Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.878
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Public Health in Practice ; JOUR: 100339,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105787

ABSTRACT

Introduction Malawi experienced two waves of COVID-19 between April 2020 and February 2021. A High negative impact of COVID-19 was experienced in the second wave, with increased hospital admissions that overwhelmed the healthcare system. This paper describes a protocol to implement a telephone-based syndromic surveillance system to assist public health leaders in the guidance, implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies for COVID-19 prevention and control in Malawi. Study design This is a serial cross-sectional telephonic-based national survey focusing on the general population and People living with HIV and AIDS. Methods We will conduct a serial cross-sectional telephone survey to assess self-reported recent and current experience of influenza-like illness (ILI)/COVID-19-like-illness (CLI), household deaths, access to routine health services, and knowledge related to COVID-19. Structured questionnaires will be administered to two populations: 1) the general population and 2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at EGPAF-supported health facilities. Electronic data collection forms using secure tablets will be used based on randomly selected mobile numbers from electronic medical records (EMR) for PLHIV. We will use random digit dialing (RDD) for the general population to generate phone numbers to dial respondents. The technique uses computer-generated random numbers, using the 10-digit basic structure of mobile phone numbers for the two existing mobile phone companies in Malawi. Interviews will be conducted only with respondents that will verbally consent. A near real-time online dashboard will be developed to help visualize the data and share results with key policymakers. Conclusion The designed syndromic surveillance system is low-cost and feasible to implement under COVID-19 restrictions, with no physical contact with respondents and limited movement of the study teams and communities. The system will allow estimation proportions of those reporting ILI/CLI among the general population and PLHIV on ART and monitor trends over time to detect locations with possible COVID-19 transmission. Reported household deaths in Malawi, access to health services, and COVID-19 knowledge will be monitored to assess the burden and impact on communities in Malawi.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105085

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the differences between elderly patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or influenza A H1N1 virus infections. METHODS: We contrasted two absolute groups of patients (age ≥ 60) infected with either COVID-19 (n = 222) or influenza A H1N1 virus infections (n = 96). Propensity score matching was used to reduce the imbalance between the two matched groups. The clinical features, imaging presentations, therapies, and prognosis data were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The influenza patients showed higher proportions of cough, expectoration, fatigue and shortness of breath. Higher counts of lymphocytes, hemoglobin and creatine kinase and lower counts of WBCs, neutrophils, blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were found in the COVID-19 patients. Regarding the imaging characteristics, bilateral pneumonia was the most abnormal pattern in the two groups of patients. The incidence of ARDS or death was lower among the COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients are more concealed than those of influenza patients. Fewer symptoms of sputum production, fatigue, and shortness of breath combined with lower counts of WBCs, neutrophils and CRP are possible predictive factors of COVID-19 among elderly patients.

3.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104295, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A comparison of pneumonias due to SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, in terms of clinical course and predictors of outcomes, might inform prognosis and resource management. We aimed to compare clinical course and outcome predictors in SARS-CoV-2 and influenza pneumonia using multi-state modelling and supervised machine learning on clinical data among hospitalised patients. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 (March-December 2020) or influenza (Jan 2015-March 2020) pneumonia had the composite of hospital mortality and hospice discharge as the primary outcome. Multi-state models compared differences in oxygenation/ventilatory utilisation between pneumonias longitudinally throughout hospitalisation. Differences in predictors of outcome were modelled using supervised machine learning classifiers. FINDINGS: Among 2,529 hospitalisations with SARS-CoV-2 and 2,256 with influenza pneumonia, the primary outcome occurred in 21% and 9%, respectively. Multi-state models differentiated oxygen requirement progression between viruses, with SARS-CoV-2 manifesting rapidly-escalating early hypoxemia. Highly contributory classifier variables for the primary outcome differed substantially between viruses. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 and influenza pneumonia differ in presentation, hospital course, and outcome predictors. These pathogen-specific differential responses in viral pneumonias suggest distinct management approaches should be investigated. FUNDING: This project was supported by NIH/NCATS UL1 TR002345, NIH/NCATS KL2 TR002346 (PGL), the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation grant 2015215 (PGL), NIH/NHLBI R35 HL140026 (CSC), and a Big Ideas Award from the BJC HealthCare and Washington University School of Medicine Healthcare Innovation Lab and NIH/NIGMS R35 GM142992 (PS).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
4.
Covid-19 and Parkinsonism, Vol. 165 ; CHAP: 251-262,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102161

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related disorders globally. The pathophysiological mechanisms and precipitating factors underlying PD manifestations, including genetic and environmental parameters, inflammation/stress and ageing, remain elusive. Speculations about whether the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic could be a pivotal factor in affecting the prevalence and severity of PD or triggering a wave of new-onset parkinsonism in both the near and distant future have recently become very popular, with researchers wondering if there is a changing trend in current parkinsonism cases. Could the current understanding of the Covid-19 pathophysiology provide clues for an impending rise of parkinsonism cases in the future? Are there any lessons to learn from previous pandemics? Our aim was to look into these questions and available current literature in order to investigate if Covid-19 could constitute a cardinal event affecting the parkinsonism landscape.

5.
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2098202

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the intellectual structure of the literature addressing "epidemic/pandemic" and "aviation industry" through a bibliometric approach to the literature from 1991 to 2021. The final count of 856 publications was collected from Web of Science and analyzed by CiteSpace (version 5.8.R1) and VOS Viewer. Visualization tools are used to perform the co-citation, co-occurrence, and thematic-based cluster analysis. The results highlight the most prominent nodes (articles, authors, journals, countries, and institutions) within the literature on "epidemic/pandemic" and "aviation industry." Furthermore, this study conceptualizes and compares the growth of literature before theCOVID-19 pandemic and during the COVID-19 ("hotspot") era. The conclusion is that the aviation industry is an engine for global economics on the road to recovery from COVID-19, in which soft (human) resources can play an integral part.

6.
J Virol ; : e0134122, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097919

ABSTRACT

We observed the interference between two prevalent respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus (IAV) (H1N1), and characterized its molecular underpinnings in alveolar epithelial cells (A549). We found that RSV induces higher levels of interferon beta (IFN-ß) production than IAV and that IFN-ß priming confers higher-level protection against infection with IAV than with RSV. Consequently, we focused on the sequential infection scheme of RSV and then IAV. Using A549 wild-type (WT), IFNAR1 knockout (KO), IFNLR1 KO, and IFNAR1-IFNLR1 double-KO cell lines, we found that both IFN-ß and IFN-λ are necessary for maximum protection against subsequent infection. Immunostaining revealed that preinfection with RSV partitions the cell population into a subpopulation susceptible to subsequent infection with IAV and an IAV-proof subpopulation. Strikingly, the susceptible cells turned out to be those already compromised and efficiently expressing RSV, whereas the bystander, interferon-primed cells are resistant to IAV infection. Thus, virus-virus exclusion at the cell population level is not realized through direct competition for a shared ecological niche (single cell) but rather is achieved with the involvement of specific cytokines induced by the host's innate immune response. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are common recurrent respiratory infectants that show a relatively high coincidence. We demonstrated that preinfection with RSV partitions the cell population into a subpopulation susceptible to subsequent infection with IAV and an IAV-proof subpopulation. The susceptible cells are those already compromised and efficiently expressing RSV, whereas the bystander cells are resistant to IAV infection. The cross-protective effect critically depends on IFN-ß and IFN-λ signaling and thus ensues when the proportion of cells preinfected with RSV is relatively low yet sufficient to trigger a pervasive antiviral state in bystander cells. Our study suggests that mild, but not severe, respiratory infections may have a short-lasting protective role against more dangerous respiratory viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with historically low influenza circulation during the 2020-2021 season, followed by increase in influenza circulation during the 2021-2022 US season. The 2a.2 subgroup of the influenza A(H3N2) 3C.2a1b subclade that predominated was antigenically different from the vaccine strain. METHODS: To understand the effectiveness of the 2021-2022 vaccine against hospitalized influenza illness, a multi-state sentinel surveillance network enrolled adults aged ≥18 years hospitalized with acute respiratory illness (ARI) and tested for influenza by a molecular assay. Using the test-negative design, vaccine effectiveness (VE) was measured by comparing the odds of current season influenza vaccination in influenza-positive case-patients and influenza-negative, SARS-CoV-2-negative controls, adjusting for confounders. A separate analysis was performed to illustrate bias introduced by including SARS-CoV-2 positive controls. RESULTS: A total of 2334 patients, including 295 influenza cases (47% vaccinated), 1175 influenza- and SARS-CoV-2 negative controls (53% vaccinated), and 864 influenza-negative and SARS-CoV-2 positive controls (49% vaccinated), were analyzed. Influenza VE was 26% (95%CI: -14 to 52%) among adults aged 18-64 years, -3% (95%CI: -54 to 31%) among adults aged ≥65 years, and 50% (95%CI: 15 to 71%) among adults 18-64 years without immunocompromising conditions. Estimated VE decreased with inclusion of SARS-CoV-2-positive controls. CONCLUSIONS: During a season where influenza A(H3N2) was antigenically different from the vaccine virus, vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of influenza hospitalization in younger immunocompetent adults. However, vaccination did not provide protection in adults ≥65 years of age. Improvements in vaccines, antivirals, and prevention strategies are warranted.

8.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090351

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic circumstances have varied the pathogens related to acute respiratory infections (ARI), and most specialists have ignored them due to SARS-CoV-2's similar symptomatology. We identify respiratory pathogens with multiplex PCR in samples with presumptive SARS-CoV-2 but negative RT-qPCR results. We performed a retrospective transversal study employing clinical data and nasopharyngeal swab samples from patients with suspected clinical SARS-CoV-2 infection and a negative PCR result in a private laboratory in Lima, Peru. The samples were analyzed using the FilmArray™ respiratory panel. Of 342 samples, we detected at least one pathogen in 50% of the samples. The main ones were rhinovirus (54.38%), influenza A(H3N2) (22.80%), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (14.04%). The clinical characteristics were sore throat (70.18%), cough (58.48%), nasal congestion (56.43%), and fever (40.06%). Only 41.46% and 48.78% of patients with influenza met the definition of influenza-like illness (ILI) by the World Health Organization (WHO) (characterized by cough and fever) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (characterized by fever and cough and sore throat), respectively. A higher prevalence of influenza was associated with ILI by WHO (aPR: 2.331) and ILI by CDC (aPR: 1.892), which was not observed with other respiratory viruses. The clinical characteristic associated with the increased prevalence of rhinovirus was nasal congestion (aPR: 1.84). For patients with ARI and negative PCR results, the leading respiratory pathogens detected were rhinovirus, influenza, and RSV. Less than half of patients with influenza presented ILI, although its presence was specific to the disease.

10.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0138622, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088429

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to contain the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic drastically reduced human-to-human interactions, decreasing the circulation of other respiratory viruses, as well. Consequently, influenza virus circulation, which is normally responsible for 3 to 5 million hospitalizations per year globally, was significantly reduced. With the downscaling of the NPI countermeasures, there is a concern for increased influenza disease, particularly in individuals suffering from postacute effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To investigate this, we performed a sequential influenza H1N1 infection 4 weeks after an initial SARS-CoV-2 infection in ferrets. Upon H1N1 infection, ferrets that were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 showed an increased tendency to develop clinical signs, compared to the control H1N1-infected animals. A histopathological analysis indicated only a slight increase for type II pneumocyte hyperplasia and bronchitis. Thus, the effects of the sequential infection appeared minor. However, ferrets were infected with B.1.351-SARS-CoV-2, the beta variant of concern, which replicated poorly in our model. The histopathology of the respiratory organs was mostly resolved 4 weeks after the SARS-CoV-2 infection, with only reminiscent histopathological features in the upper respiratory tract. Nevertheless, SARS-CoV-2 specific cellular and humoral responses were observed, confirming an established infection. On account of a modest trend toward the enhancement of the influenza disease, even upon a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, our findings suggest that a stronger SARS-CoV-2 infection and its consequent, long-term effects could have a greater impact on the outcome of disease after a sequential influenza infection. Hence, the influenza vaccination of individuals suffering from postacute SARS-CoV-2 infection effects may be considered an avertible measure for such a scenario. IMPORTANCE During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of face masks, social distancing, and isolation were effective not only in decreasing the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 but also in reducing other respiratory viruses, such as influenza. With fewer restrictions currently in place, influenza is slowly returning. In the meantime, people who are still suffering from long-COVID could be more vulnerable to an influenza virus infection and could develop a more severe influenza disease. This study provides directions to the effect of a previous SARS-CoV-2 exposure on influenza disease severity in a ferret model. This model is highly valuable to test sequential infections under controlled settings for translation to humans. We could not induce clear long-term COVID-19 effects, as the SARS-CoV-2 infections in the ferrets were mild. However, we still observed a slight increase in influenza disease severity compared to ferrets that had not encountered SARS-CoV-2 before. Therefore, it may be advisable to include long-COVID patients as a risk group for influenza vaccination.

11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2115751, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087649

ABSTRACT

In China, a free influenza vaccination policy is being implemented among individuals aged 70 years and over in Zhejiang province during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in reducing hospitalization and mortality in the elderly. We used data from the Regional Health Information Platform in Yinzhou located in Zhejiang province and applied a regression discontinuity design to estimate the intention-to-treat effect on admission and mortality rates by month of age in the population who was near the age of 70 years threshold. At age 70 years, the influenza vaccination rate increased by 29.1% (95% CI, 28.2% to 29.9%) compared to those under 70 in the study population. When turning age 70 years, the potential effectiveness of receiving influenza vaccine was 8.2% (95% CI, -36.8% to 51.3%) for total hospitalization and the evaluation of vaccine effectiveness was 13.1% (95% CI, -34.2 to 61.8) for the all-cause mortality. An increase in the influenza vaccination rate was associated with a weak decline in most outcomes, but no significance was found for all outcomes. Influenza vaccination had a limited effect on hospital admission and mortality for the free influenza vaccination program that can be related to the low vaccination rate among the Chinese elderly. Supplementation strategies and future studies may be needed to expand immunization coverage and validate this finding, and further provide a reference for other cities to promote the free influenza vaccination policy in China, especially under circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(12): 1381-1387, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory illness (ARI) remains the leading cause of global morbidity. Its primary etiology is viral; nevertheless, viral pathogen identification is limited. Clinical information about Latin America's viral etiology, outcomes, and severity is unknown. This study aims to identify the clinical burden of respiratory viral infections, severity, and adult outcomes. METHODS: This multicentric, population-based study was conducted through the Health Institute of Bogotá, Colombia, including adult patients diagnosed with ARI between 2013 and 2019. Data collection followed ARI public health surveillance program. Incidence, etiological pathogens, and mortality were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 2304 patients were included in the study. ARI was most frequently reported in 2018 (23.3% [538/2304]). Incidence varies between years, maintaining a range between 3.5 and 8.4. The most frequent clinical diagnosis was pneumonia in 59.1%. Etiological viral detection was obtained in 21.5% of patients [495/2304], principally by Influenza A. Mortality was 21.8%, and ICU admission was 7.3%. The type of event did not predict the causative pathogen, disease severity, or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: ARI is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Colombia. ARI incidence varies per year and is caused mainly by Influenza A. The classification used in the surveillance program does not correlate with viral etiology, disease severity, and mortality.

13.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(12): 1445-1449, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085399

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic still ongoing, the annual season of influenza and other respiratory virus epidemics has arrived. Specimens from patients suspected of respiratory viruses infection were collected. Viral detection was performed following RNA extraction and real-time RT-PCR. During the study period, we received and tested a total of 606 specimens. Rhinovirus virus was the viral type most prevalent, detected in 186 (45.47%) specimens. The age range of patients positive for influenza A, influenza A (H1N1), and influenza B was 18 days to 13 years. With female prevalence for this viral type, cough and asthma were the main clinical manifestations presented by this viral type. Our results indicate that rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, metapneumoviruses, and influenza are among the most important agents of ARI in pediatrics. The epidemic period of respiratory infections observed in Goiânia can be useful for planning and implementing some prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Humans , Female , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Prevalence , Pandemics , Viruses/genetics , Rhinovirus/genetics
14.
Acta Chimica Sinica ; JOUR(9):1338-1350, 80.
Article in Chinese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082906

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has caused serious harm to people's healthy life and the normal operation of society. People have paid more attention to the prevention and control of microbial contamination such as bacteria and viruses. Blocking the spread of disease-causing microorganisms through indirect contact with humans through contaminated surfaces, or avoiding direct contact with them, is the primary way to protect us from harm. Current solutions include designing antibacterial and antiviral surface coatings and developing personal protective equipment made from self-cleaning films or fabrics. In this paper, the work of several widely studied metals, metal oxides, metal organic framework materials, etc. with antibacterial and antiviral functionality is reviewed, their microbial inactivation mechanisms as well as performance are summarized and discussed. In the end, the future perspectives on emerging research directions and challenges in the development of antibacterial and antiviral coatings and films are presented.

15.
16.
Non-conventional in English | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754729

ABSTRACT

This is the eighth report for the 2021-2022 influenza season. The June 2022 characterization report, gave a breakdown of influenza detections across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region reported to TESSy up to week 25/2022. As of week 30/2022, 145 913 detections had been reported (a rise of nearly 13 000 since week 20/2022) resulting from extended late season influenza activity. Of these 145 913 detections, 98% were type A viruses, with A(H3N2) still dominating (84%) over A(H1N1)pdm09 (16%), but by a lower margin than in the June report (92%:8%), and 2% type B of which only 134 were ascribed to a lineage, with all but two being B/Victoria. This represents a large increase (144 903, 144-fold) in detections compared to the 2020-2021 season, on the back of a great increase (1 926 053, 176%) in the number of samples tested. However, while there have been clear indications of an influenza epidemic in 2021-2022 with the epidemic threshold of 10% positivity within sentinel specimens having been crossed for 17 weeks as of week 25/2022 (unlike in 2020-2021), numbers of detections are reduced compared to earlier seasons (e.g., 12% reduced compared to 2019-2020). The increased testing but reduced number of influenza detections is undoubtedly related to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and measures introduced to combat it.

17.
Non-conventional in English | WHOIRIS, Grey literature | ID: grc-754728

ABSTRACT

This is the seventh report for the 2021-2022 influenza season. The May 2022 characterization report, gave a breakdown of influenza detections across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region reported to TESSy up to week 20/2022. As of week 25/2022, 138 352 detections had been reported (a rise of over 5 000 since week 20/2022) resulting from extended late season influenza activity. Of these 138 352 detections, 98% were type A viruses, with A(H3N2) (92%) dominating over A(H1N1)pdm09 (8%), and 2% type B of which only 125 were ascribed to a lineage, with all but two being B/Victoria. This represents a large increase (137 418, 148-fold ) in detections compared to the 2020-2021 season, on the back of a great increase (1 900 146, 200%) in the number of samples tested. However, while there have been clear indications of an influenza epidemic in 2021-2022 with the epidemic threshold of 10% positivity within sentinel specimens having been crossed for 17 weeks as of week 25/2022 (unlike in 2020-2021), numbers of detections are reduced compared to earlier seasons (e.g., 16% reduced compared to 2019-2020). The increased testing but reduced number of influenza detections is undoubtedly related to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and measures introduced to combat it.

19.
Public Health ; 213: 5-11, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of routine syndromic surveillance of respiratory infections, specifically new cases of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). This surveillance often relies on questionnaires carried out by research nurses or transcriptions of doctor's notes, but existing, routinely collected electronic healthcare data sets are increasingly being used for such surveillance. We investigated how patient diagnosis codes, recorded within such data sets, could be used to capture SARI trends in Scotland. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective observational study using electronic healthcare data sets between 2017 and 2022. METHODS: Sensitive, specific and timely case definition (CDs) based on patient diagnosis codes contained within national registers in Scotland were proposed to identify SARI cases. Representativeness and sensitivity analyses were performed to assess how well SARI cases captured by each definition matched trends in historic influenza and SARS-CoV-2 data. RESULTS: All CDs accurately captured the peaks seen in laboratory-confirmed positive influenza and SARS-CoV-2 data, although the completeness of patient diagnosis records was discovered to vary widely. The timely CD provided the earliest detection of changes in SARI activity, whilst the sensitive CD provided insight into the burden and severity of SARI infections. CONCLUSIONS: A universal SARI surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated to accurately capture seasonal SARI trends. It can be used as an indicator of emerging secondary care burden of emerging SARI outbreaks. The system further strengthens Scotland's existing strategies for respiratory surveillance, and the methods described here can be applied within any country with suitable electronic patient records.

20.
Ann Epidemiol ; 76: 77-82, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082903

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore the 2020-2021 influenza season by describing the case of Italy. METHODS: FluNet was searched for Italian data on virological samples. French, German, and Spanish data were collected for comparison. InfluNet was used for Italian epidemiological data on influenza-like illness (ILI). Data were extracted for the period from the 42nd week of 2020 to the 16th week of 2021 and for the previous 5-year period. The Containment and Health Index were used to describe the containment measures. RESULTS: Among 6818 samples, 0% were positive in Italy in the 2020-2021 season (28.8% in the previous 5-year period; the percentage change in the total number of tested specimens was -51.3%). In France, Germany, and Spain, the percentage change was -23%, -7%, and -61%, respectively. The Italian ILI incidence remained below the baseline levels (mean 0.0144/100,000 inhabitants; range 0.0085-0.0204). In the previous 5-year period, the mean incidence was 0.041/100,000 inhabitants. With the increase in containment measures, a deflection of ILI incidence was described (P = .015). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the reduced number of collected specimens compared to previous seasons and a slight rise in influenza vaccination rates, containment measures represent the most likely factor that helped to reduce cases in the 2020-2021 influenza season in Italy.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL