Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 4.271
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
International Journal of Health Policy and Management ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2101008

ABSTRACT

Background: Rapid, strategic action is required to mitigate the negative and unequal impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the financial well-being (FWB) of global populations. Personal financial strain (FS) worsened most significantly among systematically excluded groups. Targeted government-and community-led initiatives are needed to address these inequities. The purpose of this applied research was to identify what works for whom, under what conditions, and why in relation to community and government initiatives that promote personal and household FWB and/or address FS in high income economies.Methods: We employed a critical realist analysis to literature that reported on FWB/FS initiatives in high income countries. This included initiatives introduced in response to the pandemic as well as those that began prior to the pandemic. We included sources based on a rapid review. We coded academic, published literature (n=39) and practice-based (n=36) reports abductively to uncover generative mechanisms - i.e., underlying, foundational factors related to community or government initiatives that either constrained and/or enabled FWB and FS.Results: We identified two generative mechanisms: 1. neoliberal ideology;and, 2. social equity ideology. A third mechanism, social location (e.g., characteristics of identity, location of residence), cut across the two ideologies and demonstrated for whom the initiatives worked (or did not) in what circumstances. Neoliberal ideology (i.e., individual responsibility) dominated initiative designs, which limited the positive impact on FS. This was particularly true for people who occupied systematically excluded social locations (e.g., low-income young mothers). Social equity-based initiatives were less common within the literature, yet mostly had a positive impact on FWB and produced equitable outcomes.Conclusion: Equity-centric initiatives are required to improve FWB and reduce FS among systemically excluded and marginalized groups. These findings are of relevance now as nations strive for financial recovery in the face of the ongoing global pandemic.

2.
Review of European and Comparative Law ; JOUR(3):163-179, 50.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100941

ABSTRACT

The covid-19 pandemic has since March 2020 led to declarations of several states of emergency, to shutting down of schools, restrictions on gatherings as well as many business activities, with the aim to stopping the spread and transfer of the virus. Apart from the program of compensation bonuses, program Antivirus, postponing of the electronic sales record and so on, the state has reacted to the situation through tax legislation. The presented paper defines some steps as a result of the pandemic that are connected to tax law, these being specifically real estate tax, road tax, value added tax and excise tax.

3.
Digit Health ; 8: 20552076221133764, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098278

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic is reported to exacerbate existing vulnerabilities of marginalized groups, and the lack of self-care can lead to the spread of the virus across society. Therefore, effective responses to the challenges imposed by the health crisis should consider the health information needs of migrant workers. Objective: We aimed to explore how migrant low-income workers seek health information and how their health-related information needs were met during a health crisis. We also investigated migrant workers' preferred information sources and types of content with the theoretical concept of health literacy to understand the development of health competencies among migrant workers. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with Thai low-income migrant workers. A total of 13 Thai migrant workers participated in the study, among whom five were undocumented. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed with the thematic analysis approach. Results: Our findings indicated that migrant workers' health literacy and health information behavior could be improved through technology when facing a health crisis. We found that participants sought health information proactively to reduce their perceived risks. However, there is still space for design to support the ability to process jargon information and apply local policy, such as providing easy-to-understand, accurate, and timely information. The findings of this study provide some insights for the authority and technological design to respond to migrant workers' health information needs. Conclusions: This study acknowledges and understands the needs of vulnerable migrant workers in society. The findings of this study provide insights for the authority and technological design to respond to migrant workers' health information needs. We also outline the areas worth further investigation, such as the communication between information seekers and providers, and the navigation of the healthcare system for migrants in the host country.

4.
J Gerontol Soc Work ; : 1-16, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096998

ABSTRACT

Health restrictions enacted during the COVID-19 pandemic made it difficult for older adults living in low-income housing (hereinafter referred to as residents) to maintain a routine. The study aimed to explore the ways in which residents carried on, experienced and adapted their activities during the pandemic. An action research study, conducted in cooperation with a community partner, involved nineteen residents who participated in semi-structured interviews inspired by an occupation focused health promotion model. Qualitative data obtained was analyzed using thematic and cross-case analyses. Two thirds of the sample reported a high level of change in their daily routine. The need to connect with others and to live moments of pleasure and joy were the least satisfying dimensions of experience while performing their activities, which was not surprising. Three occupational adaptation profiles were identified based on the residents' perception of changes in routine and their degree of satisfaction with time spent in the different dimensions of experience. Among strategies and resources reported for overcoming the impact of the pandemic on their daily lives, having a supportive social network, access to communication technologies and a positive attitude seemed to be key to residents' successful occupational adaptation.

6.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 150, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 constitutes a global health emergency of unprecedented proportions. Preventive measures, however, have run up against certain difficulties in low and middle-income countries. This is the case in socially and geographically marginalized communities, which are excluded from information about preventive measures. This study contains a dual objective, i) to assess knowledge of COVID-19 and the preventive measures associated with it concerning indigents in the villages of Diebougou's district in Burkina Faso. The aim is to understand if determinants of this understanding exist, and ii) to describe how their pathways to healthcare changed from 2019 to 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Diebougou healthcare district, in the south-west region of Burkina Faso. We relied on a cross-sectional design and used data from the fourth round of a panel survey conducted among a sample of ultra-poor people that had been monitored since 2015. Data were collected in August 2020 and included a total of 259 ultra-poor people. A multivariate logistic regression to determine the factors associated with the respondents' knowledge of COVID-19 was used. RESULTS: Half of indigents in the district said they had heard about COVID-19. Only 29% knew what the symptoms of the disease were. The majority claimed that they protected themselves from the virus by using preventive measures. This level of knowledge of the disease can be observed with no differences between the villages. Half of the indigents who expressed themselves agreed with government measures except for the closure of markets. An increase of over 11% can be seen in indigents without the opportunity for getting healthcare compared with before the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This research indicates that COVID-19 is partially known and that prevention measures are not universally understood. The study contributes to reducing the fragmentation of knowledge, in particular on vulnerable and marginalized populations. Results should be useful for future interventions for the control of epidemics that aim to leave no one behind.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Cross-Sectional Studies , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poverty
7.
Econ Anal Policy ; 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086123

ABSTRACT

After the pandemic, China's fiscal and monetary authorities implemented macroeconomic restructuring measures to combat the pandemic. Using a difference-in-difference model based on data collected during the COVID-19 phase, this study attempted to determine the economic recovery in China using the pandemic means for economic growth and energy consumption in other economies. A 0.21 percent increase in the western region's economic growth is comparable to a 0.15 percent increase in the growth of the southern central and northern regions during the pandemic period. Accordingly, we found evidence of actual provincial spillover effects in the clustering of high- and poor-performing regions. The impact of China's economic resurgence beyond the pandemic phase plays an important role in expanding power consumption in different regions. Since headwinds hamper economic development to aggregate output, fiscal policy is the sole option for maintaining pollution levels while simultaneously improving household well-being in terms of demand and employment.

8.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(10): e26018, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085050

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 stretched healthcare systems to their limits, particularly in settings with a pre-existing high burden of infectious diseases, including HIV and tuberculosis (TB). We studied the impact of COVID-19 on TB services at antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We surveyed ART clinics providing TB services in the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium in Africa and the Asia-Pacific until July 2021 (TB diagnoses until the end of 2021). We collected site-level data using standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: Of 46 participating ART clinics, 32 (70%) were in Africa and 14 (30%) in the Asia-Pacific; 52% provided tertiary care. Most clinics (85%) reported disrupted routine HIV care services during the pandemic, both in Africa (84%) and the Asia-Pacific (86%). The most frequently reported impacts were on staff (52%) and resource shortages (37%; protective clothing, face masks and disinfectants). Restrictions in TB health services were observed in 12 clinics (26%), mainly reduced access to TB diagnosis and postponed follow-up visits (6/12, 50% each), and restrictions in TB laboratory services (22%). Restrictions of TB services were addressed by dispensing TB drugs for longer periods than usual (7/12, 58%), providing telehealth services (3/12, 25%) and with changes in directly observed therapy (DOT) (e.g. virtual DOT, 3/12). The number of TB diagnoses at participating clinics decreased by 21% in 2020 compared to 2019; the decline was more pronounced in tertiary than primary/secondary clinics (24% vs. 12%) and in sites from the Asia-Pacific compared to Africa (46% vs. 14%). In 2021, TB diagnoses continued to decline in Africa (-8%) but not in the Asia-Pacific (+62%) compared to 2020. During the pandemic, new infection control measures were introduced or intensified at the clinics, including wearing face masks, hand sanitation and patient triage. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic led to staff shortages, reduced access to TB care and delays in follow-up visits for people with TB across IeDEA sites in Africa and the Asia-Pacific. Increased efforts are needed to restore and secure ongoing access to essential TB services in these contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Humans , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Developing Countries , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disinfectants/therapeutic use
9.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; JOUR(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 83.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2083844

ABSTRACT

This dissertation explored shared caregiving practices and culturally salient decisions Chinese heritage, low-income families have in nurturing preschool-aged children's home learning routines. Chinese caregivers raising young children in the US have childrearing beliefs and practices informed by their heritage and family background, experiences living in the US, and individual parenting beliefs. Additionally, the routine care and nurturing of learning experiences for their young children often involve multiple individuals such as mothers, fathers, and grandparents. Yet, Chinese heritage caregivers' intentional and complex childrearing considerations continue to be misunderstood by the dominant US child development frameworks as overly academically focused, controlling, and strict. This predominantly narrow view and the established association between family dynamics and young children's learning necessitates research that adopts a culturally- and contextually-grounded, shared caregiving perspective when exploring low-income, Chinese immigrant families' childrearing beliefs and practices. Twenty-seven primary caregivers (12 dyads and three individuals) representing 15 families were interviewed. Multiperspectival interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explore caregivers' meaning-making processes related to cultural orientations, childrearing routines and approaches, relationships with the co-parent, and children's early learning. Findings suggested three superordinate themes relevant to Chinese heritage caregivers raising young children in the US: (1) the adaptive nature of low-income, Chinese immigrant families' shared caregiving, (2) caregivers' agency in selecting contextualized and child-oriented learning goals, and (3) a multidimensional understanding of learning success. Findings illustrated the culturally and contextually grounded approaches that Chinese heritage caregivers adopt in supporting children's development of life-long learning skills and provided a strength-based lens through which to view normative family functioning. Importantly, caregivers' narratives elucidated how Chinese immigrants continued to modify their childrearing beliefs and practices as a family to overcome the new and unexpected challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and anti-Asian racism. These findings have direct relevance to the home-school partnership with immigrant families by contributing a new framework for educators, researchers, and policymakers to understand the broader contextual influences (e.g., shared caregiving, cultural backgrounds, Chinese childrearing beliefs) on young children's early learning and development. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

10.
Embase; 23.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-346595

ABSTRACT

The first step in SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance is testing to identify infected people. However, global testing rates are falling as we emerge from the acute health emergency and remain low in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (mean = 27 tests/100,000 people/day). We simulated COVID-19 epidemics in a prototypical LMIC to investigate how testing rates, sampling strategies, and sequencing proportions jointly impact surveillance outcomes and showed that low testing rates and spatiotemporal biases delay time-to-detection of new variants by weeks-to-months and can lead to unreliable estimates of variant prevalence even when the proportion of samples sequenced is increased. Accordingly, investments in wider access to diagnostics to support testing rates of ~100 tests/100,000 people/day could enable more timely detection of new variants and reliable estimates of variant prevalence. The performance of global SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance programs is fundamentally limited by access to diagnostic testing. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

11.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081537

ABSTRACT

Progressive realization of universal health coverage (UHC) requires health systems capacity to provide quality service and financial risk protection which supports access to services without financial hardship. Government health spending in low-income countries (LICs) has been low and heavily relied on external donor resources and out-of-pocket payment. This has resulted in high prevalence of catastrophic health spending or foregone care by those who cannot afford. Under fiscal constraints posed by pandemic, reforms in LICs should focus on efficiency through health resource waste reduction. Targeting the poor even with low level of health spending can make a significant health gain. Investment in primary healthcare and health workforce is the foundation for realizing UHC which cannot be postponed. Innovative tax on health hazardous products, conditional debt relief can increase fiscal space for health; while international collaboration to accelerate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine coverage can bring LICs out of acute phase of pandemic.

12.
South African Geographical Journal ; 104(3):309-327, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2077331

ABSTRACT

The increasing informal urbanism in Africa exposes its residents to multiple shocks, including urban public health pandemics. South Africa is not an exception due to the squalid living conditions, lack of essential services and amenities, and overcrowding characterizing informal settlements. We argue that such conditions compromise the liveability of the informal settlements and the wellbeing of the communities. The urban health inequality concept is used to analyse the risks and vulnerability of informal settlements to public health problems. This study uses the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) to investigate the exposure of the urban poor in South Africa's informal settlements to public health crises. This study is ethnographic and uses the case of Dinaweng informal settlement, Bloemfontein. Data was collected from secondary data sources triangulated with 60 in-depth interviews with household heads to enhance the validity of the findings. The study found that the poor in Dinaweng are disproportionately affected by disease pandemics that are exacerbated by the challenges in their daily lives characterized by their informal livelihoods. We conclude that informal settlements are complex spaces that require carefully considered strategies and responses for addressing pandemics such as COVID-19;otherwise, the residents in these settlements remain marginalized.

13.
Nutr Diet ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078284

ABSTRACT

AIM: The economic depression and reduced physical mobility associated with COVID-19 potentially affected the food security status of the poor. This study aimed to assess the possible worsening of perceived food insecurity among low-income families in Hong Kong. METHODS: Families either receiving government subsidies or living in a subdivided flat referred by local non-governmental organisations were invited to participate in a telephone survey. Food security status before (by recalling) and during the pandemic were assessed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Chi-square analysis and ANOVA were used to test the difference between the percentage of participants who responded affirmatively to survey questions and various categories of food insecurity. Paired t-test was used to examine the reported change in food insecurity score before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Association between socio-demographic factors and change in food insecurity score was then assessed by multiple linear regression using backward stepwise elimination. RESULTS: Findings from the 212 households revealed that, for all nine questions concerning food insecurity, there was a significantly higher percentage of affirmative responses during versus before the pandemic. The proportion of food-secure households dropped from 16.5% to 7.1% amidst the pandemic. By contrast, households with severe food insecurity increased from 19.3% to 33.5%. Regression analysis showed that those households who were living in subdivided flats and with high monthly housing expenses, were likely to experience an exacerbation of food insecurity. Meanwhile, households with divorced parents (probably due to consistent social subsidy) and high household incomes, showed resilience toward food insecurity. Concurrently, about one fifth of children in these households had an experience of starvation for a whole day due to financial constraints. CONCLUSION: The exacerbation of food insecurity among low-income families during the COVID-19 pandemic necessitates timely assessments and the implementation of appropriate measures to prevent them from experiencing physiological harm. These initiatives can be guided by the identified at-risk socio-economic characteristics in the present study.

14.
Journal of Eastern European and Central Asian Research ; 9(4):605-616, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072268

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to empirically substantiate the poverty-benefit effects of the integration of the three rural sector industries in China. The study results show that the integration of three rural industries has a significant poverty-benefiting impact. The heterogeneity analysis shows that the age, gender, education level, and region of the household head also have a certain degree of influence on the poverty-benefit effect of the integration of the three rural industries. The study of the poverty-benefit impacts of the integration of the three rural industries can provide theoretical support for China to consolidate its poverty-eradication achievements, promote the integration of the three rural industries, and comprehensively promote rural revitalization and accelerate agricultural and rural modernization. At the same time, China's experience also has implications for developing rural industrial integration in other countries.

15.
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071148

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the determinants associated to food insecurity in a group of households composed of schoolchildren and their mothers/caregivers, who lived in a low-to-medium community development index area of the city of Santiago, Chile with a high presence of migrant population. The non-probabilistic and convenience sample was made up of 646 people, who answered a series of surveys with the aim of characterizing this group in sociodemographic terms (sex, age, number of inhabitants in the household, place of food purchase, conditional or non-conditional state transfer program beneficiary status, persons in charge of purchasing food for the household, mothers/caregivers education level and basic knowledge of food and nutrition). To assess moderate-to-severe food insecurity and severe food insecurity, the Food Insecurity Experience Scale-FIES was applied between September and October 2021. Logistic regression analysis were used to carry out multivariate analyses, with the use of stepwise back-and-forward strategies for the selected variables and defining p < 0.05. These models were adjusted per number of inhabitants in the household. The results indicate that 25.4% of households presented moderate-to-severe food insecurity, and 6.4% severe food insecurity experience. The variables that presented significant odds of risk to food insecurity were being a migrant, low maternal education level, low performance on basic knowledge in nutrition and when the father was responsible for food purchases. Several public policies have been implemented in Chile during the most recent decades aimed at increasing access to healthier foods and the implementation of healthier food environments. Despite this, there are still social and economic health determinants that contribute to the risk of odds insecurity for the most vulnerable groups in the country, thus putting at risk the fulfillment of the human right to adequate food at risk.

16.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071079

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the motives behind the degrees of molecular pollution during the COVID-19 pandemic, which persisted from first walk 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020. A spatial Durbin file model is used linked to an edge backslide model in this article to find the widely inclusive and nearby consequences of present-day plan and urbanization on nonrenewable energy source by things. The outcomes are discussed next: both were available in modern-day plan and urbanization from a generally inclusive standpoint. The geological consequences of CO2 emissions were concentrated on utilizing information from 22 European countries somewhere in the range of 1990-2020, and all through the examination cycle, the Durbin spatial model was discovered. Although factors such as gross domestic product per capita, urbanization, and energy power impact CO2 emissions, exchange receptivity stays unaltered. The findings will fill in as critical repercussions for state-run administrations, wellbeing experts, and regulators in the war against the return of COVID-19 in Europe. The great number of suggestions were worthless since the concept integrated six money-connected creation assessments into a coordinated arrangement. There is information to indicate that CO2 emissions are associated with money-related events in neighboring nations.

17.
Studies in Business and Economics ; 17(2):5-22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071042

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze the relationship between employment opportunities and income before and during COVID-19. The research data collection is divided into two time periods, including January to March 2020 which is the period before COVID-19, while April to June 2020 is the period of during COVID-19. Each time period in this study analyzed 100 samples measured using a Likert scale. The method used in this research is simultaneous equation analysis with the Indirect Least Squares (ILS) approach. An important finding in this study for the period before and during COVID-19 is that employment opportunities are positively and significantly affected by infrastructure, economic conditions, government incentives and price stability. Meanwhile, income is positively and significantly influenced by employment opportunities, economic conditions, government incentives and price stability. Although the results of the research are the same for different time periods, based on the results of comparisons there has been a decrease in the contribution to employment and income during COVID-19. This study recommends that the government needs to maintain the stability of the indicators of employment opportunities and income used in this study so that turnover and community income do not decrease, especially during the COVID-19 period.

18.
Journal of Health Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070673

ABSTRACT

This approach reflects the moments when humanity was infected by the new pandemic from a health point of view. The acceleration to find the vaccine that will protect us from the pandemic brings some interesting questions from the point of view of possible side effects and from the point of view of the economy. The growing interest in first producing the so-called 'morning after' vaccine calls into question whether this is a purely scientific act open to all countries of the world free of charge. Along the way, there are still the interests of many companies that have been favoured in one way or another to increase their profits. The analysis exposes the paradigm of health versus economy, of life expectancy versus business. Within this framework, humanity is discussed as a balance, perhaps taken advantage of by some of the biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies located in the strongest countries in the market, to the detriment of the weakest.

19.
International Journal of Migration Health and Social Care ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070211

ABSTRACT

Purpose Afghan migrants are at an increased risk of mental disorders due to various political, economic and security-associated stressors. COVID-19 has brought extra concerns for this group of migrants around the world. Few studies have examined how the perception of the host society and perceived stress are associated with the mental health of migrants during the COVD-19 pandemic. This study aims to examine the role of perceived justice, freedom and the burden of COVID-19 on experienced stress and depression among Afghan migrants in Iran. Design/methodology/approach N = 497 participants representing the Afghan migrant community between 15 and 80 years old participated in the study. The target population was recruited from Afghan migrants residing in Kerman city in Iran, the capital of one of the provinces with the highest number of Afghan migrants in Iran. The participants answered questions on depression, positive mental health and a series of stressors such as perceived justice, freedom and the burden of COVID-19. Data was collected in November and December 2021 during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. Findings The authors found a significant effect of the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on migrants' perceived stress and depression. On the other hand, perceptions of justice and freedom in the host country can significantly reduce stress and depression. The results show that stress mediates the effect of justice, freedom and the burden of COVID-19 on depression. In addition, positive mental health moderates the impact of stress on depression. Originality/value The current study is one of the pioneering studies that examines the determinants of Afghan migrants' mental disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran.

20.
Cogent Economics & Finance ; 10(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070059

ABSTRACT

The Sar-Cov-2 pandemic that began in 2019 has significantly affected the global economy and, in particular, those of African countries. This paper analyzes possible intervention channels by African states to put their economies back on a sustainable growth path once the health crisis is under control. The paper proposes workable macroeconomic channels for these countries' recovery from post-pandemic periods by using historical data to conduct empirical analyses. The paper employs World Bank data and ILOSTAT for 54 African countries within the period 1990-2018. We use a post-Keynesian framework and the difference and system generalized method-of-moments to show that wages drive African economic dynamics in the short run. This is particularly true for Sub-Saharan African countries. In addition, foreign output, proxied by European Union output, has a positive and significant impact on Sub-Saharan African economies in the short and long run. The results highlight strategic policy measures for recovering African economies, including improving wages and deepening international economic relations, particularly with the Eurozone countries.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL