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1.
Translational Biophotonics ; 4(1-2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1844252

ABSTRACT

In the last few decades outbreaks of viral infections have often challenged the world‐wide health infrastructure and caused a significant financial burden as well as human suffering despite progress in diagnostic technologies. The recent outbreaks of the Ebola virus in the African continent, the Zika virus in the American continent, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MN1 -https://media.proquest.com/media/hms/PFT/1/9NKwM?_a=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%3D%3D&_s=kRWbjm7Gq64Rq8ZmQhDgAEQ7U9s%3D ERS), influenza A and lately severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) viral infections have repeatedly highlighted the importance of technological advancement enabling a better understanding of virions. In this review, we systematically discuss different aspects of virions and how their properties and functions can be studied using different light‐based technologies. We focus on virion classification, detection and interactions with the host's immune system. Further, the potential of advanced biophotonic methods, for example, Raman, infrared reflection, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, advanced microscopic techniques and biosensor‐based approaches for diagnosing viral infections, investigating therapeutics and vaccine development are described. Although significant advancements have already been made in photonic technologies, which even enable visualizing virion‐host interactions on single‐cell level, the continuous evolution of viruses demands further progress in biophotonic solutions for fast, affordable and robust health monitoring devices for screening viral infections.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(9):4900, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843245

ABSTRACT

Medical cabins within negative-pressure ambulances currently only use the front air supply, which causes poor emission of infectious disease droplets. For this problem, based on the classification and design methods of airflow organization, the side and top supply airflow organization model has been designed to study the influence of these airflow organization models on the spread of droplet particles. The distribution of droplet particles within airflow organization models, under conditions in which the patient is coughing and sneezing, is analyzed. According to the comparison and analysis of this distribution, the state of droplet particles, the emission efficiency, and the security coefficient are studied. The response surface method is used to optimize the emission efficiency and security coefficient of the airflow organization. According to the characteristics of the medical cabin within negative-pressure ambulances, a dose-response model is used to evaluate the infection risk of medical personnel and then the infection probability is obtained. These research results can be used to improve the ability of negative-pressure ambulances to prevent cross-infection.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843224

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesTo determine the association of general practitioner (GP) contact with depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in China.DesignIn April 2020, a follow-up survey was conducted on the basis of a baseline survey conducted between October 2018 and May 2019.SettingThe survey was embedded in the Stanford Wellness Living Laboratory-China (WELL China) study, an ongoing prospective community-based cohort study during 2018–2019.ParticipantsThe survey was conducted by telephone interview among 4144 adult urban residents participating in the WELL China study at baseline. We collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptoms and GP contact during the lockdown period (February to March 2020).Primary and secondary outcome measuresDepressive symptoms were measured using the WHO-Five Well-being Index, comprising five questionnaire items that briefly indicate psychological well-being. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between GP contact and depressive symptoms.ResultsIn total, 3356 participants responded to the survey;203 were excluded owing to missing data on depressive symptoms, leaving 3153 participants in the present study. During lockdown, 449 participants had GP contact. GP contact was significantly negatively associated with prevalent depressive symptoms (OR, 0.67;95% CI 0.51 to 0.89;p<0.01) and incident depressive symptoms (OR 0.68;95% CI 0.51 to 0.93;p<0.05). Stratified analysis showed a significant negative association between depressive symptoms and GP contact in individuals who were 45–64 years old (p<0.01), had a middle or high education (p<0.01) and had self-reported non-communicable diseases (p<0.05).ConclusionsContact with GPs during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns may have a negative association with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling populations. Given the possibility of further surges in COVID-19 infections, GPs’ contact in the community should be enhanced.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843160

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo identify ethnic differences in proportion positive for SARS-CoV-2, and proportion hospitalised, proportion admitted to intensive care and proportion died in hospital with COVID-19 during the first epidemic wave in Wales.DesignDescriptive analysis of 76 503 SARS-CoV-2 tests carried out in Wales to 31 May 2020. Cohort study of 4046 individuals hospitalised with confirmed COVID-19 between 1 March and 31 May. In both analyses, ethnicity was assigned using a name-based classifier.SettingWales (UK).Primary and secondary outcomesAdmission to an intensive care unit following hospitalisation with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. Death within 28 days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test.ResultsUsing a name-based ethnicity classifier, we found a higher proportion of black, Asian and ethnic minority people tested for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR tested positive, compared with those classified as white. Hospitalised black, Asian and minority ethnic cases were younger (median age 53 compared with 76 years;p<0.01) and more likely to be admitted to intensive care. Bangladeshi (adjusted OR (aOR): 9.80, 95% CI 1.21 to 79.40) and ‘white – other than British or Irish’ (aOR: 1.99, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.44) ethnic groups were most likely to be admitted to intensive care unit. In Wales, older age (aOR for over 70 years: 10.29, 95% CI 6.78 to 15.64) and male gender (aOR: 1.38, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.59), but not ethnicity, were associated with death in hospitalised patients.ConclusionsThis study adds to the growing evidence that ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. During the first COVID-19 epidemic wave in Wales, although ethnic minority populations were less likely to be tested and less likely to be hospitalised, those that did attend hospital were younger and more likely to be admitted to intensive care. Primary, secondary and tertiary COVID-19 prevention should target ethnic minority communities in Wales.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843007

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesTo investigate the combined association of obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) with severe COVID-19 outcomes in adult and elderly inpatients.DesignCross-sectional study based on registry data from Brazil’s influenza surveillance system.SettingPublic and private hospitals across Brazil.ParticipantsEligible population included 21 942 inpatients aged ≥20 years with positive reverse transcription-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 until 9 June 2020.Main outcome measuresSevere COVID-19 outcomes were non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation use, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. Multivariate analyses were conducted separately for adults (20–59 years) and elders (≥60 years) to test the combined association of obesity (without and with DM and/or CVD) and degrees of obesity with each outcome.ResultsA sample of 8848 adults and 12 925 elders were included. Among adults, obesity with DM and/or CVD showed higher prevalence of invasive (prevalence ratio 3.76, 95% CI 2.82 to 5.01) and non-invasive mechanical ventilation use (2.06, 1.58 to 2.69), ICU admission (1.60, 1.40 to 1.83) and death (1.79, 1.45 to 2.21) compared with the group without obesity, DM and CVD. In elders, obesity alone (without DM and CVD) had the highest prevalence of ICU admission (1.40, 1.07 to 1.82) and death (1.67, 1.00 to 2.80). In both age groups, obesity alone and combined with DM and/or CVD showed higher prevalence in all outcomes than DM and/or CVD. A dose–response association was observed between obesity and death in adults: class I 1.32 (1.05 to 1.66), class II 1.41 (1.06 to 1.87) and class III 1.77 (1.35 to 2.33).ConclusionsThe combined association of obesity, diabetes and/or CVD with severe COVID-19 outcomes may be stronger in adults than in elders. Obesity alone and combined with DM and/or CVD had more impact on the risk of COVID-19 severity than DM and/or CVD in both age groups. The study also supports an independent relationship of obesity with severe outcomes, including a dose–response association between degrees of obesity and death in adults.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(10), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842937

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesTo identify factors associated with COVID-19 test positivity and assess viral and antibody test concordance.DesignObservational retrospective cohort study.SettingOptum de-identified electronic health records including over 700 hospitals and 7000 clinics in the USA.ParticipantsThere were 891 754 patients who had a COVID-19 test identified in their electronic health record between 20 February 2020 and 10 July 2020.Primary and secondary outcome measuresPer cent of viral and antibody tests positive for COVID-19 (‘positivity rate’);adjusted ORs for factors associated with COVID-19 viral and antibody test positivity;and per cent concordance between positive viral and subsequent antibody test results.ResultsOverall positivity rate was 9% (70 472 of 771 278) and 12% (11 094 of 91 741) for viral and antibody tests, respectively. Positivity rate was inversely associated with the number of individuals tested and decreased over time across regions and race/ethnicities. Antibody test concordance among patients with an initial positive viral test was 91% (71%–95% depending on time between tests). Among tests separated by at least 2 weeks, discordant results occurred in 7% of patients and 9% of immunocompromised patients. Factors associated with increased odds of viral and antibody positivity in multivariable models included: male sex, Hispanic or non-Hispanic black or Asian race/ethnicity, uninsured or Medicaid insurance and Northeast residence. We identified a negative dose effect between the number of comorbidities and viral and antibody test positivity. Paediatric patients had reduced odds (OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.64) of a positive viral test but increased odds (OR=1.90, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.23) of a positive antibody test compared with those aged 18–34 years old.ConclusionsThis study identified sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with COVID-19 test positivity and provided real-world evidence demonstrating high antibody test concordance among viral-positive patients.

7.
PLoS Computational Biology ; 18(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842903

ABSTRACT

We find that epidemic resurgence, defined as an upswing in the effective reproduction number (R) of the contagion from subcritical to supercritical values, is fundamentally difficult to detect in real time. Inherent latencies in pathogen transmission, coupled with smaller and intrinsically noisier case incidence across periods of subcritical spread, mean that resurgence cannot be reliably detected without significant delays of the order of the generation time of the disease, even when case reporting is perfect. In contrast, epidemic suppression (where R falls from supercritical to subcritical values) may be ascertained 5–10 times faster due to the naturally larger incidence at which control actions are generally applied. We prove that these innate limits on detecting resurgence only worsen when spatial or demographic heterogeneities are incorporated. Consequently, we argue that resurgence is more effectively handled proactively, potentially at the expense of false alarms. Timely responses to recrudescent infections or emerging variants of concern are more likely to be possible when policy is informed by a greater quality and diversity of surveillance data than by further optimisation of the statistical models used to process routine outbreak data.

8.
Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing (Online) ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842836

ABSTRACT

The rapid spreading of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major health risk that the whole world is facing for the last two years. One of the main causes of the fast spreading of this virus is the direct contact of people with each other. There are many precautionary measures to reduce the spread of this virus;however, the major one is wearing face masks in public places. Detection of face masks in public places is a real challenge that needs to be addressed to reduce the risk of spreading the virus. To address these challenges, an automated system for face mask detection using deep learning (DL) algorithms has been proposed to control the spreading of this infectious disease effectively. This work applies deep convolution neural network (DCNN) and MobileNetV2-based transfer learning models for effectual face mask detection. We evaluated the performance of these two models on two separate datasets, i.e., our developed dataset by considering real-world scenarios having 2500  images (dataset-1) and the dataset taken from PyImage Search Reader Prajna Bhandary and some random sources (dataset-2). The experimental results demonstrated that MobileNetV2 achieved 98% and 99% accuracies on dataset-1 and dataset-2, respectively, whereas DCNN achieved 97% accuracy on both datasets. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that the MobileNetV2-based transfer learning model would be an alternative to the DCNN model for highly accurate face mask detection.

9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842821

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveIn this study, we aimed to find the seroprevalence of healthcare workers (HCWs) of Pakistan involved in the treatment and care of patients with COVID-19.SettingThis was a cross-sectional study and total of 15 000 HCWs involved in providing services and care to the patients with COVID-19 were randomly selected from all over Pakistan.ParticipantsInformed consent was taken from all participants and were included according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. All testing was done on serum samples for the qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies using Abbott Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. An index of 1.4 was used as a cut-off to mark reactive and non-reactive cases. SPSS V.23.0 was used for data analysis.OutcomeImmune status of the study population depicting seroprevalence among HCWs.ResultsOut of all the candidates, majority of the HCWs were men (61.9%) and were doctors (62.4%). The mean age of participants was 32.8 years (SD 8.7) and majority were asymptomatic (51.8%). In this study, 33% of the HCWs were reactive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody. Around 44% of the reactive cases were asymptomatic. The symptoms more significantly associated with seropositivity were: fever (OR 1.31;95% CI 1.16 to 1.48), headache (OR 2.43;95% CI 2.16 to 2.73), cough and shortness of breath (OR 2.10;95% CI 1.91 to 2.31), loss of sense of smell or taste (OR 3.70;95% CI 3.29 to 4.17) (p<0.001). Factors which showed significant association with the presence of antibodies were professional category (absolute risk (AR) 0.09;OR 1.46;95% CI 1.36 to 1.56), availability of protective masks (AR 0.02;OR 0.90;95% CI 0.84 to 0.96), safety goggles (AR 0.02;OR 0.90;95% CI 0.84 to 0.97) and living arrangements (AR 0.03;OR 1.12;95% CI 1.04 to 1.20) (p<0.05).ConclusionOur study showed a high seropositivity of HCWs dealing with patients with COVID-19 in Pakistan revealing significant association with professional category, nature of work place and precautions taken while performing duties.

10.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(5):E1-E3, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842791

ABSTRACT

[...]the authors state "many estimations methods [for infection date] homogenize substantial heterogeneities," but they disregard this in their demonstration of recovering infection date in Figure 2: "infection dates were estimated as symptom onset dates minus a median incubation period. "1(p2129) Although this is straightforward to calculate, it ignores the "substantial heterogeneities," and leads to invalid conclusions.2 Forthose interested in obtaining infection date, we would suggest deconvolution, which has been applied in infectious disease surveillance for decades,3 and has also been implemented for estimating the reproductive number of SARS-CoV-2 during the pandemic.2,4 There is another issue with these data that must be dealt with before making any inferences about the outbreak: outcome misclassification.4,5 Such errors will primarily be underreporting (i.e., suboptimal sensitivity of the surveillance program) through asymptomatic infection orthose symptomatic and unable or unwilling to test, but there may also be issues with diagnostic accuracy, including both false positives and false negatives. Burstyn I, Goldstein ND, Gustafson P. Towards reduction in bias in epidemic curves due to outcome misclassification through Bayesian analysis of time-series of laboratory test results: case study of COVID-19 in Alberta, Canada and Philadelphia, USA. Respond Ian Hennessee, MPH, Julie A. Clennon, PhD, MSc, Lance A. Waller, PhD, MS, Uriel Kitron, PhD, MPH, and J. Michael Bryan, PhD, MPH I ABOUT THE AUTHORS Ian Hennessee is a PhD candidate with the Gangarosa Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

11.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842709

ABSTRACT

IntroductionRegardless of having effective vaccines against COVID-19, containment measures such as enhanced physical distancing and good practice of personal hygiene remain the mainstay of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries across Asia have imposed these containment measures to varying extents. However, residents in different countries would have a differing degree of compliance to these containment measures potentially due to differences in the level of awareness and motivation in the early phase of pandemic.ObjectivesIn our study, we aimed to describe and correlate the level of knowledge and attitude with the level of compliance with personal hygiene and physical distancing practices among Asian countries in the early phase of pandemic.MethodsA multinational cross-sectional study was carried out using electronic surveys between May and June 2020 across 14 geographical areas. Subjects aged 21 years and above were invited to participate through social media, word of mouth and electronic mail.ResultsAmong the 2574 responses obtained, 762 (29.6%) participants were from East Asia and 1812 (70.4%) were from Southeast Asia (SEA). A greater proportion of participants from SEA will practise physical distancing as long as it takes (72.8% vs 60.6%). Having safe distancing practices such as standing more than 1 or 2 m apart (AdjOR 5.09 95% CI (1.08 to 24.01)) or more than 3 or 4 m apart (AdjOR 7.05 95% CI (1.32 to 37.67)), wearing a mask when they had influenza-like symptoms before the COVID-19 pandemic, preferring online news channels such as online news websites/applications (AdjOR 1.73 95% CI (1.21 to 2.49)) and social media (AdjOR 1.68 95% CI (1.13 to 2.50) as sources of obtaining information about COVID-19 and high psychological well-being (AdjOR 1.39 95% CI (1.04 to 1.87)) were independent factors associated with high compliance.ConclusionsWe found factors associated with high compliance behaviour against COVID-19 in the early phase of pandemic and it will be useful to consider them in risk assessment, communication and pandemic preparedness.

12.
BMJ Open ; 11(9), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842675

ABSTRACT

IntroductionSeveral treatment options are available for COVID-19 to date. However, the use of a combination of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) is necessary for jurisdictions to contain its spread. Although the implementation cost of NPIs may be low from the healthcare system perspective, it can be costly when considering the indirect costs from the societal perspective. COVID-19 vaccination campaigns have begun in several countries worldwide. Nonetheless, the quantity of vaccines available remain limited over the next 1 to 2 years. A tool for informing vaccine prioritisation that considers both cost and effectiveness will be highly useful. This study aims to identify the most cost-effective combination of COVID-19 response policies, using Singapore as an example.Methods and analysisAn age-stratified Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model will be used to generate the number of infections stratified by disease severity under different intervention scenarios. Polices of interest include test-trace-isolate, travel restriction, compulsory face mask and hygiene practices, social distancing, dexamethasone/remdesivir therapy and vaccination. The latest phase 3 trial results and the WHO Target Product Profiles for COVID-19 vaccines will be used to model vaccine characteristics. A cost (expected resource utilisation and productivity losses) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) will be attached to these outputs for a cost-utility analysis. The primary outcome measure will be the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio generated from the incremental cost of policy alternatives expressed as a ratio of the incremental benefits (QALYs gained). Efficacy of policy options will be gathered from literature review and from its observed impacts in Singapore. Cost data will be gathered from healthcare institutions, Ministry of Health and published data. Sensitivity analysis such as threshold analysis and scenario analysis will be conducted.Ethics and disseminationEthics approval was not required for this study. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals.

13.
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis ; 36(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842603

ABSTRACT

Uncovering risk factors playing roles in the severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid‐19) are important for understanding pathoimmunology of the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV‐2). Genetic variations in innate immune genes have been found to be associated with Covid‐19 infections. A single‐nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a promoter region of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α) gene, TNF‐α −308G>A, increases expression of TNF‐α protein against infectious diseases leading to immune dysregulations and organ damage. This study aims to discover associations between TNF‐α −308G>A SNP and Covid‐19 infection. Polymerase chain reaction‐restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR‐RFLP) was used for genotyping a general Kurdish population and Covid‐19 patients. The homozygous mutant (AA) genotype was found to be rare in the current studied population. Interestingly, the heterozygous (GA) genotype was significantly (p value = 0.0342) higher in the Covid‐19 patients than the general population. This suggests that TNF‐α −308G>A SNP might be associated with Covid‐19 infections. Further studies with larger sample sizes focusing on different ethnic populations are recommended.

14.
Mathematics ; 10(9):1583, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842594

ABSTRACT

As the novel coronavirus pandemic has spread globally since 2019, most countries in the world are conducting vaccination campaigns. First, based on the traditional SIR infectious disease model, we introduce a positive feedback mechanism associated with the vaccination rate, and consider the time delay from antibody production to antibody disappearance after vaccination. We establish an UVaV model for COVID-19 vaccination with a positive feedback mechanism and time-delay. Next, we verify the existence of the equilibrium of the formulated model and analyze its stability. Then, we analyze the existence of the Hopf bifurcation, and use the multiple time scales method to derive the normal form of the Hopf bifurcation, further determining the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the periodic solution of the bifurcation. Finally, we collect the parameter data of some countries and regions to determine the reasonable ranges of multiple parameters to ensure the authenticity of simulation results. Numerical simulations are carried out to verify the correctness of the theoretical results. We also give the critical time for controllable widespread antibody failure to provide a reference for strengthening vaccination time. Taking two groups of parameters as examples, the time of COVID-19 vaccine booster injection should be best controlled before 38.5 weeks and 35.3 weeks, respectively. In addition, study the impact of different expiration times on epidemic prevention and control effectiveness. We further explore the impact of changes in vaccination strategies on trends in epidemic prevention and control effectiveness. It could be concluded that, under the same epidemic vaccination strategy, the existence level of antibody is roughly the same, which is consistent with the reality.

15.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 23(1):18-23, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841783

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe economic losses worldwide. IBV has a broad tissue distribution with different viral loads in different tissues. Additionally, IBV can induce apoptosis in infected cells. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the role of the genetic background of chickens in viral load and the expression level of apoptotic genes in different tissues of two hybrids of commercial broiler chickens (Ross 308 and Cobb 500) challenged with IBV.

16.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(3), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841770

ABSTRACT

Since after World War II, the world has been grappling with the grumbling rising prevalence and economic burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The rise of these chronic diseases has reached an epidemic proportion and a melting point in many communities of the world. This has been made worse by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. While the world is still battling this debilitating reality, a more gruesome scenario is evolving in low-income and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Although these countries account for the highest poverty index in the world, they also account for a disproportionately higher burden of NCDs. More than 80% of NCD-related deaths are presently recorded among the LMICs. Ironically, although most sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries can be categorized as LMICs, yet communicable diseases (CDs) still constitute the highest disease burden in this region. However, based on global projections, SSAmay soon lose this 'advantage' and may become the region with the highest burden of NCDs by the year 2030. If the present trajectory is left unshattered, the resulting heavy double burden of CDs and NCDs will likely crumble the already fragile economy of most SSA countries and tilt the region into an unprecedented recession. A critical review of the present disease-centered healthcare management approach and adoption of a more evidence-based health promotion-centered management approach may be vital in salvaging the situation. This article briefly reviewed the global epidemiologic transition, compared the disease- and health promotion-centered healthcare models, and made a case for a change in health management strategy in SSA.

17.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 54(2):965-968, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841740

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease in poultry with huge economic impact and extremely difficult to control due to its multiple serotypes. The disease could be prevented by rapid diagnosis either molecular or serological test. However, the later test is inexpensive such as heamagglutination inhibition test (HI), but IBV fail to give Heamagglutination (HA) reaction without pretreatment. Therefore, we designed this study for preparation of IBV antigen by treating with different enzymes for HA reaction. IBV local isolates were characterized by SDS-PAGE and RT-PCR. The indigenous isolate HA antigens were treated with different proteolytic enzymes trypsin, neuraminidase and phospholipase C. The prepared antigen were stored at -86oC and used for HA test. All antigen prepared by different enzyme were found to give significant HA titer up to 7 log2 . During stability test antigen prepared by phospholipase C were found most stable up to six month by giving constant 7 log2 HA titer, while neuraminidase induced antigen were stable up to five months (7 log2). Trypsin treated antigen were readily lost its activity from 7 log2 to 2 log2 after two months of incubation. During specificity test all antigens showed specific effect on IBV by eliciting agglutination of RBCs while other avian viruses avian influenza (AI), new castle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were not affected by enzymatic inductions. Therefore, the antigen prepared by phospholipase C has been found to be more effective for HI test for rapid diagnosis of IBV during infection.

18.
Erciyes Medical Journal ; 44(3):347-349, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841711

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 might affect the hypothalam-ic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This paper presents a rare case of pituitary insufficiency diagnosed after CoV disease (COVID)-19. Case Report: On December 7, 2020, a 67-year-old male patient presented to the Endocrinology Department of Lokman Hekim University with weakness, weight loss, and abdominal pain lasting for 3 weeks. In his medical history, he had a positive real-time polymerase chain reaction test result for SARS-CoV-2 based on the nasopharyngeal swab analyzed on September 30. Central hypothyroidism, secondary adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and a low dehy-droepiandrosterone-sulfate level were detected in the laboratory examinations. Steroid therapy was initiated.

19.
Journal of Shandong University ; 59(5):15-21, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841670

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the worst pandemic and public health crisis across the globe once a century. This pandemic has caused huge losses in both human lives and global economy. Innate immunity is the first line of defense against pathogenic invasions. Extensive studies by scientists in China and the world have reported that SARS-CoV-2 can employ multiple strategies to evade host innate immunity, and such immune evasion mechanisms have become critical contributing factors for the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. On the other hand, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 has been found to be closely relevant with the pro-inflammatory responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. This paper provides a brief review to the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and innate immunity as well as inflammation.

20.
Annals of Financial Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840616

ABSTRACT

Utilizing a mixed data sampling (MIDAS) approach, we show that a daily newspaper-based index of uncertainty associated with infectious diseases can be used to predict, both in-and out-of-samples, low-frequency movements of output growth for the United States (US). The predictability of monthly industrial production growth and quarterly real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth during the current period of heightened economic uncertainty due to the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to be of tremendous value to policymakers. © 2022 World Scientific Publishing Company.

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