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1.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 4799-4807, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834054

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The key preventive measures adopted to minimise the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) had significant health, economic and physical impacts mostly in developing countries. This study evaluated the health, economic and physical impacts of COVID-19 lockdown measures among sub-Saharan African (SSA) population and associated demographic variations. METHODS: A total of 1970 respondents took part in this web-based cross-sectional survey during the mandatory lockdown period in most SSA. The dependent variables were health (COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation), socioeconomic (lost job, closed down business) and physical impacts (separated from family) of COVID-19. Univariate and bivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the factors associated with each of the dependent variables by the four sub-regions (Southern, Western, Central and East Africa). RESULTS: The respondents were aged 34.1 ± 11.5 years (range: 18-75 years) and mostly men (1099, 55%). 25.9% (n = 511) reported an impact of COVID-19 pandemic with significant regional variations (p < 0.0005, higher proportion were East 36.2% and Southern Africans 30.3%) but no gender (p = 0.334) and age group variations (p > 0.05). Among Central African respondents, more men than women lost their businesses (45.7% versus 14.3%, p = 0.002) and contracted COVID-19 infections (40.0% versus 18.2%, p = 0.024) during the study period. Multivariable analysis revealed that respondents from East (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.69), Southern (AOR 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.96) and Central Africa (AOR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.06-2.03) reported significantly higher impact of COVID-19. Those who reported family separation during the lockdown were more likely to be older participants (39-48 years, AOR 2.48, 95% CI: 1.11-5.57). CONCLUSION: One in four SSA respondents, mostly East and Southern Africans, were adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic during the lockdown. Interventions in high-risk populations are needed to reduce the health, socioeconomic and gender disparities in the impacts of COVID-19.

2.
BJOG ; 129(2): 256-266, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women have been identified as a potentially at-risk group concerning COVID-19 infection, but little is known regarding the susceptibility of the fetus to infection. Co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 has been identified as a prerequisite for infection, and expression across different tissues is known to vary between children and adults. However, the expression of these proteins in the fetus is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a single cell data repository. The data were then validated at both gene and protein level by performing RT-qPCR and two-colour immunohistochemistry on a library of second-trimester human fetal tissues. FINDINGS: TMPRSS2 is present at both gene and protein level in the predominantly epithelial fetal tissues analysed. ACE2 is present at significant levels only in the fetal intestine and kidney, and is not expressed in the fetal lung. The placenta also does not co-express the two proteins across the second trimester or at term. INTERPRETATION: This dataset indicates that the lungs are unlikely to be a viable route of SARS-CoV2 fetal infection. The fetal kidney, despite presenting both the proteins required for the infection, is anatomically protected from the exposure to the virus. However, the gastrointestinal tract is likely to be susceptible to infection due to its high co-expression of both proteins, as well as its exposure to potentially infected amniotic fluid. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: This work provides detailed mechanistic insight into the relative protection & vulnerabilities of the fetus & placenta to SARS-CoV-2 infection by scRNAseq & protein expression analysis for ACE2 & TMPRSS2. The findings help to explain the low rate of vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Profiling , Placenta/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Female , Fetal Research , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/statistics & numerical data , Genetic Testing/methods , Gestational Age , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Protective Factors , Ribonucleoproteins, Small Cytoplasmic/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 104(6): 741, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832383
4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; 37(17):e133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential for a nosocomial outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a fully vaccinated individual is largely unknown. METHODS: In October 2021, during the time when the delta variant was dominant, a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 occurred in two wards in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea. We performed airflow investigations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the virus. RESULTS: The index patient developed symptoms 1 day after admission, and was diagnosed with COVID-19 on day 4 post-admission. He was fully vaccinated (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) 2 months before the diagnosis. Three inpatients and a caregiver in the same room, two inpatients in an adjacent room, two inpatients in rooms remote from the index room, and one nurse on the ward tested positive. Also, two resident doctors who stayed in an on-call room located on the same ward tested positive (although they had no close contact), as well as a caregiver who stayed on an adjacent ward, and a healthcare worker who had casual contact with this caregiver. Samples from five individuals were available for WGS, and all showed <= 1 single-nucleotide polymorphism difference. CCTV footage showed that the index case walked frequently in the corridors of two wards. An airflow study showed that the air from the corridor flowed into the resident on-call room, driven by an air circulator that was always turned on. CONCLUSION: Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from a fully vaccinated index occurred rapidly via the wards and on-call room. Care must be taken to not use equipment that can change the airflow.

5.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 28(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834284

ABSTRACT

Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 might have bacterial and fungal superinfections develop. We describe a clinical case of coronavirus disease with pulmonary aspergillosis associated with Bordetella hinzii pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient in France. B. hinzii infections are rare in humans and develop secondary to immunosuppression or debilitating diseases.

6.
Cadernos de Saude Publica ; 38(4):EN230621, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833812

ABSTRACT

This study aims to estimate fertility trends in Brazil in the 2010s and early 2020s during a period of back-to-back novel infectious disease outbreaks - Zika virus and COVID-19. We use Brazilian Ministry of Health and Association of Civil Registrar data from 2011-2021 to measure general fertility rates at the national and state levels. We also used seasonal ARIMA model to forecast fertility rates by month and state in 2021 and compared these forecasts with observed fertility rates. We find that fertility rates were steady over 2011-2015 with no statistically significant variation, followed by a sharp decline during the Zika outbreak in 2016 followed by a return to pre-Zika levels after the end of the epidemic. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, we make comparisons with observed and forecast rates from 2020-2021, showing that declines were generally larger for observed than for forecast rates, yet statistically insignificant. We argue that the resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021 might lead to further declines, as women might have not had enough time to adjust rebound from either the effects of the Zika epidemic. We also discuss the importance of timely availability of live births data during a public health crisis with immediate consequences for fertility rates.

7.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 30(1):24, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1833324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unprecedented impact of COVID-19 on healthcare professionals has implications for healthcare delivery, including the public health guidance provided to patients. This study aims to assess the response and impact of COVID-19 on chiropractors internationally, and examines the public health response of chiropractors to the COVID-19 pandemic practising under a musculoskeletal spine-care versus subluxation-based care paradigm. METHODS: A survey was distributed to chiropractors in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Hong Kong, United Kingdom and United States (Oct. 2nd-Dec. 22nd, 2020) via professional bodies/publications, and social media. Questions were categorised into three domains: socio-demographic, public health response and business/financial impact. Multivariable logistic regression explored survey items associated with chiropractors practising under different self-reported paradigms. RESULTS: A total of 2061 chiropractors representing four global regions completed the survey. Our recruitment method did not allow the calculation of an accurate response rate. The vast majority initiated COVID-19 infection control changes within their practice setting, including increased disinfecting of treatment equipment (95%), frequent contact areas (94%) and increased hand hygiene (94%). While findings varied by region, most chiropractors (85%) indicated that they had implemented regulator advice on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Suspension of face-to-face patient care during the peak of the pandemic was reported by 49% of the participants with 26% implementing telehealth since the pandemic began. Chiropractors practising under a musculoskeletal spine-care paradigm were more likely to implement some/all regulator advice on patient PPE use (odds ratio [OR] = 3.25;95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57, 6.74) and practitioner PPE use (OR = 2.59;95% CI 1.32, 5.08);trust COVID-19 public health information provided by government/World Health Organisation/chiropractic bodies (OR = 2.47;95% CI 1.49, 4.10), and initiate patient telehealth in response to COVID-19 (OR = 1.46;95% CI 1.02, 2.08) compared to those practising under a subluxation-based paradigm. CONCLUSIONS: Chiropractors who responded to our survey made substantial infectious control changes in response to COVID-19. However, there was regional variation in the implementation of the advised practitioner and patient use of PPE and limited overall use of telehealth consultations by chiropractors during COVID-19. Musculoskeletal spine-care chiropractors were more adaptive to certain COVID-19 public health changes within their practice setting than subluxation-based chiropractors.

8.
12th International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics, ICCCI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831796

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a brief review on the developments of computer aided diagnosis system using image processing approaches. The rapid increase in lung infections which was in multiple during the current Corona virus infection has outcome with the need of automation system for an early detection of lung infection. Early detection of lung infection can avoid the spread of infection further and also act as an alarming intimation under critical cases. The need of such system has outcome with many researches in recent past towards developing new approaches toward improving the decision accuracy to reducing the system response time. This article review the past developments made in the area of developing automation systems with an analysis of attainted accuracy and methodology of image processing and classification system for automated lung infection detection. © 2022 IEEE.

9.
12th International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics, ICCCI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831794

ABSTRACT

During the lockdown period, people suffered a lot with much misinformation and conflicts regarding the hospitals and the dangerous COVID infection. A large number of people have common and simple doubts regarding the infection, quarantine, bed availability, oxygen cylinder availability. So, a patient with minor issues does not need to reach the hospital in person to consult with doctors for simple and similar queries in that lockdown situation. To neglect these difficulties, the chatbots were proposed with an AIML platform to provide details about infection rate, information regarding treatments, decision making regarding hospital admissions. Artificial Conversational Entity otherwise called chatbots acts as the conversational agent or talkbot or chatterbot which has the capability of performing an intellectual conversation with a human. There are many chatbots built using Watson, Google DialogFlow, Keras Seq2Seq, Gradient Descent algorithm, Beam search decoding methods, etc., Even though many chatbots respond in regional languages, not all the chatbots are appreciated for their efficacy and attractive customization. So, a chatbot with both the national language which is English, and the regional language which is the Tamil language, using the RASA framework has been developed. RASA NLU is well known for its efficacy and good customization methodologies. RASA NLU has a higher level of Application Programming Interface (API). So, the proposed method can be connected with a web page, and carousels are added to project the model very much attractive and deliver effective visualization. The carousels provide a wide range of information in regional language and it can be customized according to the user's requirements. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
12th International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics, ICCCI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831783

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the precautionary robot which can warn and also help the people from affecting with deadly corona virus. We know that the Novel Corona virus had shown a great impact on the world population, many of the people are dying due to this deadly virus because of not following the safety measures and not taking any precautions to overcome the virus.Health-care workersare playing a major role in this pandemic by helping the affected patients to recover from the virus infections. Not only health-care workers but also robots are playing a major part in this pandemic. Robots are being used in laboratories and hospitals for various purposes like disinfection, spraying, manufacturing of medicines/vaccines, surveillance and many more applications. Robots are also equally contributed as healthcare workers around the world to adapt the present needs in order to combat with COVID-19. Mainly in this pandemic robot act as a tool, used in applications which are focused primarily in the area of health and services. The proposed work is to design and implement a robot for the covid applications. This robot is proposed by analyzing the present day's scenario on this pandemic. The proposed robot is user friendly and works particularly for 4 functions like mask detection on people, sanitizer spraying/disinfecting, temperature detection, and finally moving from one place to another place in the hospital or wherever it is required. © 2022 IEEE.

11.
12th International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics, ICCCI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831782

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus cases were first reported on 2019 in Wuhan, following the outbreak of the same worldwide. India is the country with second largest population more than 1.34 billion and for such a country to manage this exponentially increasing deadly virus is a major challenge. In the initial period of this outbreak, we had no medicine/vaccine to put a full stop to this highly contagious and destructing virus. Rather the only armour that protects us is to wash our hands regularly, wear mask whenever we move out of our shelters and maintain social distance. At present though we have various vaccines introduced, it's our duty to follow the preventive measures. This paper aims to streamline the previous issues discussed by introducing a personal assistant that reminds the person on wearing mask while peeking out of shelters, to have sanitizer with them remotely, to restrict the amount of time they spend out and generate a final report with all the information about the places they visited and time spent out will be sent to the user on a monthly basis. © 2022 IEEE.

12.
2nd International Conference on Advanced Research in Computing, ICARC 2022 ; : 165-170, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831769

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases have been a main reason for death in many countries worldwide. This study considers Pneumonia which is a common lung infection condition and COVID-19 which was declared a pandemic in 2020. Since both diseases can lead to life-threatening conditions, detecting these conditions at an early stage is crucial to properly treat the patients. While chest X-rays are widely used for diagnosing these diseases, it requires expert knowledge. This study focuses on introducing a deep learning based approach for analysing chest X-ray images to detect normal, Pneumonia and COVID-19 conditions. Experiments were conducted with multi-model deep learning models including MobileNetV2, Resnet50, InceptionV3, and Xception architectures with added layers, and 5-fold cross-validation. The results of ResNet50 show an average accuracy and recall of 98.87% and 98.54%, respectively. © 2022 IEEE.

13.
ProQuest Central; 2022.
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-335332

ABSTRACT

Background: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a viral pathogen from the genus Bocaparvovirus (family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae) discovered in 2005. Most of available literature is about HBoV in children and adults with hematological malignancies and in otherwise healthy children with respiratory infections. Information regarding infection in the adult population with solid tumors is scarce. Case Report: We report the case of a 51-year-old male with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer undergoing chemotherapy treatment who presented with fever, dyspnea, dry cough, and pleuritic pain. Imaging techniques showed signs of congestive heart failure. Symptoms, laboratory tests and echocardiography revealed a more probable infectious etiology. Antibiotic therapy was started. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test of nasopharyngeal exudate for respiratory viruses was positive for HBoV. The rest of the microbiological tests were negative. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. Bacterial culture of BAL was negative while respiratory virus PCR confirmed positivity for HBoV. Antibiotic therapy was discontinued. The patient gradually recovered. Conclusions: Emerging infectious diseases are a notorious threat for immunocompromised populations such as solid tumor patients. This case is unique because to our knowledge this is the first case report article of HBoV in a solid tumor patient and because imaging techniques exhibited signs of congestive heart failure that did not correlate with the rest of the tests. It shows that unusual pathogens should be considered when managing serious clinical complications with uncommon presentations in cancer patients. Notable diagnostic efforts should be made to reach a diagnosis in these cases.

14.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335156

ABSTRACT

Sublineages of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) Omicron variants continue to amass mutations in the spike (S) glycoprotein, which leads to immune evasion and rapid spread of the virus across the human population. Here we demonstrate the susceptibility of the Omicron variant BA.1 (B.1.1.529.1) to four repurposable drugs, Methylene blue (MB), Mycophenolic acid (MPA), Posaconazole (POS), and Niclosamide (Niclo) in post-exposure treatments of primary human airway cell cultures. MB, MPA, POS, and Niclo are known to block infection of human nasal and bronchial airway epithelial explant cultures (HAEEC) with the Wuhan strain, and four variants of concern (VoC), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (B.1.1.28), Delta (B.1.617.2) (1, 2). Our results not only show broad anti-coronavirus effects of MB, MPA, POS and Niclo, but also demonstrate that the Omicron variant BA.1 (B.1.1.529.1) sheds infectious virus from HAEEC over at least 15 days, and maintains both intracellular and extracellular viral genomic RNA without overt toxicity, suggesting viral persistence. The data underscore the broad effects of MB, MPA, POS, and Niclo against SARS-CoV-2 and the currently circulating VoC, and reinforce the concept of repurposing drugs in clinical trials against COVID-19.

15.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335014

ABSTRACT

Background: The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 led to a steep rise in transmissions. Recently, as public tolerance for isolation abated, CDC guidance on duration of at-home isolation of COVID-19 cases was shortened to five days if no symptoms, with no lab test requirement, despite more cautious approaches advocated by other federal experts. Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of alternative protocols for ending COVID-19 isolation, estimating net costs (direct and productivity), secondary infections, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Sensitivity analyses assessed the impact of input uncertainty. Results: Per 100 individuals, five-day isolation had 23 predicted secondary infections and a net cost of $33,000. Symptom check on day five (CDC guidance) yielded a 23% decrease in secondary infections (to 17.8), with a net cost of $45,000. Antigen testing on day six yielded 2.9 secondary infections and $63,000 in net costs. This protocol, compared to the next best protocol of antigen testing on day five of a maximum eight-day isolation, cost an additional $1,300 per secondary infection averted. Antigen or polymerase chain reaction testing on day five were dominated (more expensive and less effective) versus antigen testing on day six. Results were qualitatively robust to uncertainty in key inputs. Conclusions: A six-day isolation with antigen testing to confirm the absence of contagious virus appears the most effective and cost-effective de-isolation protocol to shorten at-home isolation of individuals with COVID-19.

16.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334672

ABSTRACT

Based on its predicted ability to affect transmissibility and pathogenesis, surveillance studies have highlighted the role of a specific mutation (P681R) in the S1/S2 furin cleavage site of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Here we analyzed A.23.1, first identified in Uganda, as a P681R-containing virus several months prior to the emergence of B.1.617.2 (Delta variant). We performed assays using peptides mimicking the S1/S2 from A.23.1 and B.1.617 and observed significantly increased cleavability with furin compared to both an original B lineage (Wuhan-Hu1) and B.1.1.7 (Alpha variant). We also performed cell-cell fusion and functional infectivity assays using pseudotyped particles and observed an increase in activity for A.23.1 compared to an original B lineage spike. However, these changes in activity were not reproduced in the B lineage spike bearing only the P681R substitution. Our findings suggest that while A.23.1 has increased furin-mediated cleavage linked to the P681R substitution, this substitution needs to occur on the background of other spike protein changes to enable its functional consequences.

17.
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol ; 97(2): 63-69, 2022 Feb.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic led Spain to order a state of alert with the cessation of non-essential activities on 14 March 2020, and to implement public health interventions (such as home confinement) and other health recommendations to prevent the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (hand washing and the obligation to wear face-masks). These factors could have influenced the rate of viral conjunctivitis. METHOD: In this retrospective, noninterventional, descriptive study, the incidence of viral conjunctivitis in an emergency department of a national hospital is compared over two distinct time periods: pre-COVID (13 March-30 September 2019, one year before the start of the pandemic) and COVID (13 March-30 September 2020). RESULTS: In the first period there were 436 cases of conjunctivitis, of which 168 (38.5%) were confirmed cases of viral conjunctivitis 168 (38.5%), while in the second period there were 121 recorded cases, of which the most frequent were allergic and traumatic (23 cases; 19% each group), bacterial (15 cases; 12.3%) and viral (15 cases; 12.3%). The diagnosis of viral conjunctivitis is the one that suffered the most significant relative reduction (48.5%), while other types of conjunctivitis hardly changed their relative frequency between these two periods of time. CONCLUSIONS: Viral conjunctivitis is the most frequent infectious disease of the eye and has a transmission rate similar to that of coronavirus, so the measures implemented could positively affect its incidence.

18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2612-2618, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetes conveys an increased risk of infectious diseases and related mortality. We investigated risk of ascertained SARS-CoV-2 infection in diabetes subjects from the Veneto Region, Northeastern Italy, as well as the risk of being admitted to hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), or mortality for COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diabetic subjects were identified by linkage of multiple health archives. The rest of the population served as reference. Information on ascertained infection by SARS-CoV-2, admission to hospital, admission to ICU and mortality in the period from February 21 to July 31, 2020 were retrieved from the regional registry of COVID-19. Subjects with ascertained diabetes were 269,830 (55.2% men; median age 72 years). Reference subjects were 4,681,239 (men 48.6%, median age 46 years). Ratios of age- and gender-standardized rates (RR) [95% CI] for ascertained infection, admission to hospital, admission to ICU and disease-related death in diabetic subjects were 1.31 [1.19-1.45], 2.11 [1.83-2.44], 2.45 [1.96-3.07], 1.87 [1.68-2.09], all p < 0.001. The highest RR of ascertained infection was observed in diabetic men aged 20-39 years: 1.90 [1.04-3.21]. The highest RR of ICU admission and death were observed in diabetic men aged 40-59 years: 3.47 [2.00-5.70] and 5.54 [2.23-12.1], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These data, observed in a large population of ∼5 million people of whom ∼250,000 with diabetes, show that diabetes not only conveys a poorer outcome in COVID-19 but also confers an increased risk of ascertained infection from SARS-CoV-2. Men of young or mature age have the highest relative risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Complications/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
20.
Physics of Fluids ; 34(4):1-25, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1830315

ABSTRACT

Given the recent acceptance of the central role of airborne transmission for SARS-CoV-2, increased attention has been paid to the dispersion of respiratory droplets in different scenarios. Studies including numerical simulations have been conducted on methods for breaking the chains of transmission. Here, we present the first such study on the impact of body position while coughing on the dispersion of respiratory droplets. Four scenarios are examined, including normal standing, bending the head at different angles, coughing into the elbow in still air, and a gentle breeze from the front and behind. The model showed that an uncovered cough is dangerous and causes many droplets to enter the environment, posing a cross-contamination threat to the others. Droplets with an initial diameter smaller than 62.5 μm remain suspended in windless air for more than 3 min. In the presence of wind, these droplets move with the wind flow and may travel long distances greater than 3.5 m. The model showed that covering the mouth with the elbow while coughing is clearly the best strategy for reducing airborne transmission of exhaled pathogens. About 62% of the initial number of droplets deposit on the cougher's elbow immediately after the cough and have no chance of spreading through the air in both windless and windy conditions. Covering the cough in windless or light breeze conditions also causes the upward thermal plume around the body to expel many small droplets. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Physics of Fluids is the property of American Institute of Physics and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

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