Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 243
Filter
1.
Pacific Conservation Biology ; 28(3):6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1886259

ABSTRACT

The pandemic resulting from COVID-19 infections had short-term positive impacts on the environment such as improvement in air and water quality. However, long term changes still have disastrous effects in terms of loosening of conservation policies and an increase in 'post-COVID-19' development subsidies to boost the economy at the expense of the environment. The prevention of habitat loss and zoonoses will avert future pandemics and measures to protect the local environment should be taken. The Republic of Korea follows the global trend in the weakness of long-term environmental answer to the pandemic and other on-going zoonoses, such as the avian influenza and African swine fever. Some of the current activities may even increase the risks of pandemic as mass culling of animals is widespread despite known risks. Instead, environmental protection and decreased encroachment may be the only safe way to proactively prevent the emergence of further pandemics.

2.
Chemistryselect ; 7(21):24, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1885452

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic infections belong to multiple infectious diseases transferred from animals to humans. Now, the treatment and diagnosis of zoonotic infections are perplexing due to genetic mutations, target site modifications, and multi-drug resistance. Despite their benefits, most diagnostic molecular techniques have certain limits in terms of repeatability and sensitivity, mainly due to the heterogeneity among the diverse family of zoonotic pathogens. Therefore, developing more efficient and cost-effective theranostics tools is the need of the hour to address these concerns. For this purpose, nanotechnology has revolutionized medicine with versatile potential capabilities for diagnosing and treating zoonosis via the targeted and controlled delivery of antimicrobial drugs via binding to the overexpressed infectious macrophages. Massive advancements have been made in fabricating novel nano-based formulations to control zoonosis based on the use of poly(ethylenimine)-conjugated nanomicelles, mannosylated thiolated chitosan (MTC)-coated PM-loaded PLGA NPs, mannose linked thiolated nanocarriers, adjuvanted pDNA hydrogel, arginine-based nanocarriers, quantum dots to treat and diagnose a wide range of zoonotic diseases, including zoonotic influenza, salmonellosis, leishmaniasis, rabies, brucellosis, Lyme Disease, tuberculosis, and other infections caused by West Nile Virus, emerging coronaviruses (SARS, MERS, COVID-19), in a preferentially targeted way. Recently developed anti-pathogen loaded-nanoformulations with enhanced cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and hemocompatibility have shown the ability to cross biological barriers when orally administrated. Therefore, this article reviewed the latest milestones and future growth areas in the field of efficient theranostics platforms to manage zoonotic infections.

3.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(5)2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887229

ABSTRACT

Viral and bacterial diseases are among the greatest concerns of humankind since ancient times. Despite tremendous pharmacological progress, there is still a need to search for new drugs that could treat or support the healing processes. A rich source of bioactive compounds with antiviral potency include plants such as black chokeberry and elderberry. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antiviral ability of an originally designed double-standardized blend of extracts from Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot and Sambucus nigra L. (EAM-ESN) or separated extracts of A. melanocarpa (EAM) or S. nigra (ESN) against four human respiratory tract viruses: influenza A virus (A/H1N1), betacoronavirus-1 (HCoV-OC43) belonging to the same ß-coronaviruses as the current pandemic SARS-CoV-2, human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1), and human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5). Antiviral assays (AVAs) were used to evaluate the antiviral activity of the plant extracts in a cell-present environment with extracts tested before, simultaneously, or after viral infection. The virus replication was assessed using the CPE scale or luminescent assay. The EAM-ESN blend strongly inhibited A/H1N1 replication as well as HCoV-OC43, while having a limited effect against HHV-1 and HAdV-5. This activity likely depends mostly on the presence of the extract of S. nigra. However, the EAM-ESN blend possesses more effective inhibitory activity toward virus replication than its constituent extracts. A post-infection mechanism of action of the EAM-ESN make this blend the most relevant for potential drugs and supportive treatments; thus, the EAM-ESN blend might be considered as a natural remedy in mild, seasonal respiratory viral infections.

4.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research ; 56(2):S121-S136, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884616

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing is the remodeling of already existing drugs to reduce the time frame, costs, and efforts in developing a new novel drug. This strategy has secured significant momentum in the previous decade. It overcomes the snags and pitfalls in the traditional means of drug discovery. This core research strategy has now become the sole approach to containing many deadly diseases that have no cure in the present. In astound, for pandemics like COVID-19 that is spreading like a wildfire worldwide, large-scale research programs and trials have been carried out to identify and modify existing drugs to counter the novel virus. Thus, this technology of drug repurposing offers a new lease of life, and greatly promotes the progress of the medicine, health, and pharma sectors. The purpose of this study is to understand the current status of drug repurposing in the field of virology, bacteriology, mycology, and oncology for clinical translatability.

5.
Vet Microbiol ; 271: 109491, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882620

ABSTRACT

Viral infectious pathogens, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza virus, can cause extremely high infection rates and mortality in humans. Therefore, it is urgent to develop an effective vaccine against coronavirus and influenza virus infection. Herein, we used the influenza virus as a vector to express the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF) protein of the influenza C virus. We then evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of this design strategy through experiments in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the chimeric viruses could stably express the HEF protein and the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD at a high level. BALB/c mice, infected with the chimeric virus, exhibited mild clinical symptoms, yet produced high specific antibody levels against RBD and HEF, including neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, high neutralizing antibodies could be retained in the sera of mice for at least 20 weeks. Altogether, our data provided a new strategy for developing safe and effective COVID-19 and influenza virus vaccines.

6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(5): 857-863, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879506

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Viruses are responsible for two-thirds of all acute respiratory tract infections. This study aims to retrospectively detect respiratory tract viruses in patients from all age groups who visited the hospital. METHODOLOGY: A total of 1592 samples from 1416 patients with respiratory tract symptoms were sent from several clinics to the Molecular Microbiology Laboratory at Gazi University Hospital from February 2016 to January 2019. Nucleic acid extraction from nasopharyngeal swabs, throat swabs or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples sent to our laboratory was done using a commercial automated system. Extracted nucleic acids were amplified by a commercial multiplex-real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method, which can detect 18 viral respiratory pathogens. RESULTS: Among 1592 samples, 914 (57.4%) were positive for respiratory viruses. The most prevalent were rhinovirus (25.2%) and influenza A virus (12.1%), the least prevalent was the bocavirus (2.6%). Rhinovirus was the most detected as a single agent (21.2%, 194/914) among all positive cases, followed by coronavirus (9.3%, 85/914). The detection rates of coronavirus, human adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus A/B, human parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus-A/B, human parechovirus, enterovirus and influenza B virus were 9.9%, 8%, 7.7%, 5%, 3.4%, 3.1%, 3%, and 2.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The most detected viral agents in our study were influenza A virus and rhinovirus. Laboratory diagnosis of respiratory viruses is helpful to prevent unnecessary antibiotic use and is essential in routine diagnostics for antiviral treatment. Multiplex Real-time PCR method is fast and useful for the diagnosis of viral respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Enterovirus Infections , Influenza, Human , Picornaviridae Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Turkey/epidemiology
7.
Trends Biochem Sci ; 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866217

ABSTRACT

The antiviral defense directed by the RNAi pathway employs distinct specificity and effector mechanisms compared with other immune responses. The specificity of antiviral RNAi is programmed by siRNAs processed from virus-derived double-stranded RNA by Dicer endonuclease. Argonaute-containing RNA-induced silencing complex loaded with the viral siRNAs acts as the effector to mediate specific virus clearance by RNAi. Recent studies have provided evidence for the production and antiviral function of virus-derived siRNAs in both undifferentiated and differentiated mammalian cells infected with a range of RNA viruses when the cognate virus-encoded suppressor of RNAi (VSR) is rendered nonfunctional. In this review, we discuss the function, mechanism, and evolutionary origin of the validated mammalian VSRs and cell culture assays for their identification.

8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(16): 4685-4696, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877814

ABSTRACT

Respiratory illness caused by influenza virus is a serious public health problem worldwide. As the symptoms of influenza virus infection are similar to those of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, it is essential to distinguish these two viruses. Therefore, to properly respond to a pathogen, a detection method that is capable of rapid and accurate diagnosis in a hospital or at home is required. To satisfy this need, we applied loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technique, along with a system to analyze the results without specialized equipment, a lateral flow assay (LFA). Using the platform developed in this study, all processes, from sample preparation to detection, can be performed without special equipment. Unlike existing PCR methods, the nucleic acid amplification can be performed in the field because hot packs do not require electricity. Thus, the designed platform can provide rapid results without the need to transport the samples to a laboratory or hospital. These advantages are not limited to operations in developing countries with poor access to medical systems. In conclusion, the developed technology is a promising tool for infectious disease management that allows for rapid identification of infectious diseases and appropriate treatment of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthomyxoviridae , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875817

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a vaccine preventable disease and vaccination remains the most effective method of controlling the morbidity and mortality of seasonal influenza, especially with respect to risk groups. To date, three types of influenza vaccines have been licensed: inactivated, live-attenuated, and recombinant haemagglutinin vaccines. Effectiveness studies allow an assessment of the positive effects of influenza vaccines in the field. The effectiveness of current influenza is suboptimal, being estimated as 40% to 60% when the vaccines strains are antigenically well-matched with the circulating viruses. This review focuses on influenza viruses and vaccines and the role of vaccine effectiveness studies for evaluating the benefits of influenza vaccines. Overall, influenza vaccines are effective against morbidity and mortality in all age and risk groups, especially in young children and older adults. However, the effectiveness is dependent on several factors such as the age of vaccinees, the match between the strain included in the vaccine composition and the circulating virus, egg-adaptations occurring during the production process, and the subject's history of previous vaccination.

10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(21): e172, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) such as extensive and comprehensive hand hygiene, mask-wearing, and social distancing have been implemented globally. This study aimed to investigate changes in respiratory viruses other than severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that occurred following the implementation of these NPIs. METHODS: From January 2018 to December 2021, influenza-like illness patient specimens and specimens from the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Surveillance System were analyzed at the Incheon Metropolitan City Institute of Public Health and Environment. Oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swab samples from respiratory infection patients were transferred in a virus transport medium at 4°C. After RNA or DNA extraction, respiratory virus-specific genes for human influenza virus (IFV), adenovirus (ADV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (hRV), human coronavirus, human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus were detected by individual real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: A total 3,334 samples were collected. After NPI was implemented, the detection of respiratory viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 decreased overall. The yearly detection rate of respiratory viruses was decreased from 69.5% (399/574) in 2018 and 73.3% (505/689) in 2019 to 19.8% (206/1,043) in 2020 and 34.9% (365/1,028) in 2021. The epidemic was more prominent in respiratory viruses such as IFV and RSV, which were considered dominant viruses, especially those with viral envelopes. Among viruses that were not considered dominant, hRV showed no clear change before and after NPI, while PIV showed a rapid increase compared to the existing dominant viruses between October-December 2021, after the increase in the number of gatherings started at the end of September and the "Relaxing COVID19 and mitigation policy," which was implemented on November 1. CONCLUSION: NPI seems to have influenced the isolation and transmission of respiratory viruses in South Korea. In the future, additional studies focusing on the isolation and transmission patterns of respiratory viruses following NPI are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics
11.
J Proteome Res ; 21(7): 1616-1627, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873398

ABSTRACT

In this study, we used multiple enzyme digestions, coupled with higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) and electron-transfer/higher-energy collision dissociation (EThcD) fragmentation to develop a mass-spectrometric (MS) method for determining the complete protein sequence of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The method was refined on an mAb of a known sequence, a SARS-CoV-1 antireceptor binding domain (RBD) spike monoclonal antibody. The data were searched using Supernovo to generate a complete template-assisted de novo sequence for this and two SARS-CoV-2 mAbs of known sequences resulting in correct sequences for the variable regions and correct distinction of Ile and Leu residues. We then used the method on a set of 25 antihemagglutinin (HA) influenza antibodies of unknown sequences and determined high confidence sequences for >99% of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs). The heavy-chain and light-chain genes were cloned and transfected into cells for recombinant expression followed by affinity purification. The recombinant mAbs displayed binding curves matching the original mAbs with specificity to the HA influenza antigen. Our findings indicate that this methodology results in almost complete antibody sequence coverage with high confidence results for CDR regions on diverse mAb sequences.

12.
Antibiotiki i Khimioterapiya ; 66(7-8):50-66, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1870323

ABSTRACT

The review presents materials describing the seaweed-derived sulfated polysaccharides (SPS) as potential means for pre¬vention and treatment of \iral diseases of the respiratory tract, mainly influenza and COVID-19. The literature materials on the pathogenetic targets of influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2, on the antiviral potential of SPS derived from red, brown and green algae, as well as on the mechanisms of antiviral action of these unique compounds are summarized. Seaweed SPS are characterized by high antiviral activity, good solubility, and almost complete absence of toxicity. Pathogens of res¬piratory infections do not form resistance under the SPS influence. The abovementioned facts allow us to consider these.

13.
Euro Surveill ; 27(15)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869326

ABSTRACT

In the WHO European Region, COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions continued slowing influenza circulation in the 2021/22 season, with reduced characterisation data. A(H3) predominated and, in some countries, co-circulated with A(H1)pdm09 and B/Victoria viruses. No B/Yamagata virus detections were confirmed. Substantial proportions of characterised circulating virus subtypes or lineages differed antigenically from their respective northern hemisphere vaccine components. Appropriate levels of influenza virus characterisations should be maintained until the season end and in future seasons, when surveillance is adapted to integrate SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , World Health Organization
14.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 406, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-targeted whole genome sequencing is a powerful tool to comprehensively identify constituents of microbial communities in a sample. There is no need to direct the analysis to any identification before sequencing which can decrease the introduction of bias and false negatives results. It also allows the assessment of genetic aberrations in the genome (e.g., single nucleotide variants, deletions, insertions and copy number variants) including in noncoding protein regions. METHODS: The performance of four different random priming amplification methods to recover RNA viral genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 were compared in this study. In method 1 (H-P) the reverse transcriptase (RT) step was performed with random hexamers whereas in methods 2-4 RT incorporating an octamer primer with a known tag. In methods 1 and 2 (K-P) sequencing was applied on material derived from the RT-PCR step, whereas in methods 3 (SISPA) and 4 (S-P) an additional amplification was incorporated before sequencing. RESULTS: The SISPA method was the most effective and efficient method for non-targeted/random priming whole genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 that we tested. The SISPA method described in this study allowed for whole genome assembly of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in mixed samples. We determined the limit of detection and characterization of SARS-CoV-2 virus which was 103 pfu/ml (Ct, 22.4) for whole genome assembly and 101 pfu/ml (Ct, 30) for metagenomics detection. CONCLUSIONS: The SISPA method is predominantly useful for obtaining genome sequences from RNA viruses or investigating complex clinical samples as no prior sequence information is needed. It might be applied to monitor genomic virus changes, virus evolution and can be used for fast metagenomics detection or to assess the general picture of different pathogens within the sample.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , RNA Viruses , Genome, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
15.
Malta Medical Journal ; 34(1):1-3, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1866047
16.
Cell Rep ; 39(9): 110897, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866954

ABSTRACT

Influenza viruses circulated at very low levels during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, and population immunity against these viruses is low. An H3N2 strain (3C.2a1b.2a2) with a hemagglutinin (HA) that has several substitutions relative to the 2021-22 H3N2 vaccine strain is dominating the 2021-22 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. Here, we show that one of these substitutions eliminates a key glycosylation site on HA and alters sialic acid binding. Using glycan array profiling, we show that the 3C.2a1b.2a2 H3 maintains binding to an extended biantennary sialoside and replicates to high titers in human airway cells. We find that antibodies elicited by the 2021-22 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine poorly neutralize the 3C.2a1b.2a2 H3N2 strain. Together, these data indicate that 3C.2a1b.2a2 H3N2 viruses efficiently replicate in human cells and escape vaccine-elicited antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Pandemics , Seasons
17.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 10(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863200

ABSTRACT

Context: COVID-19 and influenza coinfection may increase mortality and morbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recognizing the differences and similarities between COVID-19 and influenza helps us diagnose and treat these 2 diseases. Accordingly, we aimed to compare virologic, clinical, paraclinical, and radiological features and prophylactic and therapeutic management of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infections. We also provided an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza coinfection in children. Evidence Acquisition: Electronic databases, including Cochrane Collaboration, PubMed, Google Scholar, and EMBASE, were searched for the articles published in English language using the following keywords: “influenza virus,” “SARS-CoV-2 virus,” “COVID-19,” “comparison,” “coinfection,” “management,” “treatment,” “antiviral therapy,” “vaccines,” “children,” and “adults.” Boolean op-erations (AND and OR) were used to refine the search. No date limitation was applied. Results: SARS-CoV-2 and influenza are both RNA viruses with different receptors. The reproductive rate of SARS-CoV-2 is higher than influenza. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly adults, have higher rates of anosmia/ageusia. Organ involvement occurs more frequently in COVID-19 cases, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs especially in children. Disease severity, excessive immune response, and mortality are higher in SARS-CoV-2. Radiological peripheral lesions and ground-glass appearance are characteristic of COVID-19 infection. It is important to rule out influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with respiratory problems during the pandemic. Timely prescription of currently available antiviral drugs is essential. Conclusions: Treatment of patients suspected of having a coinfection is determined by the patient’s condition and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluation.

18.
Turkish Archives of Pediatrics ; 57(3):354-359, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863168

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the distribution and characteristics of respiratory viral pathogens and to assess the epidemiological data, clinical features, and prognoses of infected children in a pediatric emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: Between September 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021, patients aged between 0 and 18 years arrived at the pediatric emergency department and were tested by nasopha-ryngeal/tracheal specimen polymerase chain reaction for both SARS-CoV-2 and other viral respiratory pathogens. Demographics, symptoms, laboratory and radiologic investigations, respiratory viruses detected by PCR, presence of co-infection and co-infecting viruses, need for respiratory support, hospitalization, length of hospital stay, and prognosis were recorded. Results: There were 327 patients for whom PCR tests were performed and 118 (36.0%) of them had positive results for SARS-CoV-2 and/or other respiratory viruses. Rhinovirus was the most commonly detected pathogen with 74 (62.7%) cases, followed by enterovirus with 38 (32.2%) and adenovirus with 20 (16.9%) cases. There was no detection of influenza virus or respiratory syncytial. SARS-CoV-2 PCR results were positive in 14 (11.9%) cases and there was only 1 co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 occurring together with rhinovirus. For 43 (36.4%) patients, there was co-infection, and among co-infections, the most common was that of rhinovirus and enterovi-rus, seen in 37 (86.0%) cases. Conclusion: A decrease was observed in the positivity rate of respiratory viral pathogens, while no cases of influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus were observed in our study. Circulating viruses may change due to multifactorial approaches during the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 184-189, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851260

ABSTRACT

CURRENT SITUATION: The global influenza surveillance and response system (GISRS), coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO), is a global framework for surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses, data collection, laboratory capacity building, genomic data submission and archival, standardization, and calibration of reagents and vaccine strains, production of seasonal influenza vaccines and creating a facilitatory regulatory environment for the same. GAPS: WHO-designated national influenza centers (NICs) are entrusted with establishing surveillance in their respective countries. National and subnational surveillance remains weak in most parts of the world because of varying capacities of the NICs, lack of funds, poor human and veterinary surveillance mechanisms, lack of intersectoral coordination, and varying commitments of the local government. WAY FORWARD: As influenza viruses have a wide variety of nonhuman hosts, it is critical to strengthen surveillance at local levels for timely detection of untypable or novel strains with potential to cause epidemics or pandemics. In this article, we have proposed possible strategies to strengthen and expand local capacities for respiratory virus surveillance through the designated NICs of the WHO.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Global Health , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , World Health Organization
20.
mBio ; 13(3): e0044522, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846328

ABSTRACT

To successfully infect, viruses must respond to cues that promote their genome delivery into host cells. These keys to virus entry frequently reside inside endocytic vesicles. In a recent mBio article, Poston et al. (D. Poston, Y. Weisblum, A. Hobbs, and P. D. Bieniasz, mBio 13:e0300221, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.03002-21) identified and characterized protein complexes generating endocytic environments favorable for virus entry. These included retromer-associated vacuolar protein sorting 29 (VPS29) proteins. Without VPS29, endosomes lacked cathepsin activities, making them incapable of supporting those viruses in which endosomal proteolysis triggers entry. These protease-dependent viruses encompass several zoonotic filoviruses and coronaviruses, including recent SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. The valuable findings of Poston et al. reveal retromer complexes as master keys for select endosomal virus entry processes and raise the possibility that threatening coronaviruses might be resisted through targeted inactivation of components controlling endosome structure and function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Internalization , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL