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1.
Springer Protocols Handbooks ; : 131-138, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2173508

ABSTRACT

A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for differential detection of turkey coronavirus (TCoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is presented in this chapter. Primers are designed from the conserved or variable regions of nucleocapsid (N) or spike (S) protein genes of TCoV, IBV, and BCoV and used in the same PCR reaction. Reverse transcription followed by PCR reaction is used to amplify a portion of N or S gene of the corresponding coronaviruses. Two PCR products, a 356-bp band corresponding to N gene and a 727-bp band corresponding to S gene, are obtained for TCoV. In contrast, one PCR product of 356 bp corresponding to a fragment of N gene is obtained for IBV strains and one PCR product of 568 bp corresponding to a fragment of S gene is obtained for BCoV. Copyright © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016.

2.
Springer Protocols Handbooks ; : 121-130, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2173507

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a chicken Gammacoronavirus, is a major poultry pathogen, and is probably endemic in all regions with intensive poultry production. Since IBV was first described in 1936, many serotypes and variants of IBV have been isolated worldwide. IBV isolates are capable of infecting a large range of epithelial surfaces of the chicken, involving the respiratory, renal, and reproductive systems;however, the clinical signs are usually not specific for differential diagnoses. Virus isolation is commonly used for diagnosis of IBV infection, which was achieved through passage of clinical materials via the allantoic route of embryos. Currently, more sensitive molecular approaches for the detection of avian pathogens have been developed, including reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR, which are more suitable for use in diagnostic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe a one-step RT-PCR which can be used for detecting most of IBV serotypes in the IBV-infected allantoic fluid and has been used routinely in our laboratories for detection of IBVs. Copyright © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016.

3.
Springer Protocols Handbooks ; : 53-72, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2173503

ABSTRACT

We have developed a reverse genetics system for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in which a full-length cDNA corresponding to the IBV genome is inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a T7 promoter sequence. Vaccinia virus as a vector for the full-length IBV cDNA has the advantage that modifications can be introduced into the IBV cDNA using homologous recombination, a method frequently used to insert and delete sequences from the vaccinia virus genome. Here, we describe the use of transient dominant selection as a method for introducing modifications into the IBV cDNA;that has been successfully used for the substitution of specific nucleotides, deletion of genomic regions, and the exchange of complete genes. Infectious recombinant IBVs are generated in situ following the transfection of vaccinia virus DNA, containing the modified IBV cDNA, into cells infected with a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing T7 DNA dependant RNA polymerase. Copyright © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016.

4.
Springer Protocols Handbooks ; : 43-50, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2173502

ABSTRACT

Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection continues to threaten turkey industry. Because specific treatment and effective vaccination program are not available, rapid and cost-effective detection of antibodies to TCoV infection is an important control measure to monitor the disease status in the fields. Two antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures for detection of antibodies to TCoV are outlined in this chapter. One ELISA method uses chicken infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) as the coating antigen based on antigenic cross-reactivity between TCoV and IBV. The other method relies on a recombinant TCoV nucleocapsid protein. Both methods are useful for serological diagnosis of TCoV infection in the turkey flocks. Copyright © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016.

5.
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja ; 144(11):673-690, 2022.
Article in Hungarian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2207237

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a leading cause of economic losses within the poultry industry, affecting both meat-type birds and layers. The highly contagious viral disease caused by Avian coronavirus was first described in the 1930s and still remains a global problem for the poultry industry. Infection by Avian coronavirus causes respiratory disease, nephritis, decreased egg production depending on the viral pathotype and the age of the affected flocks. Live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are used to control the disease, but poor cross-protection between different serotypes complicates control efforts. IBV exists in a wide variety of genetically distinct types and new variants are identified relatively frequently. As the emergence of new IBV variants may impede the efficacy of the vaccines, monitoring the prevalence and genetic characteristics of IBV is of utmost importance. Currently, a phylogeny-based classification system defined by Valastro and coworkers is used for the classification of IBV strains. At present, IBV strains are divided into 8 genotypes (GI-GVIII) and 39 distinct lineages (GI-1 to GI-31, GII-1, GII-2, GIII-1, GIV-1, GV-1, GVI-1, GVII-1 and GVIII-1) and a huge number of unclassified inter-lineage recombinants. Most IBV lineages are confined to specific geographic regions, and some countries report the circulation of unique lineages. In contrast, the GI-1, GI-13, GI-16 and GI-19 lineages are widely distributed. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent knowledge about the distribution of the genetic groups of Avian coronavirus.

6.
Archives of Pharmacy Practice ; 13(4):74-81, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2206966

ABSTRACT

Since the dawn of time, several viral epidemics have swept the globe, among them the current COVID-19 outbreak. The ongoing emergence and propagation of novel viral illnesses have compelled researchers to seek new therapeutic approaches that can get beyond the drawbacks of antivirals that are available right now. Medicinal plants have historically offered treatments for a range of illnesses. These bioactive compounds serve as the foundation for many "modern" pharmaceuticals. One of the essential polyphenols in various medicinal plants is Chlorogenic acid (CA), an ester of caffeic and quinic acid. Extensive research has revealed that CA possesses anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant properties. This review aims to briefly summarise CA and its derivative's antiviral properties on various human viral diseases and their ability to fight the current COVID-19 disease. This review summarises CA antiviral action on the following viruses: influenza A virus (H1N1/H3N2/H7N9), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, enterovirus 71 (Ent 71), adenoviruses (AdenV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This review will open the way for developing and designing potentially effective and broad-spectrum CA-based antiviral medicines.

7.
Veterinary Microbiology ; : 109619, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2150799

ABSTRACT

The virulence of avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV) for the kidney has led to high mortality in dominant-genotype isolations, but the key sites of viral protein that determine kidney tropism are still not fully clear. In this study, the amino acid sequences of the S2 subunit of IBVs with opposing adaptivity to chicken embryonic kidney cells (CEKs) were aligned to identify putative sites associated with differences in viral adaptability. The S2 gene and the putative sites of the non-adapted CN strain were introduced into the CEKs-adapted SczyC30 strain to rescue seven mutants. Analysis of growth characteristics showed that the replacement of the entire S2 subunit and the L1089I substitution in the S2 subunit entirely abolished the proliferation of recombinant IBV in CEKs as well as in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells. Pathogenicity assays also support the decisive role of this L1089 for viral nephrotropism, and this non-nephrotropic L1089I substitution significantly attenuates pathogenicity. Analysis of the putative cause of proliferation inhibition in CEKs suggests that the L1089I substitution affects neither virus attachment nor endocytosis, but instead fails to form double-membrane vesicles to initiate the viral replication and translation. Position 1089 of the IBV S2 subunit is conservative and predicted to lie in heptad repeat 2 domains. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the L1089I substitution alters the nephrotropism of parent strain by affecting virus-cell fusion. These findings provide crucial insights into the adaptive mechanisms of IBV and have applications in the development of vaccines and drugs against IB.

8.
Poultry Science ; : 102398, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2150439

ABSTRACT

The Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV), a coronavirus, is a key avian pathogen that causes acute and highly infectious viral respiratory diseases. IBV is an enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus, and the host factors that restrict infection and replication of the virus remain poorly understood. Guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP1), an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-inducible guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), is a major player in host immunity and provides defense against viral replication. However, the role of chicken GBP1 (chGBP1) in the IBV-life cycle is not well understood. Therefore, this study aimed to reveal the potential role of IFN-γ-induced chGBP1 in mediating host anti-IBV infection responses. We identified the host restriction factor, chGBP1, in IBV-infected chicken macrophages HD11 cell lines. We showed that chGBP1 was upregulated by treatment with both IFN-γ and IBV in HD11 cells. chGBP1 inhibited IBV replication in a dose-dependent manner and enhanced IFN-γ anti-IBV activity. Importantly, the GTPase domain of chGBP1 played a pivotal role in its anti-IBV activity. Furthermore, chGBP1 interacts with IBV Nucleocapsids protein to degrade IBV-N protein through the autophagy pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role of chGBP1 in anti-IBV in macrophages HD11 cells.

9.
Ptitsevodstvo ; 9:65-69, 2022.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2148190

ABSTRACT

The successful experiment in large-scale commercial conditions is described with new vaccination program for broiler parental flock involving vaccination at 130 days of age (at the transfer of pullets to poultry houses for adult broiler breeders) with 4-valent vaccine PROVAC 4 against chicken infectious bronchitis, Newcastle and Gumboro diseases, and reoviral infection, together with additional vaccination against rhinotracheitis. Control treatment was vaccinated according to a standard scheme previously used in the farm, with separate vaccines against the aforementioned diseases;certain vaccines contained several antigens of a single disease. It was found that productive performance in the parental flocks and in broilers from these flocks was similar and consistently high with both vaccination schemes;the antibody titers at different ages of parental flocks were also similar. However, the cost of the experimental vaccination scheme was lower by 16% as compared to the standard one;on 4 batches of parental flock (120,000 hens each) it saved over 1 mio. rubles to the farm. The conclusion was made that vaccine PROVAC 4 can provide prolonged and effective protection of broiler parental flock and its progeny against viral diseases at low financial expenses.

10.
Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences ; 46(5):687-+, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2124280

ABSTRACT

In this study, avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), avian metapneumovirus (AMPV), and avian reovirus (ARV) were evaluated in broiler and layer flocks. For this purpose, tracheal swabs from 48 broiler and 45 layer flocks with respiratory signs were inoculated SPF embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation. The viruses were identified by real-time PCR. Results showed that the most common virus in both broiler and layer farms was IBV with incidence rates of 58.33% and 46.67%, respectively. ILTV, AMPV, and ARV incidences in the samples were found to be 22.22%, 13.33%, and 4.44% in layer flocks while 2.08%, 8.33%, and 20.83% in broilers, respectively. The numbers of IBV+AMPV and IBV+ARV coinfections were 5 (11.11%) and 1 (2.22%) in layers, whereas, 1 (2.08%) and 5 (10.42%) broilers, respectively. In addition, 2 broiler flocks (4.17%) had triple infection with IBV, AMPV, and ARV. ILTV was detected always alone from the samples of layer and broiler flocks. Sequencing of S1 gene of selected IBV TR/L45 and TR/B42 isolates showed similarities with IS/1494/06 (HM131453) at the rates of 98.98% and 99.69%, respectively, while TR/L37, TR/L38, and TR/L39 isolates were identical to 4/91 (KF377577) vaccine strain at the rates of 99.01%, 99.01%, and 98.76%, respectively. Sequencing analysis of the ICP4 and TK genes of ILTV isolates revealed that they were all field strains with low virulence. The present data represent actual information on the genotypes of IBV and ILTV circulating in poultry flocks in Turkiye.

11.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 15(10):442-450, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2123952

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the genetic diversity of coronaviruses in wild and domestic birds in the bird park and live poultry markets of Ca Mau province in Vietnam in 2020. Methods: A total of 228 samples (121 from wild birds and 107 from poultry) were collected in the territory of Ca Mau province of Vietnam in 2020. The avian samples were tested for the presence of the four genera of coronaviruses using reverse transcription and nested PCR. Molecular genetic analysis using targeted NGS sequencing of RdRp gene was performed for 29 representative samples (12 samples from wild birds and 17 from poultry). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbour joininig method with 1000 bootstrap replications using MEGA X software. Results: Among wild birds, 21.5% samples were positive for the genetic material of coronaviruses and 38.3% samples were positive for coronaviruses among poultry. Genetic analysis of the partial sequence of RdRp gene from representative samples revealed that wild birds were carriers of gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses. Among poultry, three genotypes of infectious bronchitis virus (QX, Mass and Q1) were detected in chickens, with QX genotypes being predominant, and viruses of DCoV group were detected in domestic ducks. There was no detection of alphacoronaviruses or betacoronaviruses in the studied birds. Conclusions: Coronaviruses of genera Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus were detected in wild birds. A high percentage of infectious bronchitis virus was detected in poultry. Thus, there is a need for broader surveillance of coronaviruses in birds, which can be used for evaluation of diversity, evolution and distribution of coronaviruses in Vietnam. Continuous surveillance of coronaviruses circulation in wild and domestic animals is necessary for implementing strategic measures for poultry and domestic animal protection and for evaluation of possible risk of circulating coronaviruses to human health.

12.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(11): 1520-1526, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117425

ABSTRACT

The antigenic variant QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is endemic in several countries. In Japan, the QX-like genotype is classified as the JP-III genotype based on the partial S1 gene and as the GI-19 genotype based on the complete S1 gene. This study showed that QX-like IBVs and JP-III IBVs can be identified based on the amino acid polymorphism of the S1 glycoprotein. Furthermore, genetic analysis of several IBV field strains detected in commercial broiler farms across the Kyushu area in 2020 revealed Japanese QX-like IBVs, which are highly homologous to the QX-like IBVs recently detected in China and South Korea. Herein, QX-like IBV field strains were isolated for evaluating commercial vaccine efficacy in our future studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Japan/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Chickens , Phylogeny , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genotype
13.
Pathogens ; 11(11)2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115992

ABSTRACT

Many severe epidemics are caused by enteroviruses (EVs) and coronaviruses (CoVs), including feline coronavirus (FCoV) in cats, epidemic diarrhea disease virus (PEDV) in pigs, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in chickens, and EV71 in human. Vaccines and antiviral drugs are used to prevent and treat the infection of EVs and CoVs, but the effectiveness is affected due to rapidly changing RNA viruses. Many plant extracts have been proven to have antiviral properties despite the continuous mutations of viruses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) has high phenolic content and has been used as healthy food materials, livestock feed, biofuels, and more. This study tested the antiviral properties of P. purpureum extract against FCoV, PEDV, IBV, and EV71 by in vitro cytotoxicity assay, TCID50 virus infection assay, and chicken embryo infection assay. The findings showed that P. purpureum extract has the potential of being disinfectant to limit the spread of CoVs and EVs because the extract can inhibit the infection of EV71, FCoV, and PEDV in cells, and significantly reduce the severity of symptoms caused by IBV in chicken embryos.

14.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099841

ABSTRACT

The gammacoronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen of primary economic importance to the global poultry industry. Two IBV lineages (GI-11 and GI-16) have been widely circulating for decades in South America. GI-11 is endemic to South America, and the GI-16 is globally distributed. We obtained full-length IBV genomes from Argentine and Uruguayan farms using Illumina sequencing. Genomes of the GI-11 and GI-16 lineages from Argentina and Uruguay differ in part of the spike coding region. The remaining genome regions are similar to the Chinese and Italian strains of the GI-16 lineage that emerged in Asia or Europe in the 1970s. Our findings support that the indigenous GI-11 strains recombine extensively with the invasive GI-16 strains. During the recombination process, GI-11 acquired most of the sequences of the GI-16, retaining the original S1 sequence. GI-11 strains with recombinant genomes are circulating forms that underwent further local evolution. The current IBV scenario in South America includes the GI-16 lineage, recombinant GI-11 strains sharing high similarity with GI-16 outside S1, and Brazilian GI-11 strains with a divergent genomic background. There is also sporadic recombinant in the GI-11 and GI-16 lineages among vaccine and field strains. Our findings exemplified the ability of IBV to generate emergent lineage by using the S gene in different genomic backgrounds. This unique example of recombinational microevolution underscores the genomic plasticity of IBV in South America.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Chickens , Phylogeny , Mutation , Recombination, Genetic , Brazil
15.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research ; : 100311, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095567

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY This study aimed to see how 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] supplementation affected the performance, immunity, and vitamin D status of broilers, with and without infectious bronchitis virus challenge. Day-old chicks (n = 1000) were divided into four dietary treatments. All experimental treatments were containing 5000 IU of D3 and supplemented with 0, 100, 300, or 500 g/tonne of Bio D® containing 0, 13.94, 41.82 or 69.70 mg 25(OH)D, respectively. In unchallenged birds, the inclusion of 25(OH)D significantly improved survival rates and EPEF values, and no significant difference in LBW, BWG, FC, or FCR was observed. In infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)-challenged birds, the 25(OH)D treatment showed less deterioration in BWG, and FC compared with the control, especially 25(OH)D500 group. The lowest mortality was observed in the 25(OH)D500 group. The health status of chicks fed diets supplemented with 25(OH)D post-challenge had significantly better CD4, CD8, and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM) levels, H/L ratio, total leucocytic count (TLC) in peripheral blood and IBV titers, cytokine (including interleukin (IL) 10) and (IFN)-γ expression, and reduced IBV shedding. After IBV challenge, all 25(OH)D groups recorded higher levels of plasma vitamin D than the control. Furthermore, 25(OH)D groups showed significantly higher antibody titers than the control group. In general, dietary supplementation with different levels of 25(OH)D had a positive effect on inflammatory reaction and stimulated the systemic innate immune responses of chickens during IBV challenge. In turn, recovery in the challenged birds with 25(OH)D rapidly occurred compared with that in the control group.

16.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences ; 26(15):5367-5371, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2081696

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infectious bronchi-tis virus (IBV), for which no effective drugs are available, is among the most important causes of economic loss within the poultry industry. Apigenin is a flavonoid that can be isolated from plants. Apigenin has low toxicity with anti-viral activity. However, the effects of apigenin against IBV remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thus, here we investigate the anti-viral effect of apigenin on IBV using 10 day-old embryonated eggs by determining the virus titer by embryo infective doses50 (EID50/mL) and determining IBV genomes copy number (per mu L) of allantoic fluid. RESULTS: We found that apigenin protected embryonated eggs from IBV. Additionally, apigenin reduced the log titer of the IBV with a significant correlation of up to 9.4 times at 2 mu g/ egg. Also, apigenin appears to significantly re-duce IBV genomes copy number (per mu L) in the allantoic fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Apigenin may be a promising approach for the treatment of IBV, since it protects embryonated eggs from IBV in ovo and suppresses viral replication.

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A414, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060590

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Procedures in Chest Infections Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is a common condition that is seen in hospitals. Pneumocystis Jirovecii is an opportunist fungal pathogen. Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram negative bacteria that causes infectious bronchitis in dogs and other animals, but rarely infects humans. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient is a 34 year old African American female with history of sickle cell trait, reported Lupus (not on treatment), asthma, COVID pneumonia who was admitted for worsening shortness of breath & productive cough with yellow sputum. She was previously hospitalized and discharged after being treated for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. In the ER, she was febrile, tachycardic, tachypneic, & hypoxic requiring BiPAP. CXR obtained showed findings concerning for multifocal pneumonia. Chest CT Angiogram was negative for PE. Patient was started on Vancomycin & Meropenem for treatment of her pneumonia. Blood cultures, Legionella, Strep pneumoniae, Aspergillus, Beta-D-glucan, Sputum culture, & MRSA screen were ordered for further evaluation of her infection. ANA screen reflex panel, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, beta-2 glycoprotein antibodies were also ordered given patient's reported history of SLE and the concern for SLE pneumonitis: ANA & Sjogren's Anti-SSA were positive;otherwise, autoimmune workup was unremarkable. During hospitalization, patient was eventually weaned down to nasal cannula and antibiotic was de-escalated to levaquin. However, sputum culture eventually grew Bordetella Bronchiseptica that was resistant to Levaquin so antibiotic regimen was switched to Doxycycline. In addition, Beta-D-glucan was noted to be elevated. Bronchoscopy was done for further evaluation;multiple transbronchial biopsies were positive Pneumocystis Jirovecii. Patient was then initiated on Bactrim for treatment of PJP Pneumonia along with a steroid taper. Patient was tested for HIV and it was negative. DISCUSSION: In this case, patient was found to have two rare pathogens, that are more common in immunocompromised patients such as those with HIV/AIDS, on high-dose corticosteroids or malignancy. This patient had a unconfirmed diagnosis of SLE and past COVID Pneumonia. Patient had Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia that is frequently isolated in the respiratory tract of animals but can cause severe respiratory infection in humans. This microorganism can cause upper respiratory tract infections, pneumonitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, meningitis, sepsis and recurrent bacteremia. Upon further discussion with the patient, she was found to have a recent pet dog. CONCLUSIONS: High level of clinical suspicious is needed in patient presenting with recurrent pneumonia with chest imaging findings suggestive of multifocal pneumonia. The mainstay of treatment for PJP is TMP-SMX and steroid. We recommend Fluoroquinolones or tetracycline for Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia. Reference #1: Benfield T, Atzori C, Miller RF, Helweg-Larsen J. Second-line salvage treatment of AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a case series and systematic review. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 May 1;48(1):63-7. Reference #2: de la Fuente J, Albo C, Rodríguez A, Sopeña B, Martínez C. Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia in a patient with AIDS. Thorax. 1994 Jul;49(7):719-20. doi: 10.1136/thx.49.7.719. PMID: 8066571;PMCID: PMC475067. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Priya George No relevant relationships by ELINA MOMIN No relevant relationships by Mohammedumer Nagori

18.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055392

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly variable RNA virus that affects chickens worldwide. Due to its inherited tendency to suffer point mutations and recombination events during viral replication, emergent IBV strains have been linked to nephropathogenic and reproductive disease that are more severe than typical respiratory disease, leading, in some cases, to mortality, severe production losses, and/or unsuccessful vaccination. QX and DMV/1639 strains are examples of the above-mentioned IBV evolutionary pathway and clinical outcome. In this study, our purpose was to systematically compare whole genomes of QX and DMV strains looking at each IBV gene individually. Phylogenetic analyses and amino acid site searches were performed in datasets obtained from GenBank accounting for all IBV genes and using our own relevant sequences as a basis. The QX dataset studied is more genetically diverse than the DMV dataset, partially due to the greater epidemiological diversity within the five QX strains used as a basis compared to the four DMV strains from our study. Historically, QX strains have emerged and spread earlier than DMV strains in Europe and Asia. Consequently, there are more QX sequences deposited in GenBank than DMV strains, assisting in the identification of a larger pool of QX strains. It is likely that a similar evolutionary pattern will be observed among DMV strains as they develop and spread in North America.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genomics , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(9)2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055194

ABSTRACT

Genetic diversity and evolution of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are mainly impacted by mutations in the spike 1 (S1) gene. This study focused on whole genome sequencing of an IBV isolate (IBV/Ck/Can/2558004), which represents strains highly prevalent in Canadian commercial poultry, especially concerning features related to its S1 gene and protein sequences. Based on the phylogeny of the S1 gene, IBV/Ck/Can/2558004 belongs to the GI-17 lineage. According to S1 gene and protein pairwise alignment, IBV/Ck/Can/2558004 had 99.44-99.63% and 98.88-99.25% nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) identities, respectively, with five Canadian Delmarva (DMV/1639) IBVs isolated in 2019, and it also shared 96.63-97.69% and 94.78-97.20% nt and aa similarities with US DMV/1639 IBVs isolated in 2011 and 2019, respectively. Further homology analysis of aa sequences showed the existence of some aa substitutions in the hypervariable regions (HVRs) of the S1 protein of IBV/Ck/Can/2558004 compared to US DMV/1639 isolates; most of these variant aa residues have been subjected to positive selection pressure. Predictive analysis of potential N-glycosylation and phosphorylation motifs showed either loss or acquisition in the S1 glycoprotein of IBV/Ck/Can/2558004 compared to S1 of US DMV/1639 IBV. Furthermore, bioinformatic analysis showed some of the aa changes within the S1 protein of IBV/Ck/Can/2558004 have been predicted to impact the function and structure of the S1 protein, potentially leading to a lower binding affinity of the S1 protein to its relevant ligand (sialic acid). In conclusion, these findings revealed that the DMV/1639 IBV isolates are under continuous evolution among Canadian poultry.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Canada , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genotype , Glycoproteins/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Ligands , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Nucleotides , Poultry
20.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 162, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mammalian intestinal microbiomes are necessary for antagonizing systemic viral infections. However, very few studies have identified whether poultry commensal bacteria play a crucial role in protecting against systemic viral infections. Nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a pathogenic coronavirus that causes high morbidity and multiorgan infection tropism in chickens. RESULTS: In this study, we used broad-spectrum oral antibiotics (ABX) to treat specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens to deplete the microbiota before infection with nephropathogenic IBV to analyze the impact of microbiota on IBV infections in vivo. Depletion of the SPF chicken microbiota increases pathogenicity and viral burden following IBV infection. The gnotobiotic chicken infection model further demonstrated that intestinal microbes are resistant to nephropathogenic IBV infection. In addition, ABX-treated chickens showed a severe reduction in macrophage activation, impaired type I IFN production, and IFN-stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the spleen. Lactobacillus isolated from SPF chickens could restore microbiota-depleted chicken macrophage activation and the IFNAR-dependent type I IFN response to limit IBV infection. Furthermore, exopolysaccharide metabolites of Lactobacillus spp. could induce IFN-ß. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the resistance mechanism of SPF chicken intestinal microbiota to nephropathogenic IBV infection, providing new ideas for preventing and controlling nephropathogenic IBV. Video abstract.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chickens , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Mammals
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