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1.
Ankara Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi ; 46(2):651-663, 2022.
Article in Turkish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067638

ABSTRACT

Objective: In the twenty-first century, despite the development in infection management, and improvement of vaccines and therapeutic agents in the field of health, new viral outbreaks that can still be fatal in humans and animals are emerging. The infection of zoonosis COVID-19 from bat origin, the intermediate host of which is still being unclear, has appeared in people who visited animal bazaar in December 2019, in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization declared this infection a pandemic in February 2020. Millions of people have been affected by this pandemic. The fight against the pandemic has had a great economic cost and continues to do so. Even people have changed their lifestyle. In this context, there have been concerns about companion animals with COVID-19 transmission, from human to animal or animal to human. The purpose of this review was to examine the studies on the presence and transmission of COVID-19 in companion animals such as cats, dogs, hamsters and horses. Result and Discussion: It has been reported in studies that most of the companion animals (cat, dog and hamster) were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, and humans could be a source of infection for them. However, the potential role of companion animals in transmission to humans is not fully known. It is clear from this pandemic that the necessity of epidemiological investigation of infectious agents, especially zoonotic ones, in one health concept has emerged once again.

2.
Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences ; 42(3):164-170, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067035

ABSTRACT

Objective: Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 may progress with severe clinical symptoms and patients may be hospitalized in intensive care for a long time. In patients with long-term intensive care hospitalization, secondary infections develop as a result of the pathophysiology of the disease and the treatments used. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of secondary infections in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and to identify common pathogen groups. Material(s) and Method(s): Four hundred and sixty one patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 who were followed up in the intensive care unit at Afy-onkarahisar Health Sciences University Faculty of Medicine Hospital between 20 March 2020 and 31 May 2021 were included in the study. Demographic data, co-morbidities, clinical features, laboratory data and culture growth data of the patients were recorded retrospectively. Re-sults: Nosocomial secondary infections were detected in 132 (28.6%) of 461 patients. Acinetobacter baumannii 39/53 (73.5%) growth was observed in the majority of the lower respiratory tract sample cultures. There was 28/49 (57.1%) Staphylococcus aureus growth in blood cul-tures, and 21/42 (50%) candida spp. growth in urine cultures. Conclu-sion: In this study, we found that the incidence of infection secondary to COVID-19 pneumonia was high. In addition, it was determined that the secondary infection rate was high in patients with PaO2/FiO2<200. Copyright © 2022 by Turkiye Klinikleri.

4.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A207, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064029

ABSTRACT

Aims Paediatric populations are generally considered to be at a lower risk of mortality from COVID-19 infection compared with adult populations. Regardless, a notable number of deaths from COVID-19 have been reported in paediatric populations. Therefore, the purpose of our work was to conduct a scoping review of the literature to assess the risk factors for COVID-19 mortality among paediatric populations. Methods Our review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, medRxiv, and WHO Coronavirus Database. There were no restrictions placed for searches based on date. Papers that were written in English, included at least one paediatric death from COVID-19, and described at least one risk factor for the death and/or clinical presentation of the child(ren) were eligible for inclusion. The paediatric population was defined as children aged 18 years and younger. Results Searches generated a total of 5828 papers and, of those, 75 were eligible for inclusion. There was a pooled total of 876 paediatric deaths. Significant risk factors for paediatric mortality included having co-infection of other pathogens, and at least one comorbidity;the comorbidities most frequently associated with mortality were malignancies, heart conditions, kidney disease, and genetic disorders such as Down Syndrome. The development of Paediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (PMIS) was also consistently demonstrated to be a risk factor. Common clinical complications associated with paediatric COVID-19 infection resulting in mortality were sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and acute kidney injury (AKI). Conclusion Our review has highlighted prominent risk factors for mortality from COVID-19 amongst paediatric populations. It is vital to consider the risk factors in order to assist prognostication and clinical decisions for severe paediatric infections of COVID-19. Our findings also highlight the importance of COVID-19 vaccination in paediatric populations.

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A2565-A2566, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060965

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Rare Pulmonary Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Aspergillus is a group of opportunistic endemic fungal species that causes pathology within the respiratory tract and sinuses of individuals with predisposing factors, such as immunosuppression. While less frequently discussed, aspergillosis thyroiditis represents the most common fungal thyroiditis. We present a case of this condition that was misdiagnosed as amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old male was evaluated in outpatient pulmonary clinic after a chest CT revealed new upper lobe mass-like pleural based infiltrates with accompanying symptoms of dyspnea on exertion and fevers. His medical history was significant for orthotopic heart transplant 6 months ago due to a combination of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy with further decompensation from COVID-19 infection. After transplant, he was diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis secondary to amiodarone that was being treated with prednisone and methimazole. Given the concern for infection on imaging, he was admitted to the hospital and underwent urgent bronchoscopic evaluation. During the procedure, he was noted to have severe extrinsic tracheal compression. His neck imaging was consistent with a nodular goiter. The BAL revealed Aspergillosis fumigatus and he was subsequently treated with isavuconazium. Given the compression on the trachea and persistent dyspnea, the decision was to pursue total thyroidectomy. Surgery occurred 2 months after treatment was initiated for the Aspergillosis and with improvement on serial chest CTs. Pathologic examination of the thyroid tissue revealed extensive invasive aspergillus with abscesses involving both lobes. DISCUSSION: Aspergillus infection leading to disseminated disease typically occurs in individuals that have a compromised immune system such as seen in malignancy, solid organ transplant, chronic steroid use, and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Recently, it has been cited that up to 15% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care develop aspergillus infection. After initial aspergillosis infection has been established, the thyroid gland is a site for dissemination due to its rich vascular supply. In addition, due to the angioinvasive properties of the pathogen, the fungus can breakdown tissue planes and easily travel from its site of origin. Thereby a primary infection in the respiratory tract can lead to dissemination to the neck structures due to its proximity. When thyroid invasion occurs, the common complaints are neck pain and swelling. Thyroid laboratory findings encompass the full spectrum including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and euthyroid. Given these non-specific findings, clinicians need to be conscious of this disease entity. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with immunocompromising conditions, findings of neck pain, swelling, and abnormal thyroid laboratory values should broaden the differential for clinicians to include aspergillosis thyroiditis. Reference #1: Alvi, Madiha M et al. "Aspergillus thyroiditis: a complication of respiratory tract infection in an immunocompromised patient.” Case reports in endocrinology vol. 2013 (2013): 741041. doi:10.1155/2013/741041 Reference #2: Marui, Suemi, et al. "Suppurative thyroiditis due to aspergillosis: a case report.” Journal of Medical Case Reports 8.1 (2014): 1-3. Reference #3: Kuehn, Bridget M. "Aspergillosis Is Common Among COVID-19 Patients in the ICU.” JAMA 326.16 (2021): 1573-1573. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by A. Whitney Brown, value=Honoraria Removed 04/03/2022 by A. Whitney Brown No relevant relationships by A. Whitney Brown, value=Honoraria Removed 04/03/2022 by A. Whitney Brown No relevant relationships by A. Whitney Brown, value=Consulting fee Removed 04/03/2022 by A. Whitney Brown No relevant relationships by Kristen Bussa Advisory Committee Member relationship with Boehringer Ingelheim Please note: 2019-2021 Added 04/03/2022 by Christopher King, value=Consulting f e Advisory Committee Member relationship with Actelion Please note: 2019-2022 Added 04/03/2022 by Christopher King, value=Consulting fee Advisory Committee Member relationship with United Therapeutics Please note: 2019-2022 Added 04/03/2022 by Christopher King, value=Consulting fee Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Actelion Please note: 2019-2022 Added 04/03/2022 by Christopher King, value=Consulting fee Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with United Therapeutics Please note: 2020-22 Added 04/03/2022 by Christopher King, value=Consulting fee No relevant relationships by Haresh Mani No relevant relationships by Mary Beth Maydosz No relevant relationships by Alan Nyquist No relevant relationships by Anju Singhal No relevant relationships by Amy Thatcher

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A2554, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060960

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Lung Transplantation Cases SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: A shortage of lungs persists despite the addition of increased-risk donors to the transplantation pool. Waitlist mortality increased from 14.7 to 16.1 deaths per 100 waitlist years from 2019 to 2020. (1) Novel strategies are needed to further expand the donor pool. We report a case of intentional transplant of recently infected acute respiratory virus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) donor lungs to a patient with end-stage Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). CASE PRESENTATION: A 67 year old man with IPF, former tobacco and alcohol abuse, hypertension and gastroesophageal reflux disease underwent a sequential bilateral lung transplant on cardiopulmonary bypass. His post-operative course was complicated by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa pneumonia and bilateral pleural effusions status-post bilateral chest tube placement. He was extubated 4 days after surgery and had his chest tubes removed within 1 week. He discharged on room air 17 days after transplant and appeared well at his 3 week post-operative clinic visit. The donor lungs came from a 28 year old woman with chronic hepatitis C and recent asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. She tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs at 12 and 7 days prior to surgery. She had negative SARS-CoV-2 results on lower respiratory tract testing via bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) at 7 and 2 days prior to surgery. Recipient RT-PCR NP testing was negative on post-operative days 3, 10, and 17. Two subsequent BAL samples were negative in the first week post-operation. The recipient consented to transplant and was aware of the donor's recent SARS-CoV-2 and chronic hepatitis C infections. Infectious disease did not recommend any SARS-CoV-2 anti-viral therapy or post-exposure prophylaxis. Hepatology prescribed treatment for donor derived hepatitis C viremia on discharge. DISCUSSION: Emerging pathogens present a challenge in minimizing donor-derived diseases. The utilization of lungs, including patients with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection, should be considered carefully. Institutional guidelines vary in donor exclusion criteria based on history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of prior infection, timing of last SARS-CoV-2 result, and type of screening test. (2,3) We report a case of intentional lung transplant with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection on NP swab 1 week prior to transplant and negative lower respiratory tract testing 2 days prior to transplant. Our recipient patient has remained SARS-CoV-2 free at 3 weeks post-operation on serial testing. We propose that the timing of recent donor infection, even within 10 days of positive results, is less important as infectious status based on lower respiratory tract testing at the time of transplant. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that donor lung donation following very recent asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection can be done safely with good short-term outcomes. Reference #1: (1) 2020 Annual Data Report. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients https://srtr.transplant.hrsa.gov/annual_reports/2020/Lung.aspx Accessed [03/23/22] Reference #2: (2) Querrey, M, Kurihara, C, Manerikar, A, et al. Lung donation following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Am J Transplant. 2021;21: 4073– 4078. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16777 Accessed [03/23/22] Reference #3: (3) Summary of Current Evidence and Information– Donor SARS-CoV-2 Testing & Organ Recovery from Donors with a History of COVID-19. Version Release Date: January 21, 2022. US Department of Health & Human Services. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network https://optn.transplant.hrsa.gov/media/kkhnlwah/sars-cov-2-summary-of-evidence.pdf Accessed [03/23/22] DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Thomas Meehan No relevant relationships by Jagadish Patil No relevant relationships by Huddleston Stephen

7.
Chest ; 162(4):A2176, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060906

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Systemic Disease Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis affecting small-to-medium sized blood vessels. GPA is highly associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) and often triggered by environmental factors such as medications and infectious agents. Tracheobronchial stenosis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage are serious complications of GPA. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old Caucasian male with a history of chronic sinusitis requiring balloon sinuplasty and recent tympanostomy had presented multiple times to the emergency room due to dyspnea and cough with pinkish sputum production. This was associated with sore throat and fever, which were attributed to his COVID-19 infection and treated with supportive care. Due to persistent drainage through his tympanostomy he was prescribed levofloxacin by his ENT specialist. After the second dose of levofloxacin, he developed Raynaud's phenomenon, diffuse purpuric lesions and swelling over his lower extremity, eyelids, and elbows. Four days later he developed worsening hemoptysis and dyspnea for which he was admitted for further evaluation. Laboratory findings were remarkable for peripheral eosinophilia, elevated ESR 19mm/hr, CRP 9.2mg/dl, c-ANCA 1:320 titer, positive proteinase-3 antibodies and normal p-ANCA titers. Urinalysis with microscopic hematuria. Chest CT scan showed ground glass opacity, consolidative infiltrate with subpleural sparing and minimal left bronchial stenosis. Bronchoscopy suggestive of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Limited lung biopsy showed ulcer and granulation tissue with abundant eosinophils, but no granulomatous inflammation noted. Pulse dose steroids and Rituximab were initiated, and rapid clinical improvement was noted. Patient was discharged on prednisone taper and Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis. DISCUSSION: We believe that GPA may have been triggered by recent COVID-19 infection and levofloxacin use. Mild peripheral blood and tissue eosinophilia (<12%) has been described in GPA, however it is a rare finding. GPA and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) are both ANCA vasculitis that involve lungs and kidneys. GPA presents with sinusitis, alveolar hemorrhage and high titers of PR-3 antibodies. EGPA presents with a history of atopic, asthma and high titers of myeloperoxidase-ANCA along with abundant peripheral eosinophils. Our patient best fits the diagnostic criteria for GPA with eosinophilia variant rather than EGPA. Our patient had no history of asthma or atopic disease and p-ANCA was normal, which also points away from EGPA. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should recognize the differential diagnosis for eosinophils in ANCA vasculitis. Early diagnosis of ANCA vasculitis and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to decrease morbidity and mortality. Reference #1: Potter MB, Fincher RK, Finger DR. Eosinophilia in Wegener's Granulomatosis. Chest 116: 1480-1483, 1999 Reference #2: Krupsky, Meir et al. Wegener's Granulomatosis With Peripheral Eosinophilia. CHEST, Volume 104, Issue 4, 1290 - 1292 Reference #3: Kitching AR, Anders HJ, et al. ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020 Aug 27;6(1):71. doi: 10.1038/s41572-020-0204-y. PMID: 32855422. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Afoma King No relevant relationships by Joshuam Ruiz Vega No relevant relationships by Krishna Shah no disclosure on file for Milos Tucakovic;

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A1012-A1013, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060751

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Close Critical Care Calls SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm INTRODUCTION: With the development of resistant organisms, additional therapies are needed to effectively treat patients with severe infections. The Seraph®-100 Microbind Affinity Blood Filter utilizes immobilized heparinized microbeads, acting similar as the human glycocalyx, to bind and remove these substrates. In vitro and pre-clinical studies have shown up to 99% clearance of Enterococcus faecalis exposed to the Seraph®-100 blood filter. This novel extracorporeal blood purification system could assist with infection source control and reduction of vasopressor requirements. CASE PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old male with no significant past medical history was admitted due to severe ARDS secondary to COVID-19 infection and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after an unsuccessful trial of conventional supportive therapies. The patient's hospital course was complicated by multiple infections, including bacteremia from methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, candidemia and Enterobacter ventilator associated pneumonia. These infections initially improved with use of appropriate intravenous antimicrobials. However, the patient experienced an acute hemodynamic decompensation requiring multiple vasoactive medications. He was empirically started on broad spectrum anti-microbials including meropenem, vancomycin, and isavuconazole. Blood cultures revealed Enterococcus faecalis, susceptible to broad-spectrum antibiotics. After 24 hours of broad-spectrum antimicrobials without improvements in vasopressor requirements, the Seraph-100® blood filter was used in-parallel with the ECMO circuit. Immediate improvement in vasopressors was noted with discontinuation of vasopressin and decrease in norepinephrine by 75%. The patient finished a 2-week course of intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam. His respiratory status subsequently improved and he was able to be removed from ECMO 24 days later. DISCUSSION: Initial studies have shown the Seraph-100 is capable of clearing the SARS-Cov-2 virus and use has been associated with decreased mortality in patients with SARS-Cov-2. The ability to remove additional pathogens including bacteria, fungi and viruses would aid in obtaining source control and augment the effects of intravenous antibiotics. This case not only illustrates the benefits with the use of the Seraph ®-100 blood filter along with broad spectrum antibiotics, but also the ability to use this extracorporeal blood purification system in-line with ECMO. CONCLUSIONS: With the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens, additional treatment options are urgently needed. The Seraph®-100 may be a useful adjunct to broad spectrum antimicrobials and may improve hemodynamics in patients with vasopressor-dependent septic shock. Further prospective studies are needed to assess clinical improvements with the use of the Seraph-100 Microbind blood filter in patients with bacteremia and those requiring ECMO. Reference #1: Olson SW, Oliver JD, Collen J, et al. Treatment for Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 With the Seraph 100 Microbind Affinity Blood Filter. Critical Care Explor. 2020;2(8):e0180. Reference #2: Chitty, Stephen, Mobbs, Sarah, Chung, Kevin et al., for the PURIFY INVESTIGATORS. A Multicenter Evaluation of Blood Purification with Seraph 100 Microbind Affinity Blood Filter for the Treatment of Severe COVID-19: A Preliminary Report. medRxiv 2021.04.20.21255810;doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.20.21255810 Reference #3: Seffer, Malin-Theres, et al. "Heparin 2.0: a new approach to the infection crisis.” Blood Purification 50.1 (2021): 28-34. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Joshua Boster No relevant relationships by Henry Danchi Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Janssen Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Michael Morris, value=Honoraria Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with GSK Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Michael Morris, value=Honoraria Removed 03/29/2022 by Michael Morris No releva t relationships by Mai Nguyen No relevant relationships by Melissa Rosas No relevant relationships by Steven Stoffel No relevant relationships by Robert Walter

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A877, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060716

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Care Infections SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 09:15 am - 10:15 am INTRODUCTION: Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic disease by an aerobic, gram negative coccobacillus. It is transmitted by exposure to infected animal or vectors in individuals who landscape or camp. Common symptoms are fever, chills, anorexia, and headache. Abdominal tularemia can present with abdominal pain, emesis, diarrhea, and rarely intestinal ulceration and hemorrhage. It is treated with aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and tetracycline. CASE PRESENTATION: 38-year-old male presented with fever, cough, anorexia, and black stool for 5 days. Patient worked as a landscaper. He has no pets, travel history or sick contacts. He does not take any medications at home. Physical exam was significant for sinus tachycardia and rhonchi of right upper lobe. Significant labs include WBC of 9.8 with 41% bands, hemoglobin 15.5, sodium 125, procalcitonin 27.3, and lactic acid 1.8. COVID-19, MRSA, Legionella and Pneumococcal urine antigen were negative. CTA chest revealed mass-like opacity in right upper lobe with multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. Lower respiratory culture showed Candida albicans. Patient was empirically started on ceftriaxone and azithromycin. He was transferred to intensive care for worsening respiratory status and was placed on non-invasive ventilation on hospital day 1. Antibiotics were broadened to ceftaroline and levofloxacin due to suspicion of tularemia. Amphotericin B was added. Labs for Histoplasma, Blastomyces, TB, Leptospira, and HIV were negative. Patient then suffered a cardiac arrest on hospital day 2 after having large brown secretions pouring from his mouth. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated and patient was intubated and started on vasopressors with return of spontaneous circulation. Massive blood transfusion protocol was initiated. Emergent bedside upper endoscopy showed large blood clot adherent to duodenal ulcer. Interventional radiology planned on performing gastric duodenal artery embolization. However, patient suffered two more cardiac arrest with resuscitation efforts terminated per family request. Karius Digital Culture later was positive for Francisella tularensis. Autopsy revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, hilar lymphadenopathy, and perforated duodenal ulceration with large adherent clot. DISCUSSION: Gastrointestinal tularemia is rare and usually from drinking contaminated water or oral inoculation of bacteria. Intestinal tract involvement can present with mesenteric lymphadenopathy and ulcerative lesions resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding with case fatality rate of 50%. Even though this is noted in the literature, to our knowledge no case reports have been published. CONCLUSIONS: Careful history taking and early identification of risk factors are important when severe tularemia infection is suspected such as in individuals with extensive outdoor activities. Treatment should be empirically initiated in high risk patients. Reference #1: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4585636/ Reference #2: https://casereports.bmj.com/content/2017/bcr-2017-22125. Reference #3: Altman GB, Wachs JE. Tularemia: A pathogen in nature and a biological weapon. Aaohn Journal. 2002 Aug;50(8):373-9. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Maria Haider Baig

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A855, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060708

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Co-Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: We present a case of Eggerthella bacteremia in a patient with COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with chief complaint of cough, dyspnea, and malaise. After testing positive with a home COVID-19 test three days earlier, she continued to have worsening respiratory status and was brought in via ambulance. She was found to be tachycardic and hypoxic, requiring high-flow oxygen to maintain saturation in the emergency department. Chest X-ray showed bilateral patchy opacities consistent with multifocal COVID-19 pneumonia, and she was admitted to the intensive care unit for acute hypoxic respiratory failure. COVID-19 drug therapy was initiated, including baricitinib, remdesivir and decadron. Shortly after hospitalization, she began to endorse worsening abdominal pain. Physical exam elicited tenderness to palpation of her right lower quadrant. Abdominal CT scan showed distal ileum fluid collection concerning for possible bowel perforation. She underwent exploratory laparotomy which confirmed perforation, and a small bowel resection with anastomosis was performed. Blood cultures were positive for gram-positive bacilli, which were further identified as Eggerthella species. She required mechanical ventilation for worsening respiratory function post-surgery but remained unresponsive on the ventilator. The patient was administered vancomycin but continued to decline and eventually expired. DISCUSSION: Eggerthella is an anaerobic, gram-positive bacilli present in the gut microflora. Eggerthella infection has most often been reported in intra-abdominal infections. However, cases of bacteremia infection remain sparse. Most infections have been associated with other gastrointestinal processes including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, appendicitis, and diverticulitis abscesses. Our case involved a patient with no significant gastrointestinal history admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia infection on baricitinib complicated by bowel perforation and bacteremia. Bowel perforation is a known risk factor of baricitinib use, and these risks should be discussed with the patient before beginning therapy. Overall mortality for Eggerthella species infection remains high, with some estimates as high as 31%. Much remains unknown about the impact on gut microbiome by SARS-CoV-2, however, early research suggests a higher rate of fungal co-infection in patients with COVID-19. As the literature on COVID-19 expands, more and more unusual pathogens such as Eggerthella may be found to contribute to the morbidity and mortality of patients being treated for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Unusual pathogens such as Eggerthella may complicate a patient's hospital course while undergoing treatment for COVID-19. Reference #1: Alejandra Ugarte-Torres, Mark R Gillrie, Thomas P Griener, Deirdre L Church, Eggerthella lenta Bloodstream Infections Are Associated With Increased Mortality Following Empiric Piperacillin-Tazobactam (TZP) Monotherapy: A Population-based Cohort Study, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 67, Issue 2, 15 July 2018. Reference #2: Gardiner BJ, Tai AY, Kotsanas D, et al. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of Eggerthella lenta bacteremia. J Clin Microbiol. 2015. Reference #3: Lau SK, Woo PC, Fung AM, Chan K-M, Woo GK, Yuen K-Y. Anaerobic, non-sporulating, gram-positive bacilli bacteraemia characterized by 16s rrna gene sequencing. Journal of medical microbiology. 2004. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Kristin Davis No relevant relationships by Charles Peng

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A612-A613, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060647

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: TB and TB-Involved Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary Aspergillus infection has a wide array of manifestations. Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis is an uncommon progressive respiratory disease, with the Subacute Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis form, one of the most challenging to manage. Typically it presents with rapidly progressive infection (of less than 3 months) in mild to moderately immunocompromised patients with underlying structural lung disease. We herein report the case of a 69-year old female with post-tuberculous cavity with disease progression, in approximately 6 weeks, associated with Aspergillus infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient is a 69-year old African American female, never smoker, with known history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and previously treated mycobacterium tuberculosis with residual small right upper lobe cavity (measuring approximately 35 x 40 mm). She was being followed in our outpatient thoracic oncology clinic with serial imaging for surveillance, CT Chest initially every 3 - 6 months then annually thereafter with PET scan as clinically indicated. The cavity remained relatively unchanged for approximately 5 years. In October 2021, her CT Chest had revealed a stable cavity, even despite SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia infection the previous year. The following month she was admitted to an outside hospital for hyperglycemia with notable significant increase in size of the right upper lobe cavity to 69 x 72 mm with surrounding nodularity. She completed a course of antibiotics and was seen in our clinic 3 months post discharge with a repeat CT Chest which now revealed a mass like area of consolidation with large area of lucency and superimposed fungus ball (now measuring 80 mm x 70mm). She underwent Electromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy and right upper lobe bronchoalveolar lavage. BAL culture identified Aspergillus niger, with no other pathogens (including acid fast bacilli isolated) or malignant cells observed. Biopsy revealed marked mixed inflammation and fungal hyphae. Patient is currently undergoing long-term oral antifungal therapy with plan for close surgical follow-up. DISCUSSION: The diagnosis of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis requires a combination of clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics present for atleast 3 months for diagnosis. This includes the presence of one or more cavities on thoracic imaging, evidence of aspergillus infection or an immunological response to aspergillus as well as excluding alternative diagnoses. Advances in diagnostic tools have improved early diagnosis and subsequent management as noted in our case. Surgical resection is recommended for simple aspergilloma, however rapidly progressive disease processes are recommended to be managed as invasive aspergillosis. CONCLUSIONS: Post-tuberculosis chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is an emerging disease with significant associated morbidity and likely health burden. Reference #1: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis: rationale and clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management David W. Denning, Jacques Cadranel, Catherine Beigelman-Aubry, Florence Ader, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Stijn Blot, Andrew J. Ullmann, George Dimopoulos, Christoph Lange European Respiratory Journal Jan 2016, 47 (1) 45-68;DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00583-2015 Reference #2: Bongomin F. Post-tuberculosis chronic pulmonary aspergillosis: An emerging public health concern. PLoS Pathog. 2020;16(8):e1008742. Published 2020 Aug 20. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1008742 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Omotooke Babalola No relevant relationships by Mark Bowling, value=Consulting fee Removed 04/02/2022 by Mark Bowling No relevant relationships by Mark Bowling, value=Consulting fee Removed 04/02/2022 by Mark Bowling No relevant relationships by Mark Bowling, value=Consulting fee Removed 04/02/2022 by Mark Bowling No relevant relationships by Sulaiman Tijani

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A590, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060640

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Co-Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Over the past 2 years, SARS-CoV-2 has been undergoing research regarding its immunopathology, with its understanding continuously evolving. We present a case of severe respiratory failure from viral co-infection with SARS-CoV-2, parainfluenza virus III, influenza A, and adenovirus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old female with no respiratory or immunological comorbidities, was admitted with respiratory failure that progressed within days to severe septic shock and refractory hypoxemia requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). On initial laboratory evaluation, her nasopharyngeal swab sample tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, Parainfluenza virus III, Influenza A, and Adenovirus on our institute's ROCHE PCR detection test. This was then confirmed with an endotracheal sample and a BAL sample, each of which tested positive for the above 4 viruses. The patient had no prior history of lung disease, autoimmune disorder, immunodeficiency, or malignancy. Serum immunoglobulin levels were within normal range, and the patient tested negative for HIV. She was not on any immunomodulators, and had no known contacts with individuals with polyviral infection. Her presentation had been usual, with 6 days of fever, shortness of breath, extreme fatigue, coughing, and diarrhea. She had initially received treatment with remdesivir, tocilizumab, and dexamethasone. But these tests were noted to be positive prior to her receiving any therapies. Her hospital course was complicated by septic shock, refractory hypoxemia, secondary ventilator associated pneumonia, and fungemia, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, vasopressors, broad spectrum antimicrobials, and eventually rescue by VV-ECMO. She slowly recovered over 6 weeks, received a tracheostomy and was discharged to a long-term acute care hospital for continued rehabilitation and weaning from mechanical ventilation. At 1 year follow up, she has made a full recovery with no residual respiratory limitation. DISCUSSION: Co-infection is defined as infection at diagnosis within 7 days of initial primary infection, whereas, secondary infection develops after 7 days. Co-infection of respiratory viruses, though uncommon, has been reported. Their detection has improved with the use of PCR testing. Simultaneous infection of COVID-19 and usual respiratory viruses has also been documented. Effect of co-infection on disease severity is a result of interaction of viruses among themselves and with the host. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 research has mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 effects on the human host, but with it evolving into an endemic, its interaction and co- and superinfection with other pathogens is imperative. Further research into such interactions of SARS-CoV2 are required to help develop preventative and therapeutic measures. Reference #1: Lansbury L, Lim B, Baskaran V, Lim WS. Co-infections in people with covid-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. SSRN Electronic Journal. 2020. Reference #2: Kim D, Quinn J, Pinsky B, Shah NH, Brown I. Rates of co-infection between SARS-COV-2 and other respiratory pathogens. JAMA. 2020;323(20):2085. Reference #3: DaPalma T, Doonan BP, Trager NM, Kasman LM. A systematic approach to virus–virus interactions. Virus Research. 2010;149(1):1-9. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Vinita Kusupati No relevant relationships by Jyoti Lenka No relevant relationships by Rachel Tan

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A570-A571, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060635

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Co-Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. Here we present a case of the successful treatment of a COVID-19 superinfection with Citrobacter freundii, which produced both a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) as well as a New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (NDM-1). CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old male without significant past medical history was admitted to the intensive care unit for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia. His hospital course was complicated by progressive hypoxia requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Due to persistent fevers and increased respiratory secretions, he was placed on empiric antibiotic therapy including vancomycin, cefepime, and briefly meropenem. Blood cultures were periodically drawn and ultimately demonstrated no growth. However, a respiratory culture via bronchoalveolar lavage was positive for multidrug-resistant Citrobacter freundii. Susceptibilities showed high level of resistance to meropenem, Imipenem, Ceftazidime-Avibactam as well as Aztreonam. Molecular testing confirmed the presence of both KPC and NDM-1 β-lactamases. The patient was treated with a combination of Aztreonam 2g plus Ceftazidime-Avibactam 2.5g IV every eight hours via simultaneous infusion for fourteen days, resulting in clinical improvement and discharge to a rehabilitation facility. DISCUSSION: The emergence of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteria has been identified as a major clinical problem. The high rates and high mortality of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteria complicating the course of COVID patients during the pandemic highlighted the importance of this issue. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, β-lactam resistance is primarily caused by enzymatic degradation by β-lactamases. Two carbapenemase subclasses are especially problematic: KPC and NDM-1. Horizontal gene transfer and clonal expansion have enabled KPC and NDM-1 to spread worldwide. However, coexistence of these two resistant mechanisms within the same pathogen has rarely been reported. Recently, high stability, non-inferior fitness, and transferability among patients of KPC-2-NDM-1-CRKPs have been documented, raising further concerns about the risk for further spread and increasing rates [1]. Therapeutic options are limited. We used a combination of Ceftazidime/Avibactam plus Aztreonam for treatment, based on limited in vitro studies demonstrating a synergistic effect and superior clearance rather than either antibiotic alone or administered in sequence [2,3]. CONCLUSIONS: Superinfections with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteria have increased in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and are likely to become more prevalent in our hospitals. Prompt recognition and appropriate therapeutic selection are paramount for treating these highly resistant organisms. Reference #1: Gao H, Liu Y, Wang R, Wang Q, Jin L, Wang H. The transferability and evolution of NDM-1 and KPC-2 co-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from clinical settings. EBioMedicine. 2020 Jan;51:102599. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.102599. Epub 2020 Jan 3. PMID: 31911273;PMCID: PMC6948161. Reference #2: Marshall S, Hujer AM, Rojas LJ, Papp-Wallace KM, Humphries RM, Spellberg B, Hujer KM, Marshall EK, Rudin SD, Perez F, Wilson BM, Wasserman RB, Chikowski L, Paterson DL, Vila AJ, van Duin D, Kreiswirth BN, Chambers HF, Fowler VG Jr, Jacobs MR, Pulse ME, Weiss WJ, Bonomo RA. Can Ceftazidime-Avibactam and Aztreonam Overcome β-Lactam Resistance Conferred by Metallo-β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae? Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Mar 24;61(4):e02243-16. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02243-16. PMID: 28167541;PMCID: PMC5365724. Reference #3: Lodise TP, Smith NM, O'Donnell N, et al. Determining the optimal dosing of a novel combination regimen of ceftazidime/avibactam with aztreonam against NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae using a hollow-fibre infection model. J Antimicrob Chemother 202 ;75(9): 2622-32 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by wisam daoud No relevant relationships by Christopher Walker No relevant relationships by Amanda Westbrook No relevant relationships by Nicola Zetola

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A560, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060631

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Disseminated Bacterial Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Tularemia is a rare infectious disease caused by Francisella Tularensis that typically affects the skin, eyes, lymph nodes, and lungs. There are a variety of forms of tularemia with varying rates of contagiousness and mortality. Respiratory tularemia has a high mortality rate if left untreated and presents with non-specific viral like symptoms occurring in conjunction with respiratory symptoms: cough, hemoptysis, and pleuritic chest pain. In this COVID ARDS era, it is important to evaluate a broad differential diagnosis. Therefore, the authors describe a patient presenting with flu-like respiratory symptoms whom was ultimately was diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to F. Tulerensis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year-old male presented with a four-day history of night sweats, shortness of breath, a productive cough which progressed to hemoptysis, and oliguria. Prior to admission, his initial symptoms were treated as chronic sinusitis with varied antibiotics. Social history including tobacco abuse and deer hunting 1 month prior to presentation. Vitals were stable except for tachycardia, hypoxia, and tachypnea. Laboratory findings were significant for AKI, lactic acidosis, mild transaminitis, hyperbilirubinemia, and leukocytosis with predominant neutrophilia. Thoracic CTA showed bilateral diffused pulmonary edema without evidence of pulmonary embolism. Due to the patient's worsening respiratory status, he was intubated for support. The patient progressed to Severe ARDS per Berlin Criteria eventually requiring pronation and continuous paralyzing. Bronchoscopy was performed with bronchial lavage. Bacterial, viral, and fungal cultures did not show growth while vasculitic work-up was negative. Empiric antibiotic treatment did not show improvement until the patient was diagnosed with F. Taularensis via serological testing with an IgM of 20 U/mL, and patient was transitioned to gentamycin. Ultimately, the patient was extubated, transitioned to oral doxycycline, and discharged home. DISCUSSION: Approximately 250 cases of tularemia are reported to CDC each year. Respiratory tularemia has a mortality rate up to 30% if not treated. For this reason, F. tularensis is a potential biological weapon and is categorized as a Group A pathogenic agent. Serological testing may be negative early in disease progression;therefore, early inflammatory markers with clinical suspicion are essential to diagnose the disease early in its course. DNA microarray has high specificity and sensitivity for rapid diagnosis of tularemia while being cost effective. After prompt diagnosis, intravenous aminoglycosides;such as gentamycin or streptomycin;must be started. CONCLUSIONS: In the above case, we illustrate the gradual onset and rapid patient deterioration when treatment is delayed;yet, there is rapid recovery once appropriate treatment is used. Reference #1: 1. Ranjbar, Reza, Payam Behzadi, and Caterina Mammina. "Respiratory tularemia: Francisella tularensis and microarray probe designing.” The open microbiology journal 10 (2016): 176. Reference #2: 2. Akhvlediani, N., I. Burjanadze, D. Baliashvili, T. Tushishvili, M. Broladze, A. Navdarashvili, S. Dolbadze et al. "Tularemia transmission to humans: a multifaceted surveillance approach.” Epidemiology & Infection 146, no. 16 (2018): 2139-2145. Reference #3: 3. Tularemia in British Columbia: A case report and review. Issue: BCMJ, vol. 52, No. 6, July August 2010 (Pages 303- 307). Megan Isaac-Renton, BSc, Muhammad Morshed, PhD, SCCM Eleni Galanis, MD, MPH, FRCPC Sunny Mak, MSc Vicente Loyola, MD, FRCPC, Linda M.N. Hoang, MD, MHSc, FRCPC DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Munish Adhikari No relevant relationships by Ashma Ul Husna No relevant relationships by Yan Jiang No relevant relationships by Divya Kharel No relevant relationships by Gregory Polcha

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A549, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060626

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19: Other Considerations in Management SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 02:45 pm - 03:45 pm PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of fungal co-infections clinical characteristics, and outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of electronic medical records of 2,639 adult patients admitted for COVID -19 to our health system from April 1, 2020 to December 31, 2021. Demographic data, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, laboratory results including fungal diagnostics, COVID therapeutics and antifungals, need for ICU admission, mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality were collected. RESULTS: A total of 45 of 2,639 (1.7%) COVID-19+ patients had a positive fungal test or culture of fungal pathogen and subsequently received antifungal treatment. Of these 25 (55.6%) cases of Aspergillus species were the most prominent, followed by Candida species at 12 (26.7%). Of note, there was one case each of Cryptococcus and Histoplasma (2.2%). COVID-19+ patients with fungal co-infection who survived (18;40%) were significantly younger compared to COVID-19+ patients with fungal co-infection who died (27;60%, p=0.014). Majority of COVID-19+ patients with fungal co-infection were white with average length of hospitalization of 24 days. Those patients who survived had a significantly longer length of hospitalization compared to COVID-19+ patients who died (survived 31 ± 21.5 compared to 19.6 ± 10.4 days, p<0.05). Majority of COVID-19+ patients received steroids, and remdesivir therapy for COVID-19. Antifungal treatment consisted of either voriconazole or micafungin as predominate fungal pathogens were either Aspergillus or Candida spp. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary aspergillosis followed by invasive candidiasis were the most common fungal co-infections in COVID-19 patients treated at our institution. In-hospital mortality from all fungal co-infections was 60%. Patients that survived were younger and hospitalized longer compared to those who expired. Need for mechanical ventilation, ICU admission and COVID therapeutics were not significantly different between the survived and expired group of COVID-19 patients with fungal co-infections. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The increased risk and incidence of COVID-19 and fungal co-infection has been noted in a handful of studies with invasive aspergillosis being the most commonly reported fungal co-infection. There have been very few reports of other fungal co-infections including invasive candidiasis, mucormycosis, histoplasmosis, and cryptococcosis. Minimal incidence data has been reported on co-infection with other opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Histoplasma spp., Pneumocystis jirovecci, or Cryptococcus neoformans. This study supports previous findings of increase risk of Aspergillosis, but also show incidence of Histoplasmosis and Crytpococcal fungal infections. These fungal infections may be under reported in COVID-19 and may warrant further research. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Christopher Destache No relevant relationships by Rutendo Jokomo-Nyakabau No relevant relationships by Dorothy Kenny No relevant relationships by Paul Millner No relevant relationships by Anny Nguyen No relevant relationships by Mohammad Selim No relevant relationships by Richard Swaney No relevant relationships by Manasa Velagapudi

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A507, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060615

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic spawned the use and study of novel therapeutics, re-purposed drugs, and interventions– all with limited success. Seraph® 100 Microbind Affinity Blood Filter® [Seraph®] is an investigational device that was given Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration in 2019 to treat severe coronavirus disease. Higher viremia is correlated with higher mortality. Seraph® uses extracorporeal filtration to aid the innate immune system by reducing viral load and mitigating downstream effects of inflammation. CASE PRESENTATION: A forty-eight year old gentleman presented to the emergency room with coughs and fever of 101° F. He tested positive via polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing for SARS-CoV-19 pneumonia. A computed-tomography angiogram [CTA] of the chest was negative for pulmonary embolism, but demonstrated significant bilateral ground-glass opacities consistent with viral pneumonia. Vitals were notable for an oxygen saturation of 69% on room air that improved to 96% on 6 liters/minute [L/min] of supplemental oxygen via nasal cannula. He was initiated on both dexamethasone and remdesivir. Within hours, the patient's oxygen requirements escalated to 15 L/min via non-rebreather to high flow humidified nasal cannula with a flow rate of 40 L/min and 60% FiO2. On day three, he was transferred to the ICU for treatment with Seraph®. After one treatment, the patient was weaned from high flow humidified nasal cannula to room air. On day five, after a second treatment, he transferred to the floor. He was discharged on day six, on room air, having completed his course of remdesivir, with an additional 5 days of oral steroids. DISCUSSION: Preliminary data regarding Seraph® remain limited with only select eligible patients undergoing therapy. Cases like our patient demonstrate dramatic improvements with even one or two treatments which correlate well with data that show up to 99% reduction in the bloodstream of targeted pathogens per pass. While database collection data have revealed trends towards improved outcomes, further investigation into populations most likely to benefit from treatment is needed. Timing, immunocompromised status and other comorbidities that raise or lower the chances of successful hemofiltration need to be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Studies in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic augment ongoing research as filtration devices are used to target bacterial infections, cytokines and inflammatory markers. Since the invention of antibiotics, multi-drug resistant organisms have increased in prevalence. Novel interventions such as Seraph® warrant investigation to prevent infectious diseases from becoming unmanageable threats. Reference #1: Kielstein JT, Borchina DN, Fühner T, Hwang S, Mattoon D, Ball AJ. Hemofiltration with the Seraph® 100 Microbind® Affinity filter decreases SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Crit Care. 2021;25(1):190. Published 2021 Jun 1. doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03597-3 Reference #2: Pape A, Kielstein JT, Krüger T, Fühner T, Brunkhorst R. Treatment of a Critically Ill COVID-19 Patient with the Seraph 100 Microbind Affinity Filter. TH Open. 2021;5(2):e134-e138. Published 2021 Apr 14. doi:10.1055/s-0041-1727121 Reference #3: Schmidt JJ, Borchina DN, van T Klooster M, et al. Interim-analysis of the COSA (COVID-19 patients treated with the Seraph® 100 Microbind® Affinity filter) registry [published online ahead of print, 2021 Dec 7]. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2021;gfab347. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfab347 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Aneesa Afroze No relevant relationships by Lydia Meece No relevant relationships by Angela Park

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A419-A420, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060591

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Co-Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) related respiratory tract infections have been described in critically ill or immunocompromised patients. We present a case of HSV-1 pneumonia in a mechanically ventilated and immunocompromised patient in the setting of SARS CoV-2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old female on Rituximab for Rheumatoid arthritis presented with shortness of breath and cough. She was afebrile, tachypneic and hypoxic. She was discharged 1 week prior after a 3 weeklong treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia. CT Angiogram showed extensive bilateral patchy consolidations with ground-glass infiltrates and subsegmental pulmonary emboli. Patient was initiated on heparin and broad-spectrum IV antibiotics with steroids for presumed ARDS with superimposed bacterial pneumonia. Her respiratory failure worsened requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Failing oxygenation despite aggressive therapy prompted further workup that showed a normal echo and negative blood cultures. Sputum was negative for Pneumocystis pneumonia and Tuberculosis. Cytology from tracheal aspirate showed bronchial cells with inclusions and multinucleations consistent with HSV-associated cytopathic changes. A positive serum HSV-1 IgG and serum quantitative PCR of HSV-1 DNA solidified the diagnosis. Ganciclovir therapy was initiated to cover for HSV and Cytomegalovirus (CMV), however, a serum CMV PCR was negative. Within a day, her clinical course took a downward spiral. CT chest was repeated which showed worsening airspace disease. Despite ganciclovir therapy, the severity of lung disease led to eventual failure of oxygenation and patient demise. DISCUSSION: Prolonged mechanical ventilation due to ARDS is a risk factor for HSV bronchopneumonia in patients with COVID-19 and has shown an increased mortality 1,2. Diagnosis can be achieved by viral culture or observing cytopathic effects of HSV on cells in tracheobronchial aspirates, bronchoalveolar lavage, or biopsy3. In critically ill patients early treatment has been shown to prolong the ICU time to death and improved oxygenation4. It is important to test for co-infections as about 65% of HSV pneumonia cases are associated with pathogens like CMV and Pneumocystis5. CONCLUSIONS: Worsening respiratory disease in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients despite antibiotic therapy for suspected superimposed bacterial infection warrants a workup for secondary viral infections like HSV. Increased mortality is seen if not promptly treated. Reference #1: 1. Meyer A, Buetti N, Houhou-Fidouh N, et al. HSV-1 reactivation is associated with an increased risk of mortality and pneumonia in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Critical Care. 2021/12/06 2021;25(1):417. doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03843-8 Reference #2: Le Balc'h P, Pinceaux K, Pronier C, Seguin P, Tadié J-M, Reizine F. Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus reactivations among severe COVID-19 patients. Critical Care. 2020/08/28 2020;24(1):530. doi:10.1186/s13054-020-03252-3 Reference #3: Shah JN, Chemaly RF. Herpes Simplex Virus Pneumonia in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies. Pulmonary Involvement in Patients with Hematological Malignancies. 2010:301-311. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15742-4_24 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Andrew Cox No relevant relationships by Syeda Hassan No relevant relationships by Maria Khan No relevant relationships by Malik Muhammad Uzair Khan No relevant relationships by Rameesha Mehreen No relevant relationships by Rahat Ahmed Memon No relevant relationships by Ifrah Naeem No relevant relationships by Laura Walters

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A390, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060580

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Complications of Thoracic Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Serratia marcescens is a gram negative bacteria known to colonize the human GI tract. While infections of urinary tract, respiratory tract, and CNS can occur, it is usually associated with immunocompromised hosts or patients who undergo invasive procedures or surgeries. Here, we present a 21-year-old immunocompetent male with Serratia marcescens cavitary pneumonia following COVID-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-year-old obese male with no past medical history presented with shortness of breath, cough and fevers for one week. In the emergency department (ED), he was febrile to 38.8°C, tachycardic, saturating 90% on room air. He was recently admitted to an outside hospital two weeks prior with COVID-19 pneumonia. He was treated with Remdesivir and decadron and discharged after five days. No invasive procedures were performed during his hospital stay and he never required advanced oxygen support other than simple nasal cannula. CTA of his chest in the ED showed thick walled bilateral lower lobe cavitary lesions and multifocal ground glass alveolar opacities. No pulmonary embolism was seen. Sputum cultures were collected but inadequate. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and fluid studies showed white blood cell count of 70,029 cell/uL, with 94% neutrophils. BAL fluid cultures grew Serratia marcescens. He was originally placed on vancomycin and cefepime and discharged on oral Levaquin for four weeks based on sensitivities. HIV testing was negative. DISCUSSION: Serratia is a rod shaped gram negative bacteria found in soil, water, and human gut flora. It is known to be an opportunistic pathogen that can cause urinary, respiratory, CNS and blood stream infections in immunocompromised patients. Infections in immunocompetent are usually associated with invasive devices such as mechanical ventilation or central venous catheters. While superimposed bacterial infections in COVID-19 illness are well known, they are usually seen in patients with severe disease requiring mechanical ventilation and prolonged hospitalization. Those with underlying systemic illness, advanced age and impaired immune systems are particularly susceptible. Our patient was young, immunocompetent and only required minimal oxygen support while hospitalized for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Serratia marcescens pneumonia is rarely seen in immunocompetent hosts, but should remain on the differential in patients with recent hospitalization and COVID-19 infection, regardless of severity of disease. Reference #1: Hidron, A., Quiceno, W., Cardeño, J. J., Roncancio, G., & García, C. (2021). Post-COVID-19 Necrotizing Pneumonia in Patients on Invasive Mechanical Ventilation. Infectious Disease Reports, 13(3), 835–842. https://doi.org/10.3390/idr13030075 Reference #2: Fazio, G., Galioto, F., Ferlito, A., Coronella, M., Palmucci, S., & Basile, A. (2021). Cavitated pulmonary nodules in a female patient with breast cancer: Keep in mind Serratia marcescens’ infections. Respiratory Medicine Case Reports, 33, 101441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2021.101441 Reference #3: Jose, M., & Desai, K. (2020). Fatal Superimposed Bacterial Sepsis in a Healthy Coronavirus (COVID-19) Patient. Cureus. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8350 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Lucy Checchio No relevant relationships by Syeda Hassan No relevant relationships by Jaclyn Rosenzweig No relevant relationships by Stephanie Tzarnas No relevant relationships by Laura Walters

19.
Embase; 2020.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-344376

ABSTRACT

The increasing frequency and magnitude of viral outbreaks in recent decades, epitomized by the current COVID-19 pandemic, has resulted in an urgent need for rapid and sensitive diagnostic methods. Here, we present a methodology for virus detection and identification that uses a convolutional neural network to distinguish between microscopy images of single intact particles of different viruses. Our assay achieves labeling, imaging and virus identification in less than five minutes and does not require any lysis, purification or amplification steps. The trained neural network was able to differentiate SARS-CoV-2 from negative clinical samples, as well as from other common respiratory pathogens such as influenza and seasonal human coronaviruses. Additionally, we were able to differentiate closely related strains of influenza, as well as SARS-CoV-2 variants. Single-particle imaging combined with deep learning therefore offers a promising alternative to traditional viral diagnostic and genomic sequencing methods, and has the potential for significant impact. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.

20.
Netherlands Journal of Critical Care ; 30(5):156-160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058310

ABSTRACT

In the last two years we have experienced the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in our lives and hospitals. Pandemics are part of the history of humanity and we can be certain that in the future new pandemics will appear. In fact, due to the growth in the human population, increased travel and global warming, it is to be expected that new pandemic pathogens will arise more frequently than before. Additionally, decreased barriers between animals and humans will give rise to spillover events, which will result in the introduction of new zoonotic pathogens in humans. In each of the parts of this series we will, in a short format, highlight a potential pandemic pathogen and describe its characteristics, history and potential for global pandemics. This part of the series focusses on MERS-CoV infection which, up until now, has been fairly contained in a small part of the world but definitely has traits that make it a pathogen to watch. As in previous parts of this series, we will highlight its clinical picture and explain why it should not be underestimated.

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