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1.
Nurs Stand ; 35(5): 45-50, 2020 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835710

ABSTRACT

Decontamination using hand hygiene remains one of the most important and effective methods for reducing healthcare-associated infections and cross-infection between patients. In 1860, Florence Nightingale wrote that nurses should wash their hands frequently throughout the day, demonstrating an early awareness of the effectiveness of this simple procedure. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that effectively applied hand hygiene is a vital intervention that can be used to prevent the spread of disease. This article details the correct procedure required for effective hand hygiene and emphasises the need for nurses to keep up to date with evidence-based guidelines. The article also outlines the differences between hand decontamination using alcohol-based hand gels and soap and water, and the complex factors that can interfere with effective hand hygiene compliance.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection , Guideline Adherence , Hand Hygiene , Infection Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea ; 37(8):19-29, 2021.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835531

ABSTRACT

Since the 2020 coronavirus pandemic, many elderly people have been infected in elderly care facilities, so there is a very high demand for preventing the spread of infectious diseases in elderly care facilities. In this study, as one of the measures to suppress mass cross-infection in the elderly care facility, it was attempted to derive appropriate area standards for the residents' living space. The study targets the living units of nursing homes for the elderly with 30 or more people, and the study was conducted through domestic and international standards review, infectious disease management guidelines, facility visits, and interviews with related staffs working in elderly care facilities. As a result of the study, it was found that the optimized size of the living unit is 16 people or less, and it is necessary to install an isolation room for each living unit and a special bedroom for each nursing unit. The floor area of the bedroom is 35.4㎡ (8.9㎡/person) for a 4-bed room, 27.7㎡ (9.2㎡/person) for a 3-bed room, 22.2㎡ (11.1㎡/person) for a 2-bed room, and 13.0㎡ for a single bedroom. The common living room is used by all members of the living unit in normal, but when infectious diseases are spread, it is necessary to secure at least 2.3㎡/person on the premise that half of the elderly people in a unit uses this living area simultaneously in consideration of social distancing and density. These area standards were calculated in consideration of the elderly life, provision of nursing care services, and infection control, and can be used to improve the building standards of elderly care facilities. © 2021 Architectural Institute of Korea.

3.
World Journal of Dentistry ; 13(3):271-276, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835366

ABSTRACT

Aim: Since the source of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has become global health emergency. It is life threatening condition and dentistry has been classified as the high-risk job let alone be the oral and maxillofacial surgeons, because of direct exposure to blood and saliva. The standard although are good are not sufficient during the pandemic like COVID-19. Adequate screening as well as the proper infection control measures are recommended. To know Infection control measures practiced by oral and maxillofacial surgeons during COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 353 oral maxillofacial surgeons to know the infection control measures practiced by them during COVID pandemic. Results: This study shows that majority of infection control measures were practiced more in government hospitals when compared to private hospitals Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was used. Statistical significance was set at p <0.05. Conclusion This study highlights that oral and maxillofacial surgeon practicing infection control measures like use of prophylactic medication, high volume extra oral suction, negative pressure room, use of heap filters, fumigation system, and use of chemicals for disinfection were less likely to be affected by COVID-19. Clinical significance: The findings of this study will help us to provide practical advice to oral surgeons regarding appropriate use of infection control measures to protect themselves from the risk of COVID-19 infection during surgical procedures. © The Author(s). 2022 Open Access.

4.
Revista Chilena de Infectologia ; 38(5):622-633, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835027

ABSTRACT

The advent of SARS-CoV-2 disease in 2020 confronts us with a growing and exponential increase in patients at life risk due to catastrophic and multisystemic respiratory failure in need of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to survive. This has generated in our country the establishment of ECMO treatment Units in hospitals where it was not carried out before or was carried out as part the interventions in Intensive Care Units (ICU), becoming a new challenge to the infection control and prevention programs. Given that at the time of writing this document there are no specific national regulations that refer to this issue, an approach is proposed for the prevention control and surveillance of nosocomial acquired infections in ECMO patients. A review of the specific risks to which these patients are exposed is presented, defining which prevention measures are required, proposing a specific bundle for installation and maintenance, as well as guidance regarding antibioprophylaxis and suggesting which infectious events to monitor.

5.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 30(1):24, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1833324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unprecedented impact of COVID-19 on healthcare professionals has implications for healthcare delivery, including the public health guidance provided to patients. This study aims to assess the response and impact of COVID-19 on chiropractors internationally, and examines the public health response of chiropractors to the COVID-19 pandemic practising under a musculoskeletal spine-care versus subluxation-based care paradigm. METHODS: A survey was distributed to chiropractors in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Hong Kong, United Kingdom and United States (Oct. 2nd-Dec. 22nd, 2020) via professional bodies/publications, and social media. Questions were categorised into three domains: socio-demographic, public health response and business/financial impact. Multivariable logistic regression explored survey items associated with chiropractors practising under different self-reported paradigms. RESULTS: A total of 2061 chiropractors representing four global regions completed the survey. Our recruitment method did not allow the calculation of an accurate response rate. The vast majority initiated COVID-19 infection control changes within their practice setting, including increased disinfecting of treatment equipment (95%), frequent contact areas (94%) and increased hand hygiene (94%). While findings varied by region, most chiropractors (85%) indicated that they had implemented regulator advice on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Suspension of face-to-face patient care during the peak of the pandemic was reported by 49% of the participants with 26% implementing telehealth since the pandemic began. Chiropractors practising under a musculoskeletal spine-care paradigm were more likely to implement some/all regulator advice on patient PPE use (odds ratio [OR] = 3.25;95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57, 6.74) and practitioner PPE use (OR = 2.59;95% CI 1.32, 5.08);trust COVID-19 public health information provided by government/World Health Organisation/chiropractic bodies (OR = 2.47;95% CI 1.49, 4.10), and initiate patient telehealth in response to COVID-19 (OR = 1.46;95% CI 1.02, 2.08) compared to those practising under a subluxation-based paradigm. CONCLUSIONS: Chiropractors who responded to our survey made substantial infectious control changes in response to COVID-19. However, there was regional variation in the implementation of the advised practitioner and patient use of PPE and limited overall use of telehealth consultations by chiropractors during COVID-19. Musculoskeletal spine-care chiropractors were more adaptive to certain COVID-19 public health changes within their practice setting than subluxation-based chiropractors.

6.
12th International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics, ICCCI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831782

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus cases were first reported on 2019 in Wuhan, following the outbreak of the same worldwide. India is the country with second largest population more than 1.34 billion and for such a country to manage this exponentially increasing deadly virus is a major challenge. In the initial period of this outbreak, we had no medicine/vaccine to put a full stop to this highly contagious and destructing virus. Rather the only armour that protects us is to wash our hands regularly, wear mask whenever we move out of our shelters and maintain social distance. At present though we have various vaccines introduced, it's our duty to follow the preventive measures. This paper aims to streamline the previous issues discussed by introducing a personal assistant that reminds the person on wearing mask while peeking out of shelters, to have sanitizer with them remotely, to restrict the amount of time they spend out and generate a final report with all the information about the places they visited and time spent out will be sent to the user on a monthly basis. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
Gesundheitsökonomie & Qualitätsmanagement ; 27(2):88-95, 2022.
Article in German | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1830239

ABSTRACT

Background During the early phase of the Corona pandemic (March to July 2020) rehab clinics were supposed to stop offering rehab treatment in order to be ready for admitting low-care patients from acute hospitals. On the other hand, acute care hospitals postponed elective interventions for the benefit of Corona patients and rehab patients denied treatment due to the fear of becoming infected. As a consequence a loss in revenue turns out while additional costs for infection protection management arose simultaneously. Methodology Aim of the study was to specify the economic risks of rehab facilities caused by the pandemic as well as the increasing medical requirements. Based on a structured questionnaire 97 rehab providers were polled referring to e. g. the „medical treatment situation", the „revenue development", the „cost pressure" and the „effects of supporting activities of the government". Results The revenue of rehab clinics collapsed intermittently up to 70 % compared to the previous year. Simultaneously, additional costs of 349 € per patient and employee per treatment cycle (21 days) accumulated due to decreed infection prevention arrangements. This unplanned cost burden corresponds roughly to 13 % of the revenue per case. The decline of rehab treatments under the pandemic will lead on to an exaggerated demand of medically necessary treatments in future. This congestion of non-performed rehab treatments is prognosed to exceed 20 % to 25 % of the rehab treatments performed in 2019. In 29 % of the facilities the shortage of personal protective equipment was associated with dysfunctional workflows and endangerment of patients suffering an infection. 71 % of the rehab facilities stated not to have benefitted from the procurement initiative of the German Ministry of Health. Discussion The Corona pandemic has reinforced the economic vulnerability of many rehab providers. This, due to additional costs for infection prevention activities, revenue losses owing to reduced occupancy and because of an investment bottleneck accumulated over years. Furthermore, the reimbursement system is complained not to cover the total costs of treatment in an economically sufficient way. Necessary investments in infection protection are a cost-driver but also lead to a factual impairment of treatment capacity. As a consequence, a piling up of medically essential rehab treatment is assumed to happen and will effect an increasing disease burden in the health system. Core Message The risk of insolvency has enhanced for rehab facilities due to the pandemic. Simultaneously, medical requirements have arisen and cost pressure has become more intensive. Because rehabilitation to play a pivotal role in public services the reimbursement system of the rehab sector is urged to be changed. One strong opinion requires to finance the costs of keeping rehab facilities. Indeed, this financing approach should be based on an assessment of the rehab demand. Furthermore, the operating costs are advised to be paid depended on medical quality, physical condition of the patient and the complexity of treatment. Zusammenfassung: Hintergrund Bereits in den ersten 6 Monaten der Pandemie erlitten die Rehabilitations- und Vorsorgeeinrichtungen massive Erlöseinbußen. Dies einerseits durch die Aussetzung von Heilverfahren und Nachsorgeangeboten sowie die Verpflichtung, im Bedarfsfall verlegbare Patienten aus Akutkrankenhäusern zu übernehmen;andererseits führte die Verschiebung elektiver Eingriffe zugunsten der prioritären Behandlung von Covid-19-Patienten in den Akuthäusern sowie die Angst von Reha-Patienten vor einer Infektion zu einem Nachfragerückgang. Demgegenüber entstanden erhebliche Zusatzkosten durch die Organisation infektionssicherer Arbeitsabläufe sowie die Beschaffung von Produkten der persönlichen Schutzausrüstung (PSA) auf einem überhitzten freien Markt. Das Insolvenzrisiko für die Reha-Einrichtungen erhöhte sich. Methoden Ziel der Studie war es, die ökonomischen und ablauforganisatorischen Konsequenzen sowie die Infektionsrisiken für Personal und Patienten einer Unterversorgung mit PSA-Produkten im Bereich der Rehabilitation zu ermitteln sowie die Effektivität staatlicher Eingriffe bei der Beschaffung von PSA-Produkten zu reflektieren. Durchgeführt wurde im Zeitraum 25. bis 28. Woche 2020 eine Online-Befragung unter 79 Einrichtungen mittels strukturiertem Fragebogen, u. a. spezifiziert nach den Erhebungsbereichen „Versorgungssituation bei PSA-Produkten", „Umgang mit PSA-Versorgungsengpässen", „Ertragssituation", „Zusatzkosten" und „Wirksamkeit staatlicher Hilfsmaßnahmen". In weiteren 18 Einrichtungen wurden Einzelinterviews zur Praxis des Pandemie-Managements vor Ort geführt. Die Erhebung wurde auf orthopädische, kardiologische und neurologische Einrichtungen konzentriert. Ergebnisse Der Umsatz der Einrichtungen ging um zeitweise bis zu 70 % gegenüber dem Vorjahr zurück, gleichzeitig erhöhten sich die Kosten für Infektionsprophylaxe um durchschnittlich 349 € pro Patient und Mitarbeiter pro Behandlungszyklus (21 Tage), was etwa 13 % des Fall-Erlöses bedeutete. Durch den Rückgang bei Patientenbehandlungen während der Pandemie baute sich ein Behandlungsstau auf, der zwischen 20 und 25 % der Reha-Leistungen des Jahres 2019 entspricht und die Krankheitslast im Gesundheitssystem zukünftig erhöhen wird. Der Mangel an Schutzausrüstung führte in 29 % der Einrichtungen zu erschwerten Arbeitsabläufen mit Infektionsgefährdung für Patienten und Mitarbeitende. Von der Beschaffungsinitiative des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit fühlten sich 71 % der Einrichtungen nicht versorgt. Diskussion Die Corona-Pandemie hat die Anfälligkeit zahlreicher Reha-Einrichtungen für eine wirtschaftliche Schieflage verstärkt. Ursache dafür sind pandemiebedingte Zusatzkosten, Erlösausfälle aufgrund von Belegungsrückgängen und ein Investitionsstau in zahlreichen Einrichtungen. Notwendige Maßnahmen des Infektionsschutzes erhöhen nicht nur die Kostenbelastung, sondern vermindern faktisch die verfügbare Behandlungskapazität. Als Konsequenz ist ein Behandlungsstau zu erwarten, der mit erhöhter Krankheitslast im Gesundheitssystem verbunden sein wird. Kernbotschaft Das Insolvenzrisiko hat sich für Rehabilitations- und Vorsorgeeinrichtungen durch die Corona-Krise erhöht, gleichzeitig sind die Anforderungen an medizinische Qualität und Infektionsschutz ebenso wie die Vorhalte- und Behandlungskosten gestiegen. Eine Reform der Refinanzierung von Reha-Leistungen ist notwendig: Dies betrifft die Finanzierung von Vorhaltekosten von Reha-Einrichtungen als Teil der Daseinsvorsorge. Hier ist allerdings eine versorgungsstrukturelle und institutionenorientierte Bedarfsermittlung vorzuschalten, um Mitnahmeeffekten vorzubeugen. Weiterhin ist die Vergütung der Betriebskosten qualitäts- und aufwandorientiert am Krankheitsbild und am Patientenzustand vorzunehmen.

8.
Journal of Infection and Public Health ; 15(4):400-405, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1828916

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers are considered to be at a higher risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) infection than the general population. Clinical medical students are part of the healthcare team and clinical practice are done during their clinical rotation. They could be exposed to similar occupational risks as the healthcare workers. Most students who become infected have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and may not exhibit any clinical symptoms. Some students with LTBI can progress to TB disease during clinical rotations in the hospitals. Therefore, screening for LTBI in this population represents hospital aspect of public health strategy and infection control in medical school in high TB burden countries.

10.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 113:178-191, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826249

ABSTRACT

Significant with COVID-19 pandemic breakout, and the high risk of acquiring this infection that is facing the Healthcare Workers (HCWs), a safe alternative was needed. As a result, robotics, artificial intelligence (AI) and internet of things (IoT) usage rose significantly to assist HCWs in their missions. This paper aims to represent a humanoid robot capable of performing HCWs’ repetitive scheduled tasks such as monitoring vital signs, transferring medicine and food, or even connecting the doctor and patient remotely, is an ideal option for reducing direct contact between patients and HCWs, lowering the risk of infection for both parties. Humanoid robots can be employed in a variety of settings in hospitals, including cardiology, post-anesthesia care, and infection control. The creation of a humanoid robot that supports medical personnel by detecting the patient's body temperature and cardiac vital signs automatically and often and autonomously informs the HCWs of any irregularities is described in this study. It accomplishes this objective thanks to its integrated mobile vital signs unit, cloud database, image processing, and Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities, which enable it to recognize the patient and his situation, analyze the measured values, and alert the user to any potentially worrisome signals. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

11.
AORN Journal ; 115(5):P2-P3, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1825862
12.
Cureus ; 14(3):e23211, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1825637

ABSTRACT

Background Hospital waiting areas are overlooked from the airborne infection control viewpoint as they are not classified as critical for infection control. This is the area where undiagnosed and potentially infected patients gather with susceptible and vulnerable patients, and there is no mechanism to segregate the two, especially when the potentially infected visitors/patients themselves are unaware of the infection or may be asymptomatic. It is important to know whether hospitals in Delhi, a populated, low-resource setting having community transmission/occurrence of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis, consider waiting areas as critical. Hence, this study aims to determine whether hospitals in Delhi consider waiting areas as critical areas from the airborne infection control viewpoint. Methodology The Right to Information Act, 2005, was used to request information from 11 hospitals included in this study. Results After compiling the results, it was found that five out of the 11 hospitals did not consider waiting areas as critical from the infection spread point of view. Two of the 11 hospitals acknowledged the criticality of waiting areas but did not include the same in the list of critical areas. Only three out of the 11 considered waiting areas as critical and included these in the list of critical areas in a hospital. Conclusions This study provided evidence that most hospitals in Delhi do not include waiting areas in the list of critical areas in a hospital.

13.
Dimensions of Dental Hygiene ; 20(4):6-6, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1824359
14.
West African Journal of Medicine ; 39(4):388-393, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1823623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to standard precautions in hospitals is vital to control the spread of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of compliance to standard precautionary measures by clinical students and doctors in a Nigerian tertiary hospital to curb spread of infectious diseases, with focus on uptake of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccine. METHODS: This study which involved 228 participants used self-administered questionnaire to obtain data on respondents' biodata, history of exposure to patient's body fluids (PBF) in the last six months, HBV vaccination status, use and recapping of needles, handwashing, and use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Data analysis was done using SPSS version18;associations were tested with Chi-square statistics, and p<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Of the 228 respondents, 113(49.6%) were clinical students and 115 (50.4%) doctors with mean age of 27.61+/-7.48 years. A total of 140 (61.4%) respondents had been exposed to PBF: [89 (63.6%) doctors, 51(36.4%) students]. Age, student/doctor category, and number of years of practice all affected exposure to PBF (p<0.05). Recapping of needles was practiced by 167 (73.2%);hand-washing by 225 (98.7%), and lack of running water was the commonest reason for non-compliance. Also, 218 (95.6%) and 123 (53.9%) wore handgloves and face-masks respectively when attending to patients while 111 (48.7%) received at least a dose of HBV vaccine: [72 (64.9%) doctors, 39 (35.1%) students;p<0.05] but only 60.3% completed their doses. CONCLUSION: Majority had good hand-washing practice, but only about half wore face-masks while working, and recapping of needles was prominent. Doctors had more occupational exposure to PBF but received more HBV vaccine although many were yet to complete their doses. With COVID-19 added to existing list of HAIs, there is need to scale-up compliance to infection control practices through sustained training programs and better health policies which would also drive vaccine coverage in this population.

16.
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America ; 35(4):841-1089, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1823476

ABSTRACT

This special issue (as well as the prior issue, Infection Prevention and Control in Health Care, Part I) serves as an inclusive, relatively concise, and focused primer on infection control. This issue containing 10 articles focuses on the epidemiology and prevention of different types of infections in the health care setting, which is one of the overarching and critical functions of the infection prevention department in a hospital. While the most recent 2019 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention progress report indicates reductions for several types of HAIs, recent publications indicate that there has been a relative increase in some HAIs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiple factors may be associated with these increases (shortages of personal protective equipment, disinfectants and medical equipment, staff, and host factors associated with increased infections), highlighting the need for continued vigilance in prevention practices. Various topics are covered, including prevention of device-associated infections, surgical site infection, infections due to multidrug-resistant pathogens, and prevention of other types of HAIs. This issue is intended to serve as a useful reference and primer for infection prevention and control, particularly with regards to key components and strategies to prevent infection acquisition in the hospital.

17.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(4):ZC28-ZC34, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822594

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had not only developed as a key challenge to public health all around the world but also instigated physical and mental constraints on the health care professionals especially on the education of dental students with the sudden switch from traditional teaching methods to e-learning platforms thereby shutting all means of clinical experiences. Aim: To assess the effects of lockdown on clinical practice among undergraduate dental students in Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was done among undergraduate dental students in Tamil Nadu, India, from June 1, 2021 to July 1, 2021, using convenience sampling method to yield a total of 510 responses for a self-administered online questionnaire that aimed at evaluating the consequence of lockdown on clinical practice. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 was used to analyse the data. Results: A total of 510 responses (mean age: 21.72±2.2827 years;323 female and 187 male) were analysed in the present study. Majority of the students felt that COVID-19 lockdown had a negative impact on clinical exposure. Inspite of following infection control measures, only 35.1% of students felt imperative to practice during pandemic. With over 82.7% of patient flow reduced due to fear of disease spread. 85.1% revealed being stressed in completing clinical quota in a short duration. Further questions on prospects in improvising their clinical knowledge;showed 45% recommending e-workshops, 29.4% opting for video demonstration followed by 22.2% on exposure to Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to compensate for the loss of clinical practice. Conclusion: New teaching protocols have to be adopted taking into account the changing aspects of the pandemic to improve their wellbeing, overcome mental stress and to enhance the sustainability of dental education. Focus on video demonstrations, lectures provoking their clinical reasoning, simulations on phantom heads and conducting workshops enhancing preclinical skills as well as following appropriate safety protocols must be implemented.

18.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(4):9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822586

ABSTRACT

Background Airports are hubs of diverse human interactions. During pandemics, they may serve as centers for the spread of airborne infection. Appropriate methods for the prevention of the spread of airborne infections must be integrated into the air conditioning systems of airports. Along with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and other sanitization methods, dilution ventilation can be the easiest and most available method for the prevention of airborne infection, which means the intake of outside air into the indoors, which flushes out the aerosolized droplets containing pathogens. Though this process has been adopted by multiple buildings in reaction to the pandemic, it may present the challenge of intake of high concentration of suspended particulate matter in the intake air, a major air pollutant in developing countries, which may enter through the air conditioning systems. Appropriate filtration is necessary so that along with dilution ventilation for airborne disease prevention, the risk of suspended particulate matter of diameter 2.5 micron or PM2.5 induced lung issues is also reduced. Methodology The Right to Information Act, 2005, was used to file applications for information on the details of the air conditioning systems in Indian airports. The 58 airports in the study were also listed according to the list of cities that fall under the criteria for non-attainment of good air quality standards. Results Out of 58 airports considered, 27 fell in the 'non-attainment' of good air quality list. On appraisal of filter systems, it was found that 23 had an intake of fresh air but only five had filters with a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 10 and above in their air conditioning systems, as is recommended for filtration of suspended particulate matter. Conclusion It can be concluded that most airports did not have the appropriate filter required for filtering PM2.5, which is a major pollutant in Indian cities, In light of coronavirus disease 2019, where dilution ventilation through the intake of outdoor air is suggested, it may also lead to the entry of air with high particulate matter into the indoors.

19.
Nature Reviews Cardiology ; 19(5):287-288, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821591
20.
Microorganisms ; 10(4):8, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820337

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic forced hospitals worldwide to intensify their infection control measures to prevent health care-associated transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The correct use of personal protective equipment, especially the application of masks, was quickly identified as priority to reduce transmission with this pathogen. Here, we report a nosocomial cluster of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in a gynecology/obstetrics department, despite these intensified contact precautions. Five MRSA originating from clinical samples after surgical intervention led to an outbreak investigation. Firstly, this included environmental sampling of the operation theatre (OT) and, secondly, a point prevalence screening of patients and health care workers (HCW). All detected MRSA were subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS) and isolate relatedness was determined using core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST). WGS revealed one MRSA cluster with genetically closely related five patient and two HCW isolates differing in a single cgMLST allele at maximum. The outbreak was terminated after implementation of infection control bundle strategies. Although contact precaution measures, which are also part of MRSA prevention bundle strategies, were intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic, this MRSA outbreak could take place. This illustrates the importance of adherence to classical infection prevention strategies.

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