Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 29
Filter
1.
Coatings ; 12(10), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2099380

ABSTRACT

Chest compressions and ventilation attempts can generate aerosols during resuscitation. It is important to determine whether different materials suitable for the blanketing of cardiac arrest patients can diminish exposure to aerosols. In this study, three volatile organic compounds, ethanol, acetone, and isoprene, commonly found in human breath in moistened air, acted as substitutes for aerosols. Here, we present information on the adsorption of these volatiles to three blanketing materials: polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, and aluminum coated polyethylene terephthalate. After exposure to the surfaces of these materials the test volatiles were quantified by the proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. There was a trend towards a potentially higher reduction for acetone (p = 0.071) and isoprene (p = 0.050) on polyethylene, compared to polyvinyl chloride and aluminum coated polyethylene terephthalate during the rise interval. Adsorption capacity did not differ between the foils and was between 67% and 70%. From our studies, we propose that the aluminum-coated polyethylene terephthalate surface of space blankets prove adequate to diminish exposure to volatiles in moistened air, and hence to aerosols.

2.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(10):1120-1125, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067000

ABSTRACT

Aims and objectives: In coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, guidelines on timing and method of tracheostomy are evolving. The aim of the study was to analyze the outcomes of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients who required tracheostomy and the safety with regard to the risk of transmission to the healthcare workers. Material(s) and Method(s): We retrospectively analyzed 30-day survival outcome of a total of 70 moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients on a ventilator, wherein tracheostomy was performed only in 28 (tracheostomy group), and the remaining were with endotracheal intubation beyond 7 days (non-tracheostomy group). Besides demographics, comorbidities, and clinical data including 30-day survival, and complications of tracheostomy were analyzed in both groups with respect to the timing of tracheostomy from the day of intubation. Healthcare workers were monitored for COVID-19 symptoms by carrying out periodical COVID tests. Result(s): The 30-day survival of the tracheostomy group was 75% as compared to 26.2% of the non-tracheostomy group. The majority of the patients (71.4%) had severe disease with PaO2/FiO2 (P/F ratio) <100. The first wave showed an 80% (4/5) whiles the second wave 100% (8/8) thirty days survival in the tracheostomy group performed before 13 days. All patients during the second wave underwent tracheostomy before 13 days with a median of 12th day from the day of intubation. These tracheostomies were performed percutaneous at the bedside, without any major complications and no transmission of disease to healthcare workers. Conclusion(s): Early percutaneous tracheostomy within 13 days of intubation demonstrated a good 30-day survival rate in severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Copyright © The Author(s). 2022.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(18)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043921

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has posed formidable challenges that must be tackled through scientific and technological investigations on each environmental scale. This research aims to learn and report about the current state of user activities, in real-time, in a specially designed private indoor environment with sensors in infection transmission control of SARS-CoV-2. Thus, a real-time learning system that evolves and updates with each incoming piece of data from the environment is developed to predict user activities categorized for remote monitoring. Accordingly, various experiments are conducted in the private indoor space. Multiple sensors, with their inputs, are analyzed through the experiments. The experiment environment, installed with microgrids and Internet of Things (IoT) devices, has provided correlating data of various sensors from that special care context during the pandemic. The data is applied to classify user activities and develop a real-time learning and monitoring system to predict the IoT data. The microgrids were operated with the real-time learning system developed by comprehensive experiments on classification learning, regression learning, Error-Correcting Output Codes (ECOC), and deep learning models. With the help of machine learning experiments, data optimization, and the multilayered-tandem organization of the developed neural networks, the efficiency of this real-time monitoring system increases in learning the activity of users and predicting their actions, which are reported as feedback on the monitoring interfaces. The developed learning system predicts the real-time IoT data, accurately, in less than 5 milliseconds and generates big data that can be deployed for different usages in larger-scale facilities, networks, and e-health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet of Things , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Risk Anal ; 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901839

ABSTRACT

Since 2013, wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission occurred only for type 1 (WPV1). Following several years of increasing reported incidence (2017-2019) and programmatic disruptions caused by COVID-19 (early 2020), Pakistan and Afghanistan performed a large number of supplementary immunization activities (late 2020-2021). This increased intensity of immunization, following widespread transmission, substantially decreased WPV1 cases and positive environmental samples during 2021. Modeling the potential for undetected circulation of WPV1 after apparent interruption can support regional and global decisions about certification of the eradication of indigenous WPV1 transmission. We apply a stochastic model to estimate the confidence about no circulation (CNC) of WPV1 in Pakistan and Afghanistan as a function of time since the last reported case and/or positive environmental sample. Exploration of different assumptions about surveillance quality suggests a range for CNC for WPV1 as a function of time since the last positive surveillance signal, and supports the potential use of a time with no evidence of transmission of less than 3 years as sufficient to assume die out in the context of good acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. We show high expected CNC based on AFP surveillance data alone, even with imperfect surveillance and some use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine masking the ability of AFP surveillance to detect transmission. Ensuring high quality AFP and environmental surveillance may substantially shorten the time required to reach high CNC. The time required for high CNC depends on whether immunization activities maintain high population immunity and the quality of surveillance data.

5.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 19(5): 271-280, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752013

ABSTRACT

Fresh air ventilation has been identified as a widely accepted engineering control effective at diluting air contaminants in enclosed environments. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of selected ventilation measures on air change rates in school buses. Air changes per hour (ACH) of outside air were measured using a well-established carbon dioxide (CO2) tracer gas decay method. Ventilation was assessed while stationary and while traversing standardized route during late autumn/winter months in Colorado. Seven CO2 sensors located at the driver's seat and at passenger seats in the front, middle, and rear of the bus yielded similar and consistent measurements. Buses exhibited little air exchange in the absence of ventilation (ACH = 0.13 when stationary; ACH = 1.85 when mobile). Operating the windshield defroster to introduce fresh outside air increased ACH by approximately 0.5-1 ACH during mobile and stationary phases. During the mobile phase (average speed of 23 miles per hour (mph)), the combination of the defroster and two open ceiling hatches (with a powered fan on the rear hatch) yielded an ACH of approximately 9.3 ACH. A mobile phase ACH of 12.4 was achieved by the combination of the defroster, ceiling hatches, and six passenger windows open 2 inches in the middle area of the bus. A maximum mobile phase ACH of 22.1 was observed by using the defroster, open ceiling hatches, driver window open 4 inches, and every other passenger window open 2 inches. For reference, ACHs recommended in patient care settings where patients are being treated for airborne infectious diseases range from 6 to ≥12 ACHs. The results indicate that practical ventilation protocols on school buses can achieve air change rates thought to be capable of reducing airborne viral transmission to the bus driver and student passengers during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide , Humans , Motor Vehicles , Pandemics , Schools , Ventilation
6.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670057

ABSTRACT

Black and Brown communities are affected disproportionately by COVID-19. In an attempt to learn if young Black college students unknowingly contribute to the spread of the COVID-19 in their communities, using surveys, this pilot study gauges the general safety knowledge and basic scientific knowledge of Black college students about SARS-COV-2 virus and COVID-19 at an HBCU. We also investigated whether students enrolled in chemistry courses designed for STEM (Science, Technology, and Engineering Majors) majors displayed increased knowledge of SARS-COV-2 and COVID-19 in comparison to their non-STEM major peers. Two sets of surveys with multiple choice questions, one with 25 and the other with 34 questions, were designed to assess general safety knowledge and basic scientific knowledge of the students about COVID-19 and the SARS-COV-2 virus. Survey questions were administered through Blackboard learning management system to one hundred eighty-seven (187) students in the summer of 2020 to two freshman non-science majors and in the fall of 2020 to one freshman non-science-major class, two freshmen STEM-major classes, and one senior STEM-major class. All students self-registered in the 6 chemistry classes at North Carolina A&T State University at random with no predetermined criteria. Results of the study show that regardless of their year of study, majority (> 90%) of the students possess basic scientific knowledge and are aware of the safety precautions concerning SARS-COV-2 virus and COVID-19. Majority of non-science major freshmen answered the basic safety questions correctly but were not able to choose the correct answers for the more specific scientific questions concerning SARS-COV-2 and COVID-19. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference in basic scientific knowledge regarding SARS-COV-2 and COVID-19 between STEM and non-STEM student populations, and first year STEM students were just as knowledgeable as senior STEM students. Based on these data, we speculate that students surveyed here have an acceptable basic understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted, and therefore, they may not be a source of COVID-19 transmission to Black and Brown communities as this study confirms they are receiving accurate information about SARS-COV-2 and COVID-19. Possession of crucial timely and accurate knowledge about the health and safety is important in fighting racism and to gain equity within the society at large. By sharing the acquired knowledge, students can serve as positive role models for others in the community thus encouraging them to pursue science. Education brings equity, sharing the acquired knowledge encourages others to continue their education and succeed in obtaining higher degrees and better jobs as remedies for social inequality. Spread of accurate knowledge on various aspects of COVID-19 will also help remove fears of vaccination and hesitation towards visits to health clinics to resolve health issues. Relying on the results of this pilot study, we plan to explore these important factors further in our next study.

7.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(6): 638-644, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most of the mathematical modeling studies on COVID-19 transmission are based on continuous deterministic models that do not consider the characteristics of social networks. METHODS: The effect of contact tracing on mitigating COVID-19, and other infectious diseases in general, is studied in a small-world network. This network has its advantages over the commonly used continuous deterministic mathematical models in that the characteristics of social networks can be properly incorporated. RESULTS: Simulation results show that for the original strain of SARS-CoV-2, contact tracing can play an important role in reducing and delaying the peak daily new cases. New cases can be reduced by using symptom onset to isolate tracked individuals, but the benefit can be greatly enhanced by testing asymptomatic and presymptomatic individuals on the sixth to eighth day of infection. For the delta variant, or other variants of much higher infectivity, contact tracing alone cannot significantly lower the number of daily new cases but is able to delay the peaks greatly, thus affording more time to explore and implement pharmaceutical interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Contact tracing can be a very powerful tool to combat COVID-19 caused by the original strain or any variant of SARS-CoV-2. In order to make contact tracing effective, every effort is needed to expand the pool of contact tracing and provide all necessary support to the self-quarantined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(6): 631-637, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593173

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of a psychologically-based contact tracing interview protocol to a control protocol that emulated current practices under both interviewer-led and self-led modalities. METHODS: This randomized controlled experiment utilized a 2 × 2 factorial design (Enhanced Cognitive protocol vs Control protocol; Interviewer-led call vs Self-led online survey). Data were collected online (n = 200; Mage = 44; 56.5% female; 79.5% White) during the COVID-19 pandemic (July 2, 2020 - September 15, 2020). RESULTS: The Enhanced Cognitive protocol increased reported close contacts by 51% compared with the Control protocol (d = 0.44 [0.15, 0.71]). This effect was present for both interview modalities and for both identifiable and non-identifiable contacts. The Enhanced Cognitive protocol also increased both the quantity of person descriptors (d = 1.36 [0.87, 1.85]) and the utility of descriptions (r = 0.35 [0.13, 0.53]). CONCLUSIONS: The application of cognitive principles in contact tracing interviews can significantly enhance the quantity and quality of information provided by respondents. Epidemiologists and public health investigators could benefit from utilizing cognitive principles and self-led modalities in contact tracing interviews.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognition , Contact Tracing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health
9.
Front Glob Womens Health ; 2: 602572, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533653

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) was first identified in late 2019 as the new RNA virus in the coronaviridae family responsible for causing COVID-19 in the residents of China's Hubei province. In mid-March 2020 WHO declared the pandemic caused by this virus as a result of thousands of people infected all over the world. Epidemiological evidence obtained from other pandemics, such as influenza and ebola, suggest that pregnant women are more susceptible to serious complications and death from viral infection. Physiological changes in the anatomical structure of the respiratory system as well as in the immune system during the pregnancy-puerperal period seem to contribute to this greater risk. Thus, pregnant women are more susceptible to be infected by the SARS-COV-2 or other viruses and to have serious COVID-19 disease. In fact, COVID-19 can alter immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface, affecting the well-being of both mother and her fetus. There is still no sufficient evidence in the literature to support the occurrence of vertical transmission and through breastfeeding, but the prevalence of prematurity was high among pregnant women infected by SARS-Cov-2. In this review, the changes in the immune system that may increase susceptibility to SARS-Cov-2 are discussed as well as the possible mechanisms involved in the transmission of the virus to the fetus by vertical transmission and during breastfeeding.

10.
Ergonomics ; 65(7): 943-959, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506665

ABSTRACT

Analysis of thirty-one hours of video-data documenting 36 experienced drivers highlighted the prevalence of face-touching, with 819 contacts identified (mean frequency: 26.4 face touches/hour (FT/h); mean duration: 3.9-seconds). Fewer face-touches occurred in high primary workload conditions (where additional physical/cognitive demands were placed on drivers), compared to low workload (4.4 and 26.1 FT/h, respectively). In 42.5% of touches (or 11.2 FT/h), mucous membrane contact was made, with fingertips (33.1%) and thumbs (35.6%) most commonly employed. Individual behaviours differed (ranging from 5.1 to 90.7 FT/h), but there were no significant differences identified between genders, age-groups or hand used. Results are of relevance from an epidemiological/hygiene perspective within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic (and can therefore inform the design of practical solutions and encourage behavioural change to reduce the risk of self-inoculation while driving), but they also help to elucidate how habitual human behaviours are imbricated with the routine accomplishment of tasks.


Practitioner summary: The study highlights the propensity of face touching whilst driving through the analysis of on-road video datasets. Results have implications for the design of technological interventions (such as touchless interfaces and driver monitoring systems) and can inform awareness campaigns to reduce the risk of self-inoculation and infection transmission while driving.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Touch Perception , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Male , Pandemics , Touch
11.
Medwave ; 21(7): e8454, 2021 Aug 30.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406848

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 disease can affect women at any stage of pregnancy, and newborns could become infected with SARS-CoV-2 through vertical or horizontal transmission. OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical and epidemiological characteristics of mothers with COVID-19, associated neonatal outcomes, and to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission. METHODS: We conducted an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. We included all mothers with positive serology for SARS-CoV-2 and their newborns at the Hospital Regional Docente de Trujillo from April 18 to September 30, 2020. Variables were collected from the medical records, and descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 647 mothers and 656 neonates were enrolled. Of all live births, 85.3% and 14.7% were term and preterm neonates, respectively. We found 1.7% (11/656) of newborns with positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2; and that 27.3% (3/11) of these neonates required hospitalization. Neonatal mortality was 4/656 (0.6%), and no case was attributed to COVID-19. Of all mothers affected with COVID-19, 95.7% were asymptomatic, and 4.3% presented clinical symptoms attributed to COVID-19, most of which were mild. The most frequent obstetric complications were preeclampsia-eclampsia, prelabour rupture of membranes, and acute fetal distress. All the mothers were discharged. CONCLUSION: We found 1.7% of newborns with positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2; and that 20.1% of these neonates were hospitalized. The most frequent morbidity was neonatal sepsis and prematurity. The infection was mild among newborns, showing a 0.6% overall mortality, with no cases attributed to COVID-19. We found that only 5% of mothers presented symptoms, most of which were mild to moderate symptoms. There was no record of maternal mortality in this study group. It is not possible to conclude whether vertical transmission or intrapartum-acquired infection is responsible for neonatal COVID-19 infections.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad de COVID-19 puede afectar a gestantes en cualquier trimestre del embarazo. Por su parte, los neonatos podrían infectarse con SARS-CoV-2 por transmisión vertical u horizontal. OBJETIVO: Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de madres con COVID-19, de sus neonatos y la transmisión vertical del SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal. Se incluyeron todas las madres con serología positiva para SARS-CoV-2 y sus neonatos nacidos en el Hospital Regional Docente de Trujillo desde el 18 de abril hasta el 30 de septiembre de 2020. La información para las variables se recogió de las historias clínicas. Para el análisis se usó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: Participaron 647 madres y 656 neonatos. El 85,3% de los neonatos nació de término y el 14,7% fue prematuro. El 1,7% (11/656) tuvieron PCR-RT positivos para SARS-CoV-2, y de ellos el 27,3% (3/11) requirió hospitalizados. La mortalidad fue de 4/656 (0,6%), no atribuida a COVID-19. De las madres afectadas con COVID-19, 95,7% fue asintomática, el 4,3% presentó sintomatología clínica atribuida a COVID-19, siendo en su mayoría casos leves. Las complicaciones obstétricas más frecuentes fueron preeclampsia, eclampsia, rotura prematura de las membranas y sufrimiento fetal agudo. Todas las madres fueron dadas de alta. CONCLUSIÓN: De los neonatos estudiados, el 1,7% presentó prueba PCR-RT para SARS-CoV-2 positiva. El 20,1% fue hospitalizado. La morbilidad más frecuente fue sepsis neonatal y prematuridad. La mortalidad fue de 0,6%, ningún caso atribuido a COVID-19. El cuadro clínico de esta patología fue leve en los neonatos. El 95% de las madres con COVID-19 fueron asintomáticas. De las gestantes que presentaron cuadro clínico, tuvieron sintomatología leve a moderada. No se tuvo registro de mortalidad materna en el grupo de estudio. No se puede concluir si se trata de casos de transmisión vertical del SARS-CoV-2 o estamos frente a casos de posible infección neonatal adquirida intraparto.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Mothers/psychology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Public Health Nurs ; 38(5): 926-930, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396647

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This pilot study describes the characteristics of social contact patterns of the elderly, a group at high-risk for contracting infections. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design was used. SAMPLE: Participants included 30 volunteers aged 65 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: Records of a contact diary were maintained for a period of 24-hr. RESULTS: Thirty participants recorded 340 contacts within the 24 hr period, with a mean of 11.3 people daily. Physical encounters accounted for 50.9% of contacts. Participants with an occupation had significantly higher contacts than those without (p=.013). Contact type differed by location and duration (p<.001). Contact locations included: home (11.5%), work (2.4%), elderly welfare facilities (32.9%), transport (1.2%), and other places (52.1%). Contact duration (p < .001) and frequency (p < .001) differed by location. Contact duration differed by frequency (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The elderly participate in frequent physical contact that increases their risk of infection, especially among those with an occupation in comparison to those without an occupation. Infection control nursing should focus on providing education to reduce the risk of infections during contact events. Social distancing should be applied to limited periods of infection transmission risk.


Subject(s)
Physical Distancing , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pilot Projects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
13.
Med Glas (Zenica) ; 19(1)2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395479

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate clinical presentation of COVID-19 infection in pregnancy, its course during pregnancy, effects on pregnancy outcomes for both mothers and newborns as well as the potential for vertical transmission. Methods This retrospective observational study included all identifi ed COVID-19-positive pregnant women admitted to the Cantonal Hospital in Zenica at any stage of pregnancy or labour from 30 April 2020 to April 30 2021. Maternity and newborns were followed until discharge from the hospital. Results Twenty-four pregnant women were positive for COVID-19. There were 79.2% asymptomatic cases, 12.5% had mild symptoms, while 8.3% had more severe forms of the disease. The main follow-up morbidities were high BMI 33.3%, anaemia 16.7%, thrombocytopenia 12.5%, hypertensive disorders 4.2% and diabetes 4.2%. The rate of premature births was 33.3%, while 8.3% pregnant women had premature rupture of the amniotic sac. Caesarean section was done for 75% women while 25% delivered vaginally. Previous caesarean section (54.2%) was the most common indication for operative completion of labour. Twentythree (92%) live babies were born, of which 8 (33.3%) were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Two (8%) intrauterine foetal deaths were recorded that occurred before admission to our hospital. Two infants (8.7%) had a positive PCR test for COVID-19. Conclusion COVID-19 viral disease in pregnancy is usually presented as an asymptomatic or mild disease. It is associated with high rates of preterm birth, admission of newborns to the intensive care unit and intrauterine foetal death. Vertical transmission is possible but the newborns were asymptomatic.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389359

ABSTRACT

After the first pandemic wave, a nationwide survey assessed the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Spain and found notable differences among provinces whose causes remained unclear. This ecological study aimed to analyze the association between environmental and demographic factors and SARS-CoV-2 infection by province. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by province was obtained from a nationwide representative survey performed in June 2020, after the first pandemic wave in Spain. Linear regression was used in the analysis. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies of the 50 provinces ranged from 0.2% to 13.6%. The altitude, which ranged from 5 to 1131 m, explained nearly half of differences in seroprevalence (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.001). The seroprevalence in people residing in provinces above the median altitude (215 m) was three-fold higher (6.5% vs. 2.1%, p < 0.001). In the multivariate linear regression, the addition of population density significantly improved the predictive value of the altitude (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001). Every 100 m of altitude increase and 100 inhabitants/km2 of increase in population density, the seroprevalence rose 0.84 and 0.63 percentage points, respectively. Environmental conditions related to higher altitude in winter-spring, such as lower temperatures and absolute humidity, may be relevant to SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Places with such adverse conditions may require additional efforts for pandemic control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Altitude , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389358

ABSTRACT

Currently, SARS-CoV-2 is the primary pathogen worldwide, disrupting most of our everyday activities. The study aim was to evaluate its impact on the Polish dental community, standards of care, health, and welfare. METHODS: A Google Forms survey was conducted among 303 dental practitioners. RESULTS: Of respondents, 54.93% curbed the number of patients in the last six months, 34.21% declared no changes, and 10.86% reported an increase; whereas 70.7% of the respondents reported a treatment price increase within the same period (27.96% and 1.32% reported no changes and a decrease, respectively). Of the respondents, 15.5% did not close their businesses during the first wave of the pandemic. Most declared 1 or 2 month break, 30.7% and 34.7%, respectively. Some reported 3, 4, or 5 month breaks (15.84%, 1.32%, and 0.99%, respectively), and only two respondents (0.66%) did not admit patients at all. Headache episodes were more frequent among female dentists before the pandemic; after the pandemic, headache frequency increased among both sexes. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) were more frequent among women (p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Most Polish dentists followed SARS-CoV-2 recommendations and restricted their practices to admitting only patients with pain or incomplete treatment. Decreased sleep parameters, head, back, and neck pain, were observed. This situation may affect dental health conditions in Polish society over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dentistry/trends , Dentists , Standard of Care , Dentistry/standards , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Poland/epidemiology , Professional Role , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/epidemiology
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2874-2877, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381377

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreaks have been relatively well controlled in Hong Kong, containment remains challenging among socioeconomically disadvantaged persons. They are at higher risk for widespread COVID-19 transmission through sizable clustering, probably because of exposure to social settings in which existing mitigation policies had differential socioeconomic effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376838

ABSTRACT

Aerosols generated during dental procedures are one of the most significant routes for infection transmission and are particularly relevant now in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an indoor air purifier on dental aerosol dispersion in dental offices. The spread and removal of aerosol particles generated from a specific dental operation in a dental office are quantified for a single dental activity in the area near the generation and corner of the office. The effects of the air purifier, door condition, and particle sizes on the spread and removal of particles were investigated. The results show that, in the worst-case scenario, it takes 95 min for 0.5-µm particles to settle and that it takes a shorter time for the larger particles. The air purifier expedited the removal time at least 6.3 times faster than the case with no air purifier in the generation zone. Our results also indicate that particles may be transported from the source to the rest of the room even when the particle concentrations in the generation zone dropped back to the background. Therefore, it is inaccurate to conclude that indoor purifiers help reduce the transmission of COVID-19. Dental offices still need other methods to reduce the transmission of viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dental Offices , Aerosols , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Urologe A ; 60(3): 318-330, 2021 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146006

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has had an immediate and far-reaching effect on the care of urological patients. The pandemic monitor of the German Society for Urology was able to record the restrictions on patient care in urological practices and clinics by means of regular surveys of the members. A total of 689 responses at four survey time points were included. In April there was a reduction in urological inpatients to 44% and the number of patients in practices dropped to 50%. Available operating theater capacities for urological patients were 45% in April, normalized to 90% in June and fell again to 50% in December. Elective operations could not be performed at all or only to a very limited extent in most hospitals in April and December. While urgent operations could be treated to 100% in more than 75% of the clinics in April, in December more than half of the clinics stated that they could not treat all patients with urgent indications. To some extent (8-19%) practices and clinics had to resort to a pandemic-related supraregional referral of patients. The reduction of outpatients in urological practices in April normalized to 95% in June and remained stable during the second wave of the pandemic. The increase in urological emergencies in practices observed at the beginning of the pandemic did not show up in November and December. The coronavirus pandemic has led to a significant reduction in the care of urological patients, which in particular in the second wave also affects urgent operations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(180): 20210164, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317947

ABSTRACT

Testing asymptomatic people for SARS-CoV-2 aims to reduce COVID-19 transmission. Screening programmes' effectiveness depends upon testing strategy, sample handling logistics, test sensitivity and individual behaviour, in addition to dynamics of viral transmission. The interaction between these factors is not fully characterized. We investigated the interaction between these factors to determine how to optimize reduction of transmission. We estimate that under idealistic assumptions 70% of transmission may be averted, but under realistic assumptions only 7% may be averted. We show that programmes that overwhelm laboratory capacity or reduce isolation of those with minor symptoms have increased transmission compared with those that do not: programmes need to be designed to avoid these issues, or they will be ineffective or even counter-productive. Our model allows optimal selection of whom to test, quantifies the balance between accuracy and timeliness, and quantifies potential impacts of behavioural interventions. We anticipate our model can be used to understand optimal screening strategies for other infectious diseases with substantially different dynamics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans
20.
J Hosp Infect ; 112: 104-107, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272537

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential for healthcare worker (HCW) safety. Conservation of PPE for clinical use during the COVID-19 pandemic reduced its availability for training, necessitating an innovative approach to sourcing high physical resemblance PPE (HPR-PPE). We present a case study of crowd-sourcing of HPR-PPE to train HCWs. Survey results indicated that HPR-PPE enabled high-fidelity practise of PPE application and removal, aided procedure recall, improved user confidence and was sufficiently similar to medical-grade PPE. HPR-PPE provided a novel and cost-effective alternative. We also demonstrated that medical-grade PPE can be sourced from non-medical institutions and businesses during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/education , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Case-Control Studies , Crowdsourcing , Durable Medical Equipment , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Qualitative Research , Respiratory Protective Devices , Simulation Training
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL