in Saskatchewan and resident population between 2006 and 2019. Rates were calculated from total yearly cases per yearly Saskatchewan resident population. Joinpoint regression was employed to quantify annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC). Negative binomial regression was performed to determine if LA rates differed over time based on sex and age. RESULTS: Incidence of LEA (31.86 ± 2.85 per 100,000) predominated over UEA (5.84 ± 0.49 per 100,000) over the 14-year study period. The overall LEA rate did not change over the study period (AAPC -0.5 [95% CI - 3.8 to 3.0]) but fluctuations were identified. From 2008 to 2017 LEA rates increased (APC 3.15 [95% CI 1.1 to 5.2]) countered by two statistically insignificant periods of decline (2006-2008 and 2017-2019). From 2006 to 2019 the rate of minor LEA steadily increased (AAPC 3.9 [95% CI 2.4 to 5.4]) while major LEA decreased (AAPC -0.6 [95% CI - 2.1 to 5.4]). Fluctuations in the overall LEA rate nearly corresponded with fluctuations in major LEA with one period of rising rates from 2010 to 2017 (APC 4.2 [95% CI 0.9 to 7.6]) countered by two periods of decline 2006-2010 (APC -11.14 [95% CI - 16.4 to - 5.6]) and 2017-2019 (APC -19.49 [95% CI - 33.5 to - 2.5]). Overall UEA and minor UEA rates remained stable from 2006 to 2019 with too few major UEA performed for in-depth analysis. Males were twice as likely to undergo LA than females (RR = 2.2 [95% CI 1.99-2.51]) with no change in rate over the study period. Persons aged 50-74 years and 75+ years were respectively 5.9 (RR = 5.92 [95% Cl 5.39-6.51]) and 10.6 (RR = 10.58 [95% Cl 9.26-12.08]) times more likely to undergo LA than those aged 0-49 years. LA rate increased with increasing age over the study period. CONCLUSION: The rise in the rate of minor LEA with simultaneous decline in the rate of major LEA concomitant with the rise in age of patients experiencing LA may reflect a paradigm shift in the management of diseases that lead to LEA. Further, this shift may alter demand for orthotic versus prosthetic intervention. A more granular look into the data is warranted to determine if performing minor LA diminishes the need for major LA.

11.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 162, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The increasing spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has prompted Canada to take unprecedented measures. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the implemented public health measures on the incidence of COVID-19 in Manitoba. RESULTS: Using the COVID-19 dataset, we examined the temporal trends of daily reported COVID-19 cases and the coinciding public health measures implemented from March 12, 2020 to February 28, 2022. We calculated the 7-day moving average and crude COVID-19 infection rate/100,000 Manitobans. Due to the restrictions applied, the infection rate decreased from 2.4 (April 1) to 0.07 infections (May 1, 2020). Between May 4 and July 17, 2020, the reported cases stabilized, and some restrictions were lifted. However, in November, the cases peaked with infection rate of 29. Additional restrictions were implemented, and the rate dropped to 3.6 infections on March 31, 2021. As of August 2021, 62.8% of eligible Manitobans received two vaccine doses. The infection rate increased to 128.3 infections on December 31, 2021 and mitigation measures were implemented. This study describes how physical distancing in conjunction with other containment measures can reduce the COVID-19 burden. Future studies into the extent of the implementation of the restrictions are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Manitoba/epidemiology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Mycoses ; 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported as an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients with an incidence rate ranging from 5% to 35% during the first and second pandemic waves. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors for CAPA by a screening protocol, and outcome in the critically ill patients during the third wave of the pandemic. PATIENTS/METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in two intensive care units (ICU) designated for patients with COVID-19 in a tertiary care university hospital between November 18, 2020, and April 24, 2021. SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive adult patients admitted to the ICU with respiratory failure were included in the study. Serum and respiratory samples were collected periodically from ICU admission up to CAPA diagnosis, patient discharge or death. ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria were used to diagnose and classify CAPA cases. RESULTS: A total of 302 patients were admitted to the two ICUs during the study period, and 213 were included in the study. CAPA was diagnosed in 43 (20.1%) patients (12.2% probable, 7.9% possible). In regression analysis, male sex, higher SOFA scores at ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation and longer ICU stay were significantly associated with CAPA development. Overall ICU mortality rate was higher significantly in CAPA group compared to those with no CAPA (67.4% vs 29.4%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of critically ill patients in COVID-19 ICUs developed CAPA, and this was associated with a high mortality.

13.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is strong observational evidence that respirators are highly effective in protecting the users from being infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), but the evidence for SARS-CoV-2 during daily work is limited. This study utilized a subset of healthcare workers' temporary use of a new brand respirator with frequent defects when caring for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients to assess the protective effect of regular respirators against SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We retrospectively followed 463 participants wearing a regular respirator and 168 wearing the new brand respirator day-by-day when caring for COVID-19 patients until testing polymerase chain reaction positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 27th December 2020 and 14th January 2021. RESULTS: We observed seven and eight incident SARS-CoV-2-infected cases. This corresponded with daily infection rates of 0.2 and 0.5%, an incidence rate ratio of 0.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1; 1.0], and an incidence rate difference of 0.3% (95% CI -0.1; 0.8) when comparing a regular with the new brand respirator. DISCUSSION: We regard the new brand respirator a sham intervention, and this study thus provides further evidence for the protective effect of respirators when exposed to SARS-CoV-2 virus.

14.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 14: 100304, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous countries have imposed strict travel restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, contributing to a large socioeconomic burden. The long quarantines that have been applied to contacts of cases may be excessive for travel policy. METHODS: We developed an approach to evaluate imminent countrywide COVID-19 infections after 0-14-day quarantine and testing. We identified the minimum travel quarantine duration such that the infection rate within the destination country did not increase compared to a travel ban, defining this minimum quarantine as "sufficient." FINDINGS: We present a generalised analytical framework and a specific case study of the epidemic situation on November 21, 2021, for application to 26 European countries. For most origin-destination country pairs, a three-day or shorter quarantine with RT-PCR or antigen testing on exit suffices. Adaptation to the European Union traffic-light risk stratification provided a simplified policy tool. Our analytical approach provides guidance for travel policy during all phases of pandemic diseases. INTERPRETATION: For nearly half of origin-destination country pairs analysed, travel can be permitted in the absence of quarantine and testing. For the majority of pairs requiring controls, a short quarantine with testing could be as effective as a complete travel ban. The estimated travel quarantine durations are substantially shorter than those specified for traced contacts. FUNDING: EasyJet (JPT and APG), the Elihu endowment (JPT), the Burnett and Stender families' endowment (APG), the Notsew Orm Sands Foundation (JPT and APG), the National Institutes of Health (MCF), Canadian Institutes of Health Research (SMM) and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada EIDM-MfPH (SMM).

15.
Int J Environ Sci Technol (Tehran) ; : 1-14, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827305

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research is to study the influence of atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables on the incidence rate of COVID-19 and the rate of hospital admissions due to COVID-19 during the first and second waves in nine Spanish provinces. Numerous studies analyze the effect of environmental and pollution variables separately, but few that include them in the same analysis together, and even fewer that compare their effects between the first and second waves of the virus. This study was conducted in nine of 52 Spanish provinces, using generalized linear models with Poisson link between levels of PM10, NO2 and O3 (independent variables) and maximum temperature and absolute humidity and the rates of incidence and hospital admissions of COVID-19 (dependent variables), establishing a series of significant lags. Using the estimators obtained from the significant multivariate models, the relative risks associated with these variables were calculated for increases of 10 µg/m3 for pollutants, 1 °C for temperature and 1 g/m3 for humidity. The results suggest that NO2 has a greater association than the other air pollution variables and the meteorological variables. There was a greater association with O3 in the first wave and with NO2 in the second. Pollutants showed a homogeneous distribution across the country. We conclude that, compared to other air pollutants and meteorological variables, NO2 is a protagonist that may modulate the incidence and severity of COVID-19, though preventive public health measures such as masking and hand washing are still very important. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13762-022-04190-z.

16.
Cureus ; 14(3): e23211, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825637

ABSTRACT

Background Hospital waiting areas are overlooked from the airborne infection control viewpoint as they are not classified as critical for infection control. This is the area where undiagnosed and potentially infected patients gather with susceptible and vulnerable patients, and there is no mechanism to segregate the two, especially when the potentially infected visitors/patients themselves are unaware of the infection or may be asymptomatic. It is important to know whether hospitals in Delhi, a populated, low-resource setting having community transmission/occurrence of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis, consider waiting areas as critical. Hence, this study aims to determine whether hospitals in Delhi consider waiting areas as critical areas from the airborne infection control viewpoint. Methodology The Right to Information Act, 2005, was used to request information from 11 hospitals included in this study. Results After compiling the results, it was found that five out of the 11 hospitals did not consider waiting areas as critical from the infection spread point of view. Two of the 11 hospitals acknowledged the criticality of waiting areas but did not include the same in the list of critical areas. Only three out of the 11 considered waiting areas as critical and included these in the list of critical areas in a hospital. Conclusions This study provided evidence that most hospitals in Delhi do not include waiting areas in the list of critical areas in a hospital.

17.
Journal of the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences ; 21(1):16-22, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pattern of serum electrolytes abnormalities and their impact on ICU admitted Covid-19 patient outcomes. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study was carried out at OMI hospital and Dr. Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, between August to December 2020. Total 102 PCR positive, ICU admitted with severe Covid-19 patients as per WHO criteria were included. The patient's demographic characteristics, clinical features including co-morbidities, electrolytes reports at the time of admission, length of ICU and/or hospital stay, and outcome (expired/survived) were evaluated. RESULTS: Biochemical testing found abnormal electrolyte levels in 90.2% ICU admitted Covid-19 patients. Electrolytes abnormalities including hyponatremia 45.1%, hypermagnesemia 40.2%, hypocalcemia 31.4%, hyperchloremia23.5% and hyperphosphatemia in 20.6% patients. Out of the total, 28.4% of patients needed invasive respiratory support, and 37.3% could not survive. A higher incidence of mortality (39.1% vs. 20%) was seen in patients with electrolytes abnormalities compared to those presented with normal values. CONCLUSION: Electrolyte abnormalities were found in 90% of the ICU Admitted Covid-19 patients. The most common abnormalities found among the patients were hyponatremia, hypermagnesemia, and Hypocalcemia. The findings revealed that several electrolyte imbalances harm patients' in-hospital outcomes. Electrolyte assessment of Covid-19 patients at the time of admission would be helpful in risk stratification for adverse outcomes.

18.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(2):77-84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822498

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate patient demographic characteristics and risk factors for mortality during the first and the second wave among COVID-19 patients in a tertiary care hospital of India. Methods: Data were taken from the hospital's electronic system for COVID-19 patients from August 2020 to December 2020, and the second from January 2021 to May 2021. The mortality rate, demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory profile, and reasons for the death of the two waves were retrieved and compared, and the risk factors of the two waves were determined. Results: In the first wave, 1 177 COVID-19 cases visited the hospital and 96 (8.2%) died. In comparison, the death rate in the second wave was significantly higher (244/2 038, 12.0%) (P<0.001). No significant difference in age [60 (50-69) vs. 60.5 (53-70), P=0.11] or gender (P=0.34) was observed between the two waves. Compared to the first wave. there were significantly more cases with fever, cough, weakness, loss of taste and smell, and sore throat during the second wave (P<0.05), but significantly fewer cases with kidney disease (6.6% vs. 13.5%, P=0.038) and diabetes mellitus (35.7% vs. 50.0%, P=0.015). Besides, during the second wave, more patients had abnormal X-ray findings, higher levels of lymphocytes and serum ferritin (P<0.05). In addition, there were significant differences in the rate of death cases with acidosis, septic shock, acute kidney injury, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular events, hypothyroidism (P<0.05). Multivariate regression showed that during the first wave, age (OR: 1.10;95% CI: 1.02-1.21), diabetes mellitus (OR: 3.16;95% CI: 2.08-3.53), and abnormal X-ray (2.67;95% CI: 2.32-2.87) were significant independent risk factors of mortality;while in the second wave, age (OR: 1.13;95% CI: 1.12-1.28), diabetes mellitus (OR: 8.98;95% CI: 1.79-45.67), abnormal X-ray (OR: 12.83;95% CI: 2.32-54.76), high D-dimer (OR: 10.89;95% CI: 1.56-134.53), and high IL-6 (OR: 7.89;95% CI: 1.18-47.82) were significant independent risk factors of mortality. Conclusion: Overall mortality and incidence of severe diseases are higher in the second wave than the first wave. Demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, and laboratory inflammatory parameters, especially D-dimer and IL-6, are significant risk facors of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
Obesity Pillars ; : 100019, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821431

ABSTRACT

Background This study aimed to describe the incidence and clinical presentation of fully vaccinated and unvaccinated patients who tested positive for COVID-19 in the first year after Madina Women’s Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt, resumed bariatric surgery procedures. (The clinic was closed between March 2020 and reopened in mid-October 2020) Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted between November 2020 till the end of December 2021. We identified patients undergoing bariatric surgery infected with COVID-19 with and without vaccination. COVID-19 severity was assessed based on the Egypt Ministry of Health guidelines. Some patients were isolated at home, whereas others were hospitalised. Results During the one year after the restart of bariatric surgery procedures, 606 patients underwent bariatric procedures (n = 280 fully vaccinated, n = 320 unvaccinated). During follow-up, that period, the incidence of COVID-19 in the vaccinated group was 1.07% (n = 3) versus 14.1% (n = 46) in the unvaccinated group. Three patients had mild symptoms in the vaccinated group, and no hospital admission was necessary. In the unvaccinated group, 27 patients (60%) were classified as mild, eight (17.8%) as moderate, eight (17.8%) as moderate with risk, and two (4.4%) as severe;the mortality rate was 0%. Of these, 16 (88.9%) were hospitalised, of which six (33.3%) were admitted to the intensive care unit in the moderate to severe groups. Conclusion Patients with obesity are at increased risk for COVID-19 infection and adverse consequences. Our findings showed a higher incidence of COVID-19 among those unvaccinated versus vaccinated. Therefore, at least during times and locations of a COVID-19 pandemic, vaccinations may be beneficial for patients against COVID-19 prior to bariatric surgery.

20.
Anesthesia and Analgesia ; 134(4 SUPPL):12-14, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820600

ABSTRACT

Background/Introduction: Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, the sudden demand for virtual medical visits drove the drastic expansion of telemedicine across all medical specialties. Current literature demonstrates limited knowledge on the impact of telehealth on appointment adherence particularly in preoperative anesthesia evaluations. We hypothesized that there would be increased completion of preoperative anesthesia appointments in patients who received telemedicine visits. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients at UCLA who received preoperative anesthesia evaluations by telemedicine or in-person within the Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine from January to September 2021 and assessed appointment adherence. The primary outcome was incidence of appointment completion. The secondary outcomes included appointment no show and cancellations. Patient demographic characteristics including sex, age, ASA physical status class, race, ethnicity, primary language, interpreter service requested, patient travel distance to clinic, and insurance payor were also evaluated. Demographic characteristics, notably race and ethnicity, are presented as captured in the electronic health record and we recognize its limitations and inaccuracies in illustrating how people identify. Patient reported reasons for cancellations were also reviewed and categorized into thematic groups by two physicians. Statistical comparison was performed using independent samples t test, Pearson's chi-square, and Fischer's exact test. Results: Of 1332 patients included in this study, 956 patients received telehealth visits while 376 patients received in-person preoperative anesthesia evaluations. Compared to the in-person group, the telemedicine group had more appointment completions (81.38% vs 76.60%, p = 0.0493). There were fewer cancellations (12.55% vs 19.41%, p = 0.0029) and no statistical difference in appointment no-shows (6.07% vs 3.99%, p = 0.1337) in the telemedicine group (Figure 1). Compared to the in-person group, patients who received telemedicine evaluations were younger (55.81 ± 18.38 vs 65.97 ± 15.19, p < 0.001), less likely American Indian and Alaska Native (0.31% vs 1.60%, p = 0.0102), more likely of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (16.63% vs 12.23%, p = 0.0453), required less interpreter services (4.18% vs 9.31%, p = 0.0003), had more private insurance coverage (53.45% vs 37.50%, p < 0.0001) and less Medicare coverage (37.03% vs 50.53%, p < 0.0001). Main reasons for cancellation included patient request, surgery rescheduled/cancelled/already completed, and change in method of appointment. Conclusions: In 2021, preoperative anesthesia evaluation completion was greater in patients who received telemedicine appointments compared to those who received in-person evaluations at UCLA. We also demonstrate potential shortcomings of telemedicine in serving patients who are older, require interpreter services, or are non-privately insured. Knowledge of these factors can provide feedback to improve access and equity to telehealth for patients from all backgrounds, particularly during the COVID pandemic as virtual evaluations increase. (Table Presented).

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