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1.
Vaccines ; 10(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822465

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the most effective intervention to prevent infection and subsequent complica-tions from SARS-CoV-2. Because of their multiple comorbidities, the elderly population experienced the highest number of deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic. Although in most countries, older people have top priority for COVID-19 vaccines, their actual willingness and attitudes regarding vaccination are still unclear. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate their willing-ness, attitudes, awareness, and knowledge of COVID-19 through a web-based questionnaire after the first local outbreak of COVID-19 in Taiwan. A total of 957 questionnaires were completed, and 74.9% of elderly individuals were likely to receive COVID-19 vaccines. The results from a multiple logistic regression demonstrated that older people who need to visit the outpatient department and have a high level of concern about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines are prone to having a negative willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccines. The following items related to awareness of the COVID-19 pandemic were attributed to the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines: “understanding the risk of being infected by SARS-CoV-2”, “understanding the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines”, “willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine for protecting others”, and “safety of COVID-19 vaccines is a key factor for you to accept them”. Furthermore, a positive association between COVID-19 vaccination and attitudes toward accepting booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine was observed. Our results show that these factors could affect the willingness of older people to accept COVID-19 vaccines and that they are important for policymakers and medical staff to develop vaccination plans during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819619

ABSTRACT

Background Previous outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases (e.g., SARS) had increased the uptake of influenza vaccination (IV). It is uncertain whether such was also true for COVID-19. This study hence investigated prevalence of IV behavior/intention prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated cognitive factors. Methods A self-administered, online, and anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted among 6,922 university students of five provinces in China during November 1–28, 2020 (response rate: 72.3%). Results Of all the participants, 35.1% self-reported behavioral intention of IV (next 12 months), while 62.9% reported an increased intention of IV due to COVID-19. However, only 4.7% and 2.9% had taken up IV during the 12-month period prior to the outbreak (1/2019–12/2019) and during the COVID-19 outbreak (1–11/2020), respectively. Adjusted for the background factors, the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that in general the COVID-19 related perceptions (perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived chance of having another wave of COVID-19 outbreak) were significantly and positively associated the IV behavior (during the COVID-19 outbreak) and intention of IV uptake in the next 12 months. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic may have influenced actual behavior and intention of IV uptake among university students during the pandemic. Efforts are warranted to reduce the intention-behavior gap of IV uptake;modification of perceived susceptibility and perceived severity regarding COVID-19 may help. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to confirm the findings of this study and explore other factors affecting IV uptake during the COVID-19 period.

3.
Vaccines ; 10(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818225

ABSTRACT

In Italy, following the start of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign, community pharmacies (CPs) were recruited on a voluntary basis in order to administer COVID-19 vaccines as part of their activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection prevention, and vaccine acceptance/hesitancy towards COVID-19 and influenza vaccinations among the community pharmacists operating in the Palermo Province. A cross-sectional study was conducted, with two different questionnaires administered before and after the conduction of the vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2 at the COVID-19 vaccination center of the Palermo University Hospital (PUH). The baseline survey showed that 64% of community pharmacists (CPs) declared that they planned to vaccinate against SARS-CoV-2, and 58% were vaccinated against influenza during the 2020/2021 season. Factors significantly associated with willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccination were confidence in vaccines (adjOR 1.76;CI 1.11–2.80), fear of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjOR 1.50;CI 1.06–2.11), considering COVID-19 vaccination to be the best strategy to counteract SARS-CoV-2 (adjOR 1.79;CI 1.39–2.29), and adherence to influenza vaccination during the 2020/2021 season (adjOR 3.25;CI 2.23–4.25). The adherence among CPs of the Palermo Province to COVID-19 vaccination was 96.5%. From the post-vac-cination survey, the main reasons for changing opinions on vaccination adherence were the introduction of mandatory vaccinations, fear of contracting COVID-19, and limitations on work activities in the case of vaccine refusal. The achievement of very high COVID-19 vaccination coverage rates among healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the present study was mainly due to the mandatory vaccination policies;nevertheless, a willingness for COVID-19 vaccination was relatively high among pharmacists before the beginning of the vaccination campaign. HCPs and CPs should receive train-ing on vaccination, which is recommended in the national immunization plan and is also suggested by the respondents in our study, in order to routinely re-evaluate their own vaccination profiles, as well as those of their patients.

4.
Vaccines ; 10(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818223

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy is a major barrier to achieving large-scale COVID-19 vaccination. We report trends in vaccination intention and associated determinants from surveys in the adult general population in Greece. Four cross-sectional phone surveys were conducted in November 2020 and February, April and May 2021 on nationally representative samples of adults in Greece. Multino-mial logistic regression was used on the combined data of the surveys to evaluate independent predictors of vaccination unwillingness/uncertainty. Vaccination intention increased from 67.6% in November 2020 to 84.8% in May 2021. Individuals aged 65 years or older were more willing to be vaccinated (May 2021: 92.9% vs. 79.5% in 18–39 years, p < 0.001) but between age-groups differences decreased over time. Vaccination intention increased substantially in both men and women, though earlier among men, and was higher in individuals with prograduate education (May 2021: 91.3% vs. 84.0% up to junior high). From multivariable analysis, unwillingness and/or uncertainty to be vaccinated was associated with younger age, female gender (in particular in the April 2021 survey), lower educational level and living with a child ≤12 years old. Among those with vaccine hesitancy, concerns about vaccine effectiveness declined over time (21.6% in November 2020 vs. 9.6% in May 2021, p = 0.014) and were reported more often by men;safety concerns remained stable over time (66.3% in November 2020 vs. 62.1% in May 2021, p = 0.658) and were reported more often by women. In conclusion, vaccination intention increased substantially over time. Tailored communication is needed to address vaccine hesitancy and concerns regarding vaccine safety.

5.
Respirology ; 27(SUPPL 1):137, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816638

ABSTRACT

Introduction/Aim: To determine (1) the influenza vaccine uptake of children with cystic fibrosis from 2016 to 2020 and (2) the impact of the COVID pandemic of 2020 and increased uptake of Telehealth outpatient appointments on vaccination rates. Methods: A retrospective audit of children with cystic fibrosis aged 6 months to 18 years who reside in South Australia was performed using the Women's and Children's Respiratory Department cystic fibrosis database from 2016 to 2020. The Australian Childhood Immunization Record (ACIR) was used to determine vaccination status during this period. Results: One hundred eighty-two children with cystic fibrosis were identified, 172 of whom vaccination records were available on the ACIR. Proportion of eligible patients who were vaccinated ranged from 66% to 88% over the 5 year period. There was nil significant decrease in uptake during the COVID pandemic in 2020 (75%). Despite the introduction of Telehealth reviews in 2020 majority (66%) of patients continued to have exclusive face-to-face appointments, of which 73% received the vaccination. Vaccination coverage of those who received combination of Telehealth and faceto- face was 81%. Conclusion: The high influenza vaccination rate of South Australian children with cystic fibrosis is consistent with rates seen in other tertiary centres globally. This audit demonstrated that the COVID pandemic and introduction of Telehealth appointments did not have any measurable uptake of the influenza vaccination our South Australian population.

6.
Vaccines ; 10(4):582, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810352

ABSTRACT

Background: Seasonal influenza can cause serious morbidity, mortality, and financial burden in pediatric and adult populations. The influenza vaccine (IV) is considered the most effective way to prevent influenza and influenza-like-illness (ILI) complications. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the IV in a cohort of healthy children in Italy. Methods: From the Pedianet database, all healthy children aged six months–14 years between 2009–2019 were enrolled. Cox proportional-hazards models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios and the 95% confidence interval for the association between IV exposure during each season of interest (from October to April of each year) with incident influenza/ILI. Exposure was considered as a time-varying variable. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated as (1-HR) × 100. The additive and prolonged effects of IV were evaluated across the seasons. Results: We found a high IV effectiveness among healthy children. No additional or prolonged effects were found. Conclusion: Our data indicates that IV was effective in preventing influenza/ILI in healthy children. Therefore, IV should be encouraged and provided free of charge to healthy children in all the Italian regions every year, reducing disease spread and lowering the burden on the pediatric population.

7.
Vaccines ; 10(4):526, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810344

ABSTRACT

Due to the low rate of influenza vaccination in China, this study explores the factors influencing the Chinese public’s influenza vaccination intentions. Based on the technology acceptance model (TAM), this study builds a theoretical model to examine the factors influencing Chinese public intentions toward influenza vaccination. We define media exposure and media credibility as external variables and the perceived characteristics of influenza vaccines as intermediate variables in the proposed model. A total of 597 valid questionnaires were collected online in this study. Combined with structural equation modeling (SEM), SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 17.0 were used to conduct empirical research, supporting the proposed research hypotheses. The results show that media exposure and media credibility have no direct effects on the audience’s intention to take the influenza vaccine. However, media exposure positively influences media credibility, influencing vaccination intentions through perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU). Furthermore, PU and PEOU significantly positively influence behavioral intentions, and PEOU significantly affects PU. This paper has proven that media with better credibility gained more trust from the audience, indicating a new perspective for the promotion of influenza vaccination. This study suggests releasing influenza-related information via media with great credibility, further improving public acceptance of becoming vaccinated.

8.
South African Medical Journal ; 112(1):3-4, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1791938
9.
Diabetes Mellit. ; 25(1):50-60, 2022.
Article in Russian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1791672

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus stays an important medical, economic and social problem worldwide. Infectious diseases in people with diabetes mellitus are often more severe with an increased frequency of hospitalizations and complications. The presence of chronic hyperglycemia leads to decreased immune function and an increased predisposition to infections. Infections lead to uncontrolled hyperglycemia, which worsens the course of infections, thus forming a vicious circle of violations. Mass vaccination with an emphasis on people belonging to the high-risk group reduces the number of infected and, hospitalized people, and also has clear economic advantages. However, in many countries the proportion of vaccinated remains low. Vaccine prophylaxis in Russia is regulated by a number of regulatory legal acts, of which the main one is Federal Law No. 157-FZ of September 17, 1998 (edited on July 2, 2021) "About Immunoprophylaxis of Infectious Diseases". Each country has a National Vaccination Schedule, which shows a routine vaccination schedule at a specific age against infections that are widespread and / or pose a serious threat to health and life), as well as a National Epidemic Indication Vaccination Schedule. In Russia, these documents are approved by Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation of March 21, 2014 N 125. "About the approval of the national calendar of preventive vaccinations and the calendar of preventive vaccinations for epidemic indications." This article discusses vaccination against the most socially significant infections associated with a high worldwide prevalence and increased risk among people with diabetes.

10.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):474, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1768622

ABSTRACT

Background: Myocarditis and pericarditis can present as mild to life-threatening inflammatory symptoms involving the heart. This has been associated with several drugs and vaccines. We present adverse cardiac events reported after vaccination. Methods: A systematic review of the literature using Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Scopus was performed to identify cases of adults who developed adverse cardiac events after vaccination from inception through July 2021. Data is reported using descriptive statistics. Results: There were 33 studies describing adverse cardiac events after vaccination with a total of 270 patients. The majority described adverse cardiac events following smallpox vaccine administration, followed by COVID-19 vaccination (12.96%), influenza vaccination (2.59%), tetanus vaccination (0.74%), and pneumococcal vaccination (0.74%). Approximately 85% of cases were male, and 96% of the patients were younger than 65 years old. From the cardiac events, 63.3% described were myocarditis, 13.33% were myopericarditis, 6.66% were acute coronary syndrome, 2.96% were pericarditis and 0.70% developed a pericardial effusion. Troponin levels were elevated in 68.2% of patients. Most developed cardiac events seven days post vaccination and 23.49% developed symptoms within seven days. Management was not described in the majority of the reports. In the cases where treatment was described anti-inflammatory medications were used in 56.09%, colchicine was used in 41.46% and steroids were used in 19.51% of patients. One patient required extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation. All patients recovered except one mortality with smallpox vaccine where biopsy showed eosinophilic epicardial inflammation on autopsy. Conclusion: Adverse cardiac events after vaccination have been reported with different vaccines. Management varies for these patients. These events are rare, and unlikely to be fatal.

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760859

ABSTRACT

In Italy, following the start of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign, community pharmacies (CPs) were recruited on a voluntary basis in order to administer COVID-19 vaccines as part of their activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection prevention, and vaccine acceptance/hesitancy towards COVID-19 and influenza vaccinations among the community pharmacists operating in the Palermo Province. A cross-sectional study was conducted, with two different questionnaires administered before and after the conduction of the vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2 at the COVID-19 vaccination center of the Palermo University Hospital (PUH). The baseline survey showed that 64% of community pharmacists (CPs) declared that they planned to vaccinate against SARS-CoV-2, and 58% were vaccinated against influenza during the 2020/2021 season. Factors significantly associated with willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccination were confidence in vaccines (adjOR 1.76; CI 1.11-2.80), fear of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjOR 1.50; CI 1.06-2.11), considering COVID-19 vaccination to be the best strategy to counteract SARS-CoV-2 (adjOR 1.79; CI 1.39-2.29), and adherence to influenza vaccination during the 2020/2021 season (adjOR 3.25; CI 2.23-4.25). The adherence among CPs of the Palermo Province to COVID-19 vaccination was 96.5%. From the post-vaccination survey, the main reasons for changing opinions on vaccination adherence were the introduction of mandatory vaccinations, fear of contracting COVID-19, and limitations on work activities in the case of vaccine refusal. The achievement of very high COVID-19 vaccination coverage rates among healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the present study was mainly due to the mandatory vaccination policies; nevertheless, a willingness for COVID-19 vaccination was relatively high among pharmacists before the beginning of the vaccination campaign. HCPs and CPs should receive training on vaccination, which is recommended in the national immunization plan and is also suggested by the respondents in our study, in order to routinely re-evaluate their own vaccination profiles, as well as those of their patients.

12.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(4):S125, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1748243

ABSTRACT

Study Objectives: Apart from tetanus and rabies vaccines, emergency departments have been minimally involved in vaccination efforts. As the country and the world continues to fight the COVID19 pandemic, determining new methods to deliver vaccines to people are now more important than ever. Moreover, finding ways to reach populations that are less likely to receive vaccines is equally as important. The objective of this study was to implement a screening and delivery protocol for influenza vaccine in an emergency department setting to demonstrate that emergency department vaccination protocols are viable and an effective public health tool. Methods: A screening protocol was developed based on CDC/ACIP guidelines for influenza vaccination. This screening protocol was implemented at two surban academic emergency departments starting 10/01/2020 and ending 01/31/2020. Demographic information was collected through electronic medical records for all patients who were screened. That information was utilized to analyze patients who accepted and those who refused the vaccine and those that ultimately received the vaccine while in the department. Results: During the trial period, 11, 355 patients were screened out of 25, 485 total patients who utilized the participating emergency departments. Of those screened, 5, 056 (45%) stated they had not received the influenza vaccine. Amongst those 5, 056 patients eligible for the vaccine, 1, 156 (22.9%) had an order placed for vaccine and ultimately 441 (8.7%) received the vaccination. The median ED length of stay (LOS) for all patients presenting to the department was 5 hours and 4.7 hours for patients who had the flu shot ordered. After omitting excessive LOS patients - greater than 16 hours, there was no evidence that having a flu shot ordered was associated with a longer ED length of stay (p < 0.05). Amongst the participants, the patients identifying as African American or Hispanic were less likely to have already received the influenza vaccine compared to non-Hispanic white and Asian identifying patients. Patients identifying as African American were the least likely to accept vaccination. Conversely, patients identifying as Hispanic were more likely than those not identifying as Hispanic to accept vaccination. Patients identifying as Asian were the most likely to have already received the vaccine and to accept the vaccine when offered. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that influenza vaccination protocols are both feasible and effective at distributing influenza vaccine in the emergency department without significantly affecting the length of stay. The patient population utilizing the emergency department is more likely to represent medically underserved populations. Influenza vaccination in the emergency department serves as an opportunity to increase vaccination rates among patients who lack other regular access to healthcare. These results should motivate the implementation of vaccination programs in other emergency departments.

13.
Leukemia and Lymphoma ; 62(SUPPL 1):S168-S170, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1747048

ABSTRACT

Background: Secondary antibody deficiency (SAD) is typical of hematological malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), multiple myeloma, and lymphoma or as a side effect of their treatment. Immunological defects are observed in 25-85% of CLL patients (pts), both naïve and previously treated, depending on duration, stage of disease, treatment, patient's age, and comorbidities. (Na et al., 2019;Patel et al., 2019;Zinzani et al., 2019;Reiser et al., 2017). In CLL pts, SAD increases the risk of infections, with overall higher morbidity and mortality Antibiotics administration and vaccinations are recommended as risk-reduction strategies. No real guidelines are available, but many indications warrant immunoglobulins replacement therapy (IgRT) in selected pts with low IgG (<5 g/l) or with more than three infective episodes per year despite antibiotic treatment and timely vaccination (Na et al., 2019;Reiser et al., 2017). No clear indications are available regarding the delivery method (intravenous or subcutaneous), dosage, frequency of administration, and duration of IgRT. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and the safety of SCIg on CLL patients in terms of infectious events, immune recovery and lymphocytes subset, impact on quality of life (QoL) on CLL pts in the Covid-19 era. Methods: Ten CLL pts with SAD have been treated with subcutaneous IgRT (SCIg) from October 2019 to December 2020. The median age and body weight of the pts were 66 years (56-88) and 68 kg (52-86) respectively. Five patients had comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and lung diseases) and 90% of them had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance 0-1. Five pts presented with unmutated IgVH and one of them also had 17p deletion. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (IBR, BR, Chl-antiCD20, FCR, in 5, 4, 4, 3 pts, respectively). At that time, 7 pts were on therapy (IBR, Ven, Alkylating Agent in 4, 1, 2 pts, respectively). None presented neutropenia. All pts underwent antibiotic prophylaxis with trimetroprin-cotimoxazole, sometimes associated with clarithromycin, and influenza vaccinations. The median baseline IgG level was 485mg/dl (118-817), with a median of 3 infection/year (1-5;pneumonia, UTI). Patients' characteristics are reported in Table 1. All pts received 10 g total dose hyaluronidase-free SCIg over a 1 h in double-needle subcutaneous infusion every 15 days for one year, independently from body weight. After the first dose, administered in a hospital setting to make the patient comfortable with their personal pump, the next doses were self-administered at home. The IgG level and CD4/CD8, CD19, and CD16/56 (natural killer, NK) lymphocytes subset were recorded at baseline and every three months during the observation period to monitor the immunological reconstitution as the therapy went on. Results: In our monocentric experience from October 2019 to December 2020 no patient experienced infectious events nor Covid-19 mediated interstitial pneumonia while on SCIg therapy. All patients tolerated well the therapy: nobody interrupted the treatment and only one patient presented a skin rash (grade 2). Both dosage and administration schedule have been stable over time. Dealing with humoral immunity, IgG levels arose from a median of 485 (118-817) mg/dl to a stable median value >600 mg/dl from 6 months onward. As expected, IgA and IgM values remained below normal levels. Dealing with cellular immunity, T-cells including CD4, CD8, and natural killer (NK, CD16/56) cells displayed a stable fashion until 6 months. On the other hand, the CD19 B cells values reflect both the disease status and the ongoing treatment effects. Results are reported in Table 1. Finally, we observed advantages on adherence to treatment, QoL, and costs, since pts did not need to go to the hospital with the help of a care-giver, rather they could comfortably get their SCIg at home without any assistance. Conclusion: SCIg administration in CLL pts with SAD is efficacious and safe as infectious prophylaxis, with hig er median IgG levels, thanks to both pharmacokinetic advantages and improved adherence to treatment. Especially in the Covid-19 era, the subcutaneous route is preferred to the intravenous one, because of the self-administration at home and the granted availability to the drug itself. Finally, subcutaneous administration gives advantages to the QoL and hospital expenditure.

14.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S129-S130, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746754

ABSTRACT

Background. Nationally, younger adults and racial minorities have lower levels of influenza vaccination (influenza vaccination = vaccine) than non-Hispanic White adults. During the 2015-16 season, most vaccine decliners in our program were male, black, and 45-66 years of age. As part of a quality improvement (QI) initiative to increase 2020-21 vaccine coverage amongst PLWH, we sought to compare patient characteristics between vaccine recipients and non-recipients. Methods. Our program cares for 60% of Delawareans with HIV. The largest site in Wilmington was the QI site. IRB exemption was received, and pre-defined sociodemographic and HIV-specific variables were extracted from the EMR and CareWare from 1 Oct 2020 through 31 March 2021. Patient reports of external vaccine required confirmation. All PLWH ≥ 18 years of age, including those newly establishing care, met eligibility criteria. Comparisons between vaccinated and unvaccinated PLWH were performed using Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables and chi-squared tests for categorical variables. A multivariable logistic regression model, including age, sex, race, insurance, poverty level, HIV status, and virologic suppression, was used to predict vaccine. Results. 780 patients met study inclusion criteria and 86% (667/780) received vaccine. Characteristics of PLWH with and without vaccine are presented in Table 1. Older age, lower HIV viral load, and virologic suppression had a statistically significant (p< 0.05) association with vaccine receipt in unadjusted analysis. Only older age (p< 0.01) was significantly associated with vaccine in logistic regression modeling (Table 2), however this relationship was non-linear. Conclusion. A very high rate of PLWH received vaccine, far exceeding local and national benchmarks, with EMR data unlikely to have fully captured all vaccines. The role of the COVID-19 pandemic in vaccine amongst PLWH is not yet known. While older age was associated with vaccine in adjusted analysis, the number of unvaccinated patients was small, confidence intervals wide, and associations consequently weak. Larger studies are needed to further investigate factors associated with vaccine receipt amongst PLWH.

15.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S132-S133, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746752

ABSTRACT

Background. Seasonal influenza vaccination decreases individual and population-level morbidity and mortality, mitigates risk of acquiring influenza-like illness, and prevents healthcare system overburdening. Vaccination is important for people living with HIV (PLWH) who have increased risk for severe disease, hospitalization, and poor outcomes. Moreover, influenza vaccination has been associated with decreased COVID-19 mortality in older patients. Historical annual adult influenza vaccinations rates at the study site were 65%, exceeding local and national benchmarks. Amidst COVID-19, we recognized a need to increase influenza vaccination rates. Methods. A multifaceted, bundled quality improvement (QI) initiative aimed to achieve ≥ 80% influenza vaccination coverage for the 2020-21 season in PLWH ≥18 years of age at our Wilmington site (N=750). Stakeholders were identified, and a voluntary multidisciplinary team formed to lead the initiative (Fig. 1). Fishbone diagram outlined clear, rapidly implementable, and reproducible levers for change (Fig. 2). Physical and virtual space changes included: diverse clinical displays (visuals, patient materials), phone messaging, and virtual platform use. Staff education and updates were consistently provided by the team. Institutional Review Board exemption was received, and electronic medical record and CareWare data were extracted from 1 Oct 2020 through 31 March 2021. All external vaccinations were confirmed. Overall and eligible in-clinic vaccination rates were updated and displayed weekly. Results. 86% vaccination coverage was achieved (Fig. 3) with a median weekly in-clinic vaccination rate of 67% (Fig. 4). Conclusion. A QI project to improve 2020-21 influenza vaccination rates exceeded our goal in adult PLWH at an urban mid-Atlantic HIV clinic during the COVID-19 pandemic. A multidisciplinary approach that engaged stakeholders was vital to success. Rapid roll-out of changes was challenging, requiring flexibility and clear communication. Data collection was consistent, albeit imperfect, and needs enhancement. Elucidating the effects of each change and the COVID-19 pandemic on vaccination rates is not yet known. Lessons learned may be applicable to other ambulatory settings and will inform future vaccination efforts.

16.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S266-S267, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746671

ABSTRACT

Background. Over 32 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in the US. Outcomes range from mild upper respiratory infection to hospitalization, acute respiratory failure, and death. We assessed risk factors associated with severe disease, defined as hospitalization within 21 days of diagnosis or death, using US electronic health records (EHR). Methods. Patients in the Optum de-identified COVID-19 EHR database who were diagnosed with COVID-19 in 2020 were included in the analysis. Regularized multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for severe disease. Covariates included demographics, comorbidities, history of influenza vaccination, and calendar time. Results. Of the 193,454 eligible patients, 36,043 (18.6%) were hospitalized within 21 days of COVID-19 diagnosis, and 6,397 (3.3%) died. Calendar time followed an inverse J-shaped relationship where severe disease rates rapidly declined in the first 25 weeks of the pandemic. BMI followed an asymmetric V-shaped relationship with highest rates of disease severity observed at the extremes. In the multivariable model, older age had the strongest association with disease severity (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of significant associations in Figure). Other risk factors were male sex, uninsured status, underweight and obese BMI, higher Charlson Comorbidity Index, and individual comorbidities including hypertension. Asthma and overweight BMI were not associated with disease severity. Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians experienced higher odds of disease severity compared to Whites. Conclusion. Odds of hospitalization or death have decreased since the start of the pandemic, with the steepest decline observed up to mid-August, possibly reflecting changes in both testing and treatment. Older age is the most important predictor of severe COVID-19. Obese and underweight, but not overweight, BMI were associated with increased odds of disease severity when compared to normal weight. Hypertension, despite not being included in many guidelines for vaccine prioritization, is a significant risk factor. Pronounced health disparities remain across race and ethnicity after accounting for comorbidities, with minorities experiencing higher disease severity.

17.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S383-S384, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746435

ABSTRACT

Background. Large mortality rates have been reported in the Mexican public health system, however in the experiences of private hospitals that have resources and infrastructure this is lower compared to the national average. Methods. Descriptive and retrospective study. Adult patients treated for pneumonia due COVID-19 from April to December 2020 are entered into the study. Its general characteristics such as gender and age, comorbidities, influenza vaccination history, clinical characterization, laboratory and tomographic diagnosis of sars cov2 pneumonia are studied, as well as the drug and oxygen therapy treatments received and finally, its evolution and clinical outcome. Results. 132 patients were studied, of which 51% were female. The main age groups affected were 65 and over (43.9%), 50-59 years (20.4%) and 25-44 years (16.6%). The main comorbidities found were: arterial hypertension (43.9%), Diabetes mellitus 2 (33.3%), heart disease (11.3%) and obesity (10.6%). 95.4% of the patients were not vaccinated against influenza. The main symptoms reported were: fever (92%), cough (87%), dyspnea (76%) and headache (52%). The diagnosis was confirmed with RT-PCR in 63%, reporting negative RT-PCR in 36%;the antigen test was positive in 1%. Regarding the findings of the chest computed tomography, CORADS 5 was reported in 30%, CORADS 6 in 3% and CORADS 4 in 20%. The main treatments used in patients with severe inflammatory pneumonia were: steroids (98%), enoxaparin (100%), tocilizumab (20%), baricitinib (60%), direct oral anticoagulants (10%), fibroquel (5%). 60% were treated with a combination of two or more drugs. The main oxygenation contributions were: 20% nasal tips - mask/reservoir, 60% high flow nasal cannula, 20% mechanical ventilation. In 95% the prone position was indicated. Regarding the clinical evolution, 65.1% were towards improvement, 17.4% died, 12.1% requested transfer to another unit and 5.3% requested voluntary discharge. Overall mortality was 17%. Conclusion. A hospital strategy that has the necessary resources and infrastructure as well as openness to the use of medication with emergency approvals for its use or off-label indications, can help limit morbidity and mortality in vulnerable populations and manifest risk factors such as Mexican population.

18.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S678-S679, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746322

ABSTRACT

Background. Influenza vaccine is recommended for all children ≥6 months, yet uptake is suboptimal. We aimed to quantify child influenza vaccine coverage and identify factors associated with influenza vaccine hesitancy (VH) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. We conducted a prospective, repeated cross-sectional assessment in English and Spanish of caregiver influenza knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and associated VH among hospitalized children 6 months through 18 years at a large pediatric medical institution. Caregivers were enrolled 4-5 days per week, between 12/11/2019--1/31/2020 and 12/8/2020--4/5/2021. VH was assessed using the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) survey;PACV score ≥50 denoted VH. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used. Results. During 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 influenza seasons, 269/282 (95%) and 295/307 (96%) of approached caregivers enrolled, respectively. By caregiver report, 94% of children in 2019-2020 and 91% in 2020-2021 were up-to-date with routine childhood vaccines (p=0.13). Specific to influenza vaccine, 73% and 68% of children received or planned to receive influenza vaccine in 2019-2020 and 2020-2021, respectively (p=0.13). Based on PACV score, 13% of parents were VH in 2019-2020 compared with 17% in 2020-2021 (p=0.24;Figure 1). Caregivers who had not/did not intend to vaccinate their children had a higher family income (71% vs. 57% >$30,000, p< 0.01) and were less likely to be Hispanic/ Latino (35% vs. 47%, p=0.02). 77% of caregivers were satisfied with information about influenza vaccine received from healthcare providers. Overall, 36% believed "you can get the flu from the flu shot." In 2020-2021, caregivers were less likely to believe that "flu can be a dangerous infection in children," to be "scared of my child getting the flu" and to agree that "all children over 6 months of age should receive the flu shot every year" (Table 1). Conclusion. During the COVID-19 pandemic, caregivers of hospitalized children were less concerned about influenza than pre-pandemic and misinformation about influenza and influenza vaccine persisted. Increased efforts may be needed to educate caregivers about the importance of influenza immunization during the 2021-22 season.

19.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S756-S757, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746296

ABSTRACT

Background. The Pragmatic Assessment of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the DoD (PAIVED) is a multicenter study assessing influenza vaccine effectiveness in active duty service members, retirees, and dependents. PAIVED recently completed its third year and offers a unique opportunity to examine influenza-like illness (ILI) trends prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic in a prospective, well-defined cohort. Methods. During the 2018-19, 2019-20, and 2020-21 influenza seasons, PAIVED enrolled DoD beneficiaries presenting for annual influenza vaccination. After collecting baseline demographic data, participants were randomized to receive egg-based, cell-based, or recombinant-derived influenza vaccine. Weekly throughout the influenza season of enrollment, participants were surveyed electronically for ILI, defined as (1) having cough or sore throat, plus (2) feeling feverish/having chills or having body aches/fatigue. Participants with ILI completed a daily symptom diary for seven days and submitted a nasal swab for pathogen detection. Results. Over the three seasons, there were 10,656 PAIVED participants: 1514 (14.2%) in 2018-19, 5876 (55.1%) in 2019-20, and 3266 (30.6%) in 2020-21. The majority were male (68-73% per year) with a mean age of 34±14.8 years at enrollment. 2266 participants reported a total of 2673 unique ILIs. The highest percentage of participants with ILI was in 2019-20 (28.2%), versus 19.6% in 2018-19 and 9.6% in 2020-21. Figure 1 depicts the percent of individuals reporting ILI by week of the season for each of the PAIVED seasons. Notably, after March 21, 2020, the weekly incidence of participants reporting ILI never exceeded 1%. Figure 1. Percent of PAIVED participants reporting ILI by week of season. Conclusion. The low incidence of reported ILI in PAIVED participants during the COVID-19 pandemic is consistent with national influenza surveillance reports of influenza and outpatient ILI activity, suggesting that mitigation measures taken to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 reduced the spread of other respiratory viruses.

20.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S777-S778, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746287

ABSTRACT

Background. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), and other forms of cellular therapies such as chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CAR-T), while of critical therapeutic value, confers significant, long-term risk of infectious complications. Recipients would benefit from evaluation by infectious disease (ID) specialists. However, amidst many existing guidelines from ID and oncology societies, pre-transplant ID evaluation and management practices vary across US institutions. To better understand these variations and identify targets for standardization, we conducted a survey of ID and oncology providers at transplant centers in the US. Methods. A 38-question, anonymous, voluntary, online survey was distributed via Google Forms to a professional organization e-mail list of ID providers as well as to followers of relevant Twitter accounts. Responses were collected and analyzed. Results. A total of 51 responses were received, the majority of which (68.6%) came from ID providers. 60.8% of respondents worked at healthcare facilities with over 500 beds. 43 respondents (84.3%) reported that their center performed autologous and allogeneic HCT as well as CAR-T. 56.8% of CAR-T centers use a standardized template, compared to 70.8% of those providing HCT. For allogeneic HCT centers, 8% reported that no ID evaluation is offered;34% reported that it is offered "sometimes." Practices varied for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection prior to HCT: 26.5% treat "All the time;" 10.2% treat "Very rarely." In assessing risk factors, only 63% and 54% identified HIV infection and healthcare occupation, respectively, as epidemiologic risk factors for tuberculosis infection. 59.2% answered that < 10% of patients are screened for Strongyloides. Only 5 respondents reported universal Strongyloides screening prior to transplant. COVID-19 vaccination for family is recommended "Always" by 95.5% of respondents. 25% have offered influenza vaccination to family through the transplant clinic. Conclusion. Practices around pre-HCT infectious disease evaluation and management are heterogenous among the centers surveyed. The adoption of standardized screening for and management of infectious diseases in this patient population would likely be beneficial.

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