Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 790
Filter
1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-380, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967302

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is alleged to have provoked more significant financial and emotional hardships on women compared to men. During the pandemic, liquor stores in the US were considered essential businesses and alcohol sales increased by > 34%. Although women have lower and less active alcohol dehydrogenase in the GI tract and liver, compared to men, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has traditionally been a disease primarily of middle-aged and older men. The current study was designed to evaluate whether increased alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an increase in ALD admissions, particularly in women. Methods: Admissions to a multi-hospital health system for ALD were compared for two periods (April 2019 – March 2020 (Pre-COVID, “PC”) and April 2020 – March 2021 (During-COVID, “COV”)). Admissions for ALD were identified by querying an electronic database (EPIC) using ICD-10 codes. Statistical data were analyzed using a Poisson Regression Model. Admission rates were compared using the annual quarterly average for the two time periods, and stratified by age and gender. Results: Comparing PC and COV admissions for ALD, an average quarterly increase of 33% (p=0.031) was detected in women <50 (75 PC;104 COV). During the same two periods, ALD admissions for males <50 increased 24% (p=0.043) (131 PC;166 COV). In women >50 there was an average quarterly increase of 22% (p=0.063) (131 PC;163 COV) in admissions for ALD, while a 24% (p=0.003) decrease was observed in males >50 (341 PC;267 COV). Males >50 remained the highest total admission group, but did have a significant proportional decline compared to the other groups. Total female admissions increased from 206 to 267, demonstrating an increase of 29% (p=0.005). Total male admissions decreased from 472 to 433;a 9% decrease (p=0.195). Total admissions for ALD showed a mild increase from 678 PC to 709 COV. Conclusions: The current study, comparing the PC and COV periods, demonstrates a significant increase in the number of ALD hospital admissions for both men and women <50. Importantly, a significant increase in the number of younger women requiring admission was identified. In women >50 a similar trend was observed, while a decrease in the number of admissions for ALD was detected in males >50. This study underestimates the prevalence of ALD during the COVID era, as only patients with significant ALD would have been admitted. Patient hesitancy to present to hospitals during the pandemic, as well as cessation of elective admissions may have also contributed. This large multi-hospital analysis demonstrates a concerning gender disparity with women, especially young women, being significantly more likely to be admitted with ALD during the COVID period compared to the twelve months prior to the pandemic. (Figure Presented)

2.
JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS RESEARCH ; 12(1):32-40, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1965316

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes the relationships between the variables of corruption, political polarization, economic growth, and income inequality for the Peruvian economy over the period 1998-2020. The methodology used to verify the degree of association and/or causality of the study variables were Pearson's correlation, linear, and quadratic regressions. The results point to a significant negative correlation between corruption and economic growth, and between electoral polarization and GDP, but that political polarization is positively associated with economic inequality measured by the Gini index (alpha = 1%). It was also found that economic growth decreases inequality. Therefore, it is concluded that corruption decreases economic growth, but that there is a "U"-shaped relationship between corruption and the Gini index. Consequently, at lower levels of corruption, an increase in the corruption perceptions index (CPI) decreases the Gini coefficient, but at higher levels of corruption, a rise in the CPI increases income inequality. Finally, the global coronavirus crisis has aggravated inequality in developed and developing countries, so it is recommended that policymakers implement political measures to reduce economic inequality and, at the same time, mitigate political polarization.

3.
China Econ Rev ; 75: 101847, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966431

ABSTRACT

The school shutdown due to the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to an increase in educational inequality through disproportionately affecting disadvantaged children. We use data from a unique survey of 7202 junior high school students and their parents from Shaanxi province to explore whether the school shutdown enlarged the educational gap between students with different parental socioeconomic statuses (SES) during the pandemic. We find that students with more highly educated parents experienced an increase in relative test rankings after the shutdown period. A 1-year increase in parents' education led to a relative 0.18-percentile increase in students' rankings of total test scores. We also identify the mechanisms behind the enlarged gap by means of heterogeneity analyses. We show that parents' education mainly affected children's academic performance through parents' engagement in their children's homeschooling, mitigating the negative impacts of Internet addiction on students, and serving as substitutes for teachers who were unable to teach well online.

4.
International Journal of Social Inquiry ; 15(1):33, 2022.
Article in Turkish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965158

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 küresel salgını, dünyanın farklı yerlerinden olan insanların krizlerden çeşitli biçimlerde etkilendiğine yönelik önemli bir kesit oluşturmaktadır. Salgının küresel eşitsizlikleri gün yüzüne çıkarıcı, derinleştirici ve yenilerini yaratan yönü dikkat çekmektedir. Belirli risklerle yüz yüze gelme ve başa çıkabilecek imkanlara sahip olma bakımından bazı kişilerin o risklere daha açık olduğu görünmektedir. Salgın döneminde küresel istihdam kayıplarının geçici ve yarı zamanlı çalışanlara etkisi, sağlık ve iş güvencesine sahip olma konuları birincil olarak öne çıkmaktadır. Çalışmak zorunda kalınan sektörler, eğitim düzeyi ve kazancı daha yüksek olan kişilerin iş faaliyetlerini evlerinden yapabilmeleri, evlerinde çocuklarını eğitecek yerlerinin olması, uzaktan eğitim imkanlarına sahip olma başlıkları bunları izleyen eşitsizliklerden yalnızca bazılarıdır. Salgın dönemi tedbirlerinden karantina altında kalma, ev içi ve dışı olmak üzere mekânsal eşitsizlikler yine küresel eşitsizliklerin bir parçasıdır. Küresel ekonomik faaliyetler sonucu ortaya çıkan bölüşüm adaletsizliklerinin, çeşitli eşitsizlikleri nasıl ve ne biçimde yeniden ürettiği salgın döneminde daha fazla dikkat çekmekte, adaletin uluslararası boyutu sorgulanmaktadır. Adaletin küresel yükümlülüklerine vurgu yapan kozmopolitan eşitlikçiler, zenginlik ve kaynakların bölüşümünde John Rawls'ın iki adalet ilkesinin uluslararası boyutta uygulanabileceği iddiasındadırlar. Bu noktadan hareketle çalışmamızda COVID-19 salgınının küresel eşitsizlikler üzerindeki etkilerini, salgın dönemi yardım uygulamalarını kozmopolitan eşitlikçilik bağlamında ele almaya çalışacağız.Alternate :The COVID-19 global epidemic constitutes an important cross-section that people from different parts of the world are affected by the crises in various ways. In the face of a certain risk, it seems that some people are more open to those risks in terms of confronting them and having opportunities to cope. The aspect of the epidemic that brings global inequalities to light, deepens and creates new ones draws attention. During the epidemic, the effects of global employment losses on temporary and part-time workers, health and employment insurance are the primary issues. Sectors where people have to work, people with higher education and income levels, being able to carry out their business activities from their homes, having a place to educate their children at home, and having distance education opportunities are just some of the following inequalities. Spatial inequalities, including quarantine, indoor and outdoor inequalities, are also a part of global inequalities. How and in what way the distributional injustices resulting from global economic activities reproduce various inequalities draw more attention during the epidemic period, and the international dimension of justice is questioned. Emphasizing the global obligations of justice, cosmopolitan egalitarians claim that John Rawls' two principles of justice can be applied internationally in the distribution of wealth and resources. From this point of view, in our study, we will try to deal with the effects of the COVID-19 epidemic on global inequalities and the aid practices during the epidemic in the context of cosmopolitan egalitarianism.

5.
International Journal of Social Inquiry ; 15(1):21, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965157

ABSTRACT

Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but it is also necessary for a peaceful society, the attainment of full human potential, and long-term progress. It can also play a significant role in the growth of any modern economy. Therefore, it is critical to realize that men and women may both contribute to societal growth. A holistic approach, sound policies, and long-term commitment by all levels of government are essential for women's empowerment to become a reality. In addition, gender equality must be a priority in developing national policies and initiatives. Despite improvements in Turkish women's social, political, and economic lives, women's empowerment has yet to be attained. This research explores the position of women in school and the labor market in Turkey before and after the emergence of COVID-19. The research highlights the problems and opportunities that women regarding participating in the Turkish economy.Alternate :Toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliği yalnızca temel bir insan hakkı değil, aynı zamanda barışçıl bir toplum, insan potansiyelini tam kullanım ve uzun vadeli gelişmenin bir koşuludur. Bu nedenle, bir ekonominin gelişmesinde kilit bir rol oynayabilir. Erkeklerin ve kadınların sosyal kalkınmaya eşit derecede katkıda bulunabilecekleri gerçeğini benimsemek bu yüzden oldukça önemlidir. Kadınların güçlendirilmesinin gerçekleşmesi için bütüncül yaklaşım, sağlam politikalar ve uzun vadeli özveri gerekmektedir. Ayrıca, uygulanması hedeflenen ulusal politika ve programlar geliştirilirken, toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliği öncelikli olarak gözetilmelidir. Türk kadınının sosyal, siyasi ve ekonomik hayatındaki gelişmelere rağmen güçlendirmeleri henüz istenilen noktaya ulaşamamıştır. Bu çalışma, Türkiye'de Korona Virüsünün bir diğer adıyla Covid-19'un ortaya çıkmasından önce ve sonra kadınların eğitim ve işgücü piyasasındaki durumunu incelemektedir. Kadınların Türkiye ekonomisine katılımına ilişkin zorluklar ve fırsatlar analiz edilmektedir.

6.
Sociologica ; 15(1):1, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964503

ABSTRACT

In this introductory essay to our symposium we argue that "Sociology After COVID-19" needs to center "disaster" itself as an object of study and theory, and that doing so can productively reframe sociology's fundamental concerns. Building off nascent interdisciplinary work in critical disaster studies, as well as on the insights of our own contributors, we advance and elaborate two theses. First, while disasters are disruptive, they are not purely so;as they unfold, they enfold continuities such that they are best understood as a part of social reality rather than apart from it. Second, disasters are not pathological deviations from "normal" so much as they are the most salient manifestations of the ways that the normal is in fact pathological. A more critical approach to disaster can lead sociologists to examine more closely the interrelationship between the production of continuities and ruptures in social and economic life, enriching our understanding of core disciplinary concerns about social change, stratification, and inequality.

7.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 21(2): 152-161, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963322

ABSTRACT

In 2020, COVID-19 started spreading from Wuhan in China to the USA, the UK and Europe and then to the rest of the world. In Africa, the first case of COVID-19 was reported in Egypt on 14 February, while South Africa's first case was identified on 5 March. On 11 March, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic. At the time, it was said that COVID-19 would become the great equaliser because the virus made no distinction between first and third world countries, between the rich and the poor, and nor was it influenced by gender, sexual orientation or race. When someone contracted SARS-CoV-2, no guarantee could be given that the patient would survive, regardless of who they were or their status in the community.This stood in contrast to the early experience of AIDS before antiretrovirals existed and when HIV was spreading like wildfire in sub-Saharan Africa and other countries with low or lower-middle-income status. It seemed as if these countries were doubly cursed - by poverty and the AIDS pandemic that was causing as many as 6 000 mortalities per day in sub-Saharan Africa. This led to the South African president at the time, Thabo Mbeki, to assert that poverty was an even greater problem than HIV and AIDS.It did not take long to see that COVID-19 was not the anticipated equaliser. As lockdowns were enforced within most countries across the globe and resulting in economic slumps, differences between rich and poorer countries and their respective citizens were thrown into sharp relief once again. This article reports how both AIDS and COVID-19 adversely affected women, the impoverished and those without access to sustainable souces of food and medicine.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Africa South of the Sahara , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Applied Economics Letters ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960742

ABSTRACT

The laws that discriminate against women represent one of the most prevalent forms of gender inequality, hindering women’s empowerment and economic outcomes. In this regard, this paper sheds light on the relationship between legal constraints on women and various labour force outcomes. Based on a global sample of countries over 1970–2019, the results show that legal gender equality helps countries bridge the gender gap in labour force participation. More-gender equal laws (i) translate into a larger share of women in the workforce, and (ii) do not have a negative effect on that of men. As a result, legal gender equality also boosts labour force participation on aggregate. These patterns are long-lasting for upwards of 10 years. The findings point to a win-win situation: As countries repeal the laws that discriminate against women, which could be achievable in the shorter term, they can attain more inclusive and higher economic growth. This is even more important in the post-Covid-19 period, considering the adverse effects of the pandemic on gender inequality and economic growth. © 2022 International Monetary Fund.

9.
Journal of Economic Issues ; 56(2):599-606, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960645

ABSTRACT

U.S. wealth inequality has arisen alongside slow economic growth and more economic and financial instability. We consider how these factors are connected in this article. We draw on the existing literature, supplemented with data from the Federal Reserve’s Survey of Consumer Finances, the Federal Reserve’s Distributional Financial Accounts, and the U.S. Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey. We show that the United States experiences a vicious cycle of continued wealth inequality in the context of unequally distributed economic risks that impede savings by those who already have little wealth to begin with. The result are greater indebtedness and more widespread macroeconomic instability. These factors perpetuate wealth inequality and economic instability. The COVID-19 pandemic illustrated these linkages, but we highlight that the underlying trends have existed for decades. Breaking this cycle requires several policy steps to build reduce wealth inequality. © 2022, Journal of Economic Issues / Association for Evolutionary Economics.

10.
Journal of Economic Issues ; 56(2):562-569, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960643

ABSTRACT

The pandemic evidenced the struggle for financial profitability of Big Pharmaceutical Corporations, inequality between countries, and within nations, resulting from more than fifty years of stabilization policies, where monetary and fiscal policies have subsumed themselves to the institutional investors’ interests. In the face of lockdown measures and the attempt to return to “normality,” central banks, as lenders of last resort, abandoned financial restriction policies to give way to fiscal policies and promoted a soft readjustment through credit expansion and accelerated public debt looking to recover economic growth in a “fast track.” Proof of this is the worldwide recovery of GDP growth rates but, despite having a rapid recovery, they showed an uncertain scenario in the short and medium terms, accompanied by financial exuberance in stock market indicators at the international level. The focus of this paper will be on demonstrating the profits of pharmaceutical companies, a business that, in the long term, intensified due to the new mutations that SARS-CoV-2 has had during the current situation. It is also important the unequal vaccine access by country and by region. Concluding with a reflection on the struggle between an economy for life and financialized economy. © 2022, Journal of Economic Issues / Association for Evolutionary Economics.

11.
Journal of Economic Issues ; 56(2):424-430, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960641

ABSTRACT

In the intellectual tradition of Thorstein Veblen, the status of women (“woman’s place”) provides insight into the value systems dominant in society. This article asks what we learn about U.S. society when we examine economic crises through women’s experiences. This discussion focuses on the twenty-first century crises of the Great Recession and the COVID-19 recession, both of which were assigned gender pronouns—“Hecession” and “Shesession”—in popular discourse, reflecting in each case a particular pattern of gender differences (“gender gaps”) in unemployment rates. Taking a feminist institutional economics approach, this article briefly examines some key aspects of the experiences of women in these two crises, considering a broad range of demographic characteristics and indicators of well-being, over a timeframe that extends beyond the initial economic downturn. The article concludes with thoughts on what this means for our understanding of societal values and valuing. © 2022, Journal of Economic Issues / Association for Evolutionary Economics.

12.
International Journal of Educational Research Open ; 3, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1959578

ABSTRACT

The non-regime northwest of Syria faces persistent insecurity and resulting economic and social challenges following a decade of crisis, impacting negatively on access to higher education (HE) for both host and displaced communities. Whilst new universities have emerged since 2015, statistics show an overall drop in student enrolment, as well as a discrepancy between that of males and females. This study sought to understand the factors affecting university enrolment and in particular that of female students and the resulting gender imbalance. It is the first to look at the issue in the context of northwest Syria with a focus on two of the universities established in the past six years. It adopts a mixed methodology combining surveys with four target groups: students, potential students who have been unable to enrol, the parents of both, and university staff;semi-structured interviews with students and academics, and three focus groups with key respondents. Both interviews and focus groups were conducted remotely due to Covid19. Findings point to economic and security factors as having the greatest impact on student enrolment, with females the most adversely affected, influencing respondents’ decision to pursue HE or complete degrees where interrupted. However, despite evidence of changing attitudes, underlying conflict-related causes remains the influence of a patriarchal society and related societal norms underpinned by the concept of family honour, with female education still seen as secondary to that of males. The study recommends strategies to help mitigate barriers to female education. Its findings are of importance to all working in the field of HE and, in particular, those invested in female education. © 2022 The Author(s)

13.
2nd International Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning in Higher Education, TELE 2022 ; : 312-316, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961426

ABSTRACT

Currently, blended learning is becoming a promising form of organization of higher education. Use of smartphones and other mobile devices for the realization of blended learning makes it possible to provide students with equal access to educational and methodological content, that is, the conditions for reducing the information inequality of students. In this regard, the article reveals the structure of the activities of a teacher and a student in the process of mobile learning in the context of the realization of blended learning. The novelty of the research is determined by the fact that the structure and main content of the advanced refresher course 'Blended learning at the university as a means of improving the quality of education in the context of the spread of coronavirus infection' are formulated. The practical significance of the study is determined by the fact that it shows the experience of organizing teacher training in an online format based on the platform ocs.wkau.kz. © 2022 IEEE.

14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1235, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among those at highest risk for COVID-19 exposure is the large population of frontline essential workers in occupations such food service, retail, personal care, and in-home health services, among whom Black and Latino/Hispanic persons are over-represented. For those not vaccinated and at risk for exposure to COVID-19, including frontline essential workers, regular (approximately weekly) COVID-19 testing is recommended. However, Black and Latino/Hispanic frontline essential workers in these occupations experience serious impediments to COVID-19 testing at individual/attitudinal- (e.g., lack of knowledge of guidelines), social- (e.g., social norms), and structural-levels of influence (e.g., poor access), and rates of testing for COVID-19 are insufficient. METHODS/DESIGN: The proposed community-engaged study uses the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST) framework and an efficient factorial design to test four candidate behavioral intervention components informed by an integrated conceptual model that combines critical race theory, harm reduction, and self-determination theory. They are A) motivational interview counseling, B) text messaging grounded in behavioral economics, C) peer education, and D) access to testing (via navigation to an appointment vs. a self-test kit). All participants receive health education on COVID-19. The specific aims are to: identify which components contribute meaningfully to improvement in the primary outcome, COVID-19 testing confirmed with documentary evidence, with the most effective combination of components comprising an "optimized" intervention that strategically balances effectiveness against affordability, scalability, and efficiency (Aim 1); identify mediators and moderators of the effects of components (Aim 2); and use a mixed-methods approach to explore relationships among COVID-19 testing and vaccination (Aim 3). Participants will be N = 448 Black and Latino/Hispanic frontline essential workers not tested for COVID-19 in the past six months and not fully vaccinated for COVID-19, randomly assigned to one of 16 intervention conditions, and assessed at 6- and 12-weeks post-baseline. Last, N = 50 participants will engage in qualitative in-depth interviews. DISCUSSION: This optimization trial is designed to yield an effective, affordable, and efficient behavioral intervention that can be rapidly scaled in community settings. Further, it will advance the literature on intervention approaches for social inequities such as those evident in the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05139927 ; Registered on 11/29/2021. Protocol version 1.0. May 2, 2022, Version 1.0.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Blacks , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
15.
Vie & Sciences de l'Entreprise ; - (213):69-91, 2021.
Article in French | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958340

ABSTRACT

La pandémie de Covid-19 a impacté sanitairement, économiquement et socialement les individus dans tous les pays du monde. Les conséquences liées aux mesures prophylactiques ont ralenti ou arrêté l'économie mondiale, les marchés du travail nationaux et, in fine, la condition des femmes. Dans un contexte national moins favorable aux femmes, il leur est toujours difficile d'obtenir une double indépendance familiale et professionnelle. Être conjoint-collaborateur, aide familiale, micro-entrepreneuse, pluriactive, travailleuse indépendante, chef d'entreprise, voire employeuse ne donne pas le même statut social et économique. La disparité entre les genres dans les sphères privées et professionnelles se ressent davantage dans un environnement inédit de restrictions des possibles. Contrairement aux précédentes crises économiques, la crise sanitaire a touché massivement des secteurs féminins, impactant plus les femmes, malgré les politiques publiques d'aides financières. Les femmes ont été davantage en première ligne dans les activités de soin (care) professionnel, mais également de soin (care) privé, en supportant une charge domestique encore plus élevée. Le travail indépendant n'est pas la solution miraculeuse, qu'il soit complet ou d'appoint, même s'il peut donner l'illusion d'une autonomie financière et d'une émancipation familiale.Alternate :The Covid-19 pandemic has had health, economic and social impacts on individuals in every country in the world. The consequences of prophylactic measures have slowed or stopped the global economy, national labour markets and women's rights. In a national context that is less favourable to women, the latter still struggle to achieve dual family and professional independence. Being a collaborating spouse, a family helper, a micro-entrepreneur, a multi-tasker, a self-employed woman, a CEO or an employer does not give the same social and economic status. Gender disparity in the private and professional spheres is further felt in an unprecedented environment of restricted possibilities. Unlike previous economic crises, the health crisis has massively affected women's sectors, impacting women more despite public policies of financial support. Women have been in the forefront of professional care activities and also of private care, bearing an even higher domestic burden. Self-employment is not a miracle solution, whether it is full or part-time, even if it can give the illusion of financial independence and family emancipation.

16.
RELIGACIÓN. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades ; 6(28), 2021.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955627

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of covid-19 in the social context has significantly affected the population, due to the significant impact that has been generated in all contexts where the individual develops. Among the problems that can be highlighted by their level of increase are social inequality, discrimination, exclusion, violence, among others, being those a reason for people to have affectations in their welfare and quality of life. In relation to the above, the objective of this research was to analyze Covid-19 in the social context in the population of El Toro, cantón Junín, in the province of Manabí. For this study, a quantitative approach based on exploratory, descriptive, and analytical methods was used, employing as a technique the survey directed to 255 families of the Toro site of the Junín canton. The results obtained through the survey conducted by the authors of this research showed that due to the pandemic, inequality, social exclusion, and discrimination have increased, with vulnerable people being the most affected. It is concluded that in the site of El Toro, many families have been affected by the problems mentioned above.Alternate :La pandemia del covid-19 en el contexto social ha afectado de manera significativa a la población, esto debido al gran impacto que se ha generado en todos los contextos donde se desenvuelve el individuo. Entre las problemáticas que se pueden destacar por su nivel de aumento está la desigualdad social, discriminación, exclusión, violencia, entre otras, siendo aquellas un motivo para que las personas tengan afectaciones en su bienestar y calidad de vida. En relación con lo mencionado, esta investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar el Covid-19 en el contexto social en la población El Toro del cantón Junín en la provincia de Manabí. Para este estudio se utilizó un enfoque cuantitativo basado en los métodos exploratorio, descriptivo, analítico, empleando como técnica la encuesta dirigida a 255 familias del sitio Toro del cantón Junín. Los resultados obtenidos a través de la encuesta realizada por las autoras de esta investigación demostraron que debido a la pandemia la desigualdad, exclusión social y discriminación han tenido un aumento siendo las personas vulnerables las más afectadas. Se concluye que en el sitio el Toro, muchas familias han tenido afectaciones por las problemáticas antes mencionadas.

17.
RELIGACIÓN. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades ; 6(27), 2021.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955623

ABSTRACT

The Mexican government suspended school activities at all educational levels as a measure to mitigate the transmission of the SARS-CoV2 virus. Since March of 2020, it implemented a distance education modality through the use of information and communication technologies. As of February 2021, this measure was still in force. In a state like Chiapas, where a high percentage of the population lives in poverty and access to and use of technologies is limited, it is relevant to analyze with a differentiated approach to identify how such measures affect the educational trajectories of children and adolescents in conditions of greater inequality. The study analyzes the information from a telephone consultation with children and adolescents from 8 to 17 years of age Tsotsiles, Tsetales, and Mestizos from the city of San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico, carried out in March 2020. It delves into the characteristics of their homes, access to services, and the use of information technologies to recover their perceptions and concerns about their school trajectories. Their voices reveal the effects that a measure such as the one implemented by the Mexican government has on their right to education and its interdependence with other rights such as food, physical and mental health, and access to information.Alternate :Desde marzo del 2020, implementó una modalidad de educación a distancia mediante el uso de tecnologías de la información y comunicación. A febrero del 2021, tal medida continuaba vigente. En una entidad federativa como Chiapas, donde un alto porcentaje de la población vive en situación de pobreza y el acceso y uso de las tecnologías es limitado, resulta pertinente un análisis con enfoque diferenciado que permita identificar cómo afectan tales medidas a las trayectorias educativas de infancias y adolescencias en condiciones de mayor desigualdad. El estudio analiza la información de una consulta telefónica a niñas, niños y adolescentes de 8 a 17 años tsotsiles, tsetales y mestizos de la Ciudad de San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas en México realizada en marzo del 2020. Profundiza en las características de sus hogares, el acceso a servicios y el uso de tecnologías de la información para recuperar sus percepciones y preocupaciones en torno a sus trayectorias escolares. A partir de sus voces se evidencia las afectaciones, que medidas como la implementada por el gobierno mexicano, tienen sobre su derecho a la educación y su interdependencia con otros derechos como la alimentación, la salud física y mental, y el acceso a la información.

18.
Voprosy Ékonomiki ; (1)2021.
Article in Russian | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955503

ABSTRACT

Dramas of a unique pandemic of COVID-19, an unparalleled sharp recession and critically important presidential elections have put the difficult choices for the American society in 2020. Socio-economic development of the U.S. in XXI century has come through the series of crises, which had major impacts on the global development. The country has retained the leadership in the developed world by general economic might, innovations and dynamics of upturns. In the last three decades the demographics of the U.S. population have experienced the substantial changes, notably the number of citizens of Asian origin and Hispanic group have increased. The latter has surpassed the Afro-American group by a number of families and by an average income per family. Overall growth of income in the country has not eliminated large income disparities among social strata. Statistics of tax declarations indicate the inequality by social groups and by race. These disparities have probably played an important role in 2020 recession and pandemic development. As far as electoral behavior is concerned, the inequality factor is even more visible.Alternate :Драма уникальной пандемии, небывало острой рецессии и критически важных президентских выборов поставила общество США в 2020 г. перед трудным выбором. В социально-экономическом развитии США в XXI в. произошла серия потрясений, которые оказали огромное влияние на мировое развитие. Страна сохранила положение лидера среди развитых стран по совокупности экономической мощи, инновационному развитию, динамичности подъемов. В последние три десятилетия в США значительно изменился демографический состав населения в пользу граждан азиатского происхождения и испаноязычной группы, которая как по своей численности, так и уровню доходов на семью обогнала афроамериканскую. Общий рост благосостояния не ликвидировал большие диспаритеты по доходам между слоями общества. Статистика налоговых деклараций указывает на неравенство семей как социальное, так и по расовому признаку. По-видимому, оно сыграло значительную роль в 2020 г. и в рецессии, и в пандемии. А в электоральном поведении фактор неравенства виден еще резче.

19.
Polis ; - (6):73, 2021.
Article in Russian | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955184

ABSTRACT

Статья посвящена проблематике новых социальных и политических разделений, связанных с широким использованием жителями мегаполисов и администрациями городов информационно-коммуникационных технологий. Рассмотрены различные подходы к концептуализации цифровых разрывов и к исследованию их социально-политических последствий. Проанализированы основные измерения и уровни цифровых разрывов в контексте актуальных социально-политических процессов и трендов развития, в том числе в период пандемии COVID-19, описаны некоторые подходы к их преодолению в условиях современного мегаполиса. Выделены и охарактеризованы три главных уровня цифровых разрывов в современных обществах: 1) наличие материальной базы для использования цифровых технологий (технический уровень);2) навыки их использования у различных людей (социальный уровень);и 3) реальные возможности полноценного участия индивида в жизни современного "цифрового" общества и демократического участия в политических и социальных процессах, в том числе в реализации своих гражданских прав и свобод, в расширении социальных связей и отношений (политический уровень). Показано, что при сохранении и росте актуальности этих трех "традиционных" типов цифровых разрывов в условиях мегаполиса все большее значение приобретают такие их новые аспекты, как доступ к наборам больших данных, степень зависимости от автоматизированных систем принятия решений (алгоритмов) с использованием технологий искусственного интеллекта, а также цифровое отчуждение и разделение по отношению к онлайн-образованию. Выявлены некоторые социально-политические последствия цифровых разрывов и связанные с ними политические риски. Сделан вывод, что предпринимаемые меры по смягчению и уменьшению цифровых разрывов в современном мегаполисе носят пока что главным образом частичный и паллиативный характер, причем основное внимание уделяется улучшению материальной базы для использования цифровых технологий, а не преодолению более глубоких социально-политических причин и последствий цифровых разделений и разрывов. Показано, что политика сокращения цифрового неравенства и цифровых разрывов в современных мегаполисах играет особенно важную роль, поскольку в них сосредоточено наиболее политически активное население.Alternate :The article deals with the problems of new social and political divisions associated with the widespread use of information and communication technologies (ICT) by inhabitants of megacities and city administrations. The author considers different approaches to the conceptualization of "digital divides" and to the study of their socio-political consequences, analyzes the main dimensions and levels of digital divide in the context of current socio-political processes and development trends, including during the COVID-19 pandemic, and considers different approaches to overcome them in a modern megacity. Three main levels of digital divide in modern societies are identified and characterized: 1) the availability of the material basis for the use of digital technology (technical level);2) the skills for its use by different people (social level);and 3) the real opportunities for full participation of the individual in the life of a modern "digital" society and democratic participation in political and social processes, including the realization of their civil rights and freedoms, in expanding social connections and relations (political level). It is shown that while these three "traditional" types of digital gaps – inequalities in access to ICT, in the level of digital skills and in the possibility of full participation in the political life of modern digital society – remain and grow in importance in the megacity context, their new aspects, such as access to big data sets (Big Data), the degree of dependence on automated decision-making systems (algorithms) using artificial intelligence technologies, and digital exclusion and separation on the relational level are becoming increasingly important. Some socio-political implications of the new digital divide and the associated political risks are identified. It is concluded that the measures taken to mitigate and reduce the digital divide in the modern metropolis have so far been mostly partial and palliative, with a focus on improving the material basis for the use of digital technologies rather than on overcoming the deeper sociopolitical causes and consequences of digital divisions and gaps. It is shown that policies to reduce the digital divide and digital inequality in modern megacities are particularly important because megacities are home to the most politically active populations.

20.
Zeitschrift für Soziologie ; 51(1):41-65, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1951643

ABSTRACT

Der Beitrag verbindet die Forschung zu den Auswirkungen der Corona-Pandemie mit der Debatte über die Relevanz sozialer Klasse. Mit einem klassenanalytischen Zugang (Oesch-16) und auf der Basis eines Mixed-Methods-Designs mit Erwerbstätigensurvey und qualitativen Interviews aus der Frühphase der Pandemie werden die Auswirkungen von Covid-19 auf die Arbeitswelt in fünf Themenfeldern untersucht: Infektionsrisiken am Arbeitsplatz, wirtschaftliche Lasten, mobiles Arbeiten, Arbeitsbedingungen sowie Vereinbarkeit von Erwerbsarbeit und Kinderbetreuung. Dabei zeigen sich im Bereich der Erwerbsarbeit ausgeprägte vertikale und horizontale Klassenungleichheiten, die punktuell auch auf die Schnittstelle zur unbezahlten Sorgearbeit ausstrahlen und die zudem in den Alltagserfahrungen vieler Erwerbstätiger präsent sind. Die Ergebnisse verdeutlichen die Bedeutung der Klassenlage für das Arbeitserleben in der Pandemie, verweisen jedoch auch auf Grenzen der Erklärungskraft klassenanalytischer Perspektiven.Article NoteAlternate :This paper links the research on the impact of the Corona pandemic to the debate on the relevance of social class. Using a class analytic approach (Oesch-16) and based on a mixed-methods design with an employee survey and qualitative interviews from the early phase of the pandemic, the impact of Covid-19 on the world of work is examined in five thematic areas: Infection risks at the workplace, economic burdens, mobile working, working conditions, and reconciliation of paid work and child care. The results reveal pronounced vertical and horizontal class inequalities in the sphere of paid work, which partially also spill into the sphere of unpaid care work, and which are also present in the everyday experiences of many working people. The results highlight the importance of class for work experience in the pandemic, but also point to limitations of the explanatory power of class analytic perspectives in the sphere of care work.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL