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1.
Geoforum ; 137: 94-104, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104966

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has radically expanded the role of algorithmic governance in everyday mobility. In China, urban and provincial governments have introduced health codes app as a national contract tracing and quarantine enforcement method to restrict the movements of "risky" individuals through malls, subways, railways, as well as between regions. Yet the health codes have been implemented with uneven efficacy and unexpected consequences. Drawing on glitch politics, we read these unintended consequences as "bugs" emerging from the introduction of platform-based management into everyday life. These bugs mediated individuals' lived experiences of the digital app and the hybrid space constituted by population governance, individual digital navigation, and technology. Drawing on a database of posts scraped from Zhihu, a popular Chinese question-and-answer site, we examine three dimensions of the bug: the algorithmic bug, the territorial bug, and the corporeal bug. This paper sheds light on the significance of end-user experiences in digital infrastructure and contributes to our understanding of the digital geographies of bugs in algorithmic governance and platform urbanism.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In order to facilitate free movement of EU citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic, in early 2021 the European Commission proposed the establishment of an EU Digital COVID Certificate. By 1 July 2021, all EU Member States have successfully implemented the EU Digital COVID Certificate. The technological and procedural complexities encountered while establishing the EU Digital COVID Certificate in Slovenia are reviewed in this article. METHODS: This research employs a case study methodology. Controlled focus group sessions comprising eighteen eminent experts (not including medical and other expert groups involved in the epidemiological measures) in charge of the EU Digital COVID Certificate and other national eHealth services in Slovenia were used as the primary data collection technique. Focus group discussions were preceded by an all-encompassing review of the literature and the examination of numerous materials covering the EU Digital COVID Certificate-related content. RESULTS: The study findings reveal that the technological and process complexities are associated with the fragmented data sources and complicated and abundant business rules used for the generation and verification of the EU Digital COVID Certificate. However, despite the technological, process and other impediments that arose during the establishment of the EU Digital COVID Certificate in Slovenia, it can be argued that the approach used and stakeholder commitment, especially in critical pandemic conditions, offered the much-desired harmonisation and application of this digital service at the EU level. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the importance of a sound and coherent model for the impending establishment of cross-border eHealth services and suggests that the ad hoc implementation of such challenging and delicate digital solutions in the future will only be feasible with the prior construction of robust and interoperable digital health infrastructures across the EU Member States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , Slovenia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Technology
3.
J Infrastruct Preserv Resil ; 1(1): 10, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098560

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to compromise the ability of critical infrastructure utilities to respond to or mitigate natural hazards like wildfires and hurricanes. This article describes the ways that an energy organization, the regional transmission operator PJM, is preparing for hurricanes during the COVID-19 pandemic. PJM is using a combination of technological and organizational processes to prepare for hurricanes during the pandemic. Activities include the development of a third control room to increase redundancy and maintaining social distance at control center, investment in more resilient communications technology to maintain connectivity, and taking a holistic approach to identifying issues related to supply chain and fuel security. With this mix of organizational and technological processes, we argue that critical infrastructure resilience should be understood as a sociotechnical construct and identify several recommendations for improving resilience. The article has implications for policymakers working to maintain infrastructure resilience to natural hazards during the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Mobile Media & Communication ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2098275

ABSTRACT

Almost as soon as the COVID-19 pandemic began spreading throughout much of the world, conspiracies arose that blamed the virus on the deployment of fifth-generation cellular networks (5G) infrastructure. These conspiracies had significant consequences, including protests against 5G and the destruction of 5G infrastructure. This article uses a media genealogy approach to place the 5G/COVID-19 conspiracies within the long and recurring cycle of conspiracies focused on mobile infrastructure. Placed within that broader history, this article argues that the 5G/COVID-19 conspiracies should have been unsurprising, and these types of infrastructural conspiracies should be a more significant part of mobile media and communication (MMC) research because infrastructures are an often invisible, yet crucial, part of the mobile practices studied within MMC research. The article concludes by theorizing about why mobile infrastructures are such a frequent target for conspiracy theories and argues that researchers should begin planning now for combatting the conspiracies that will almost inevitably arise when the next generation of mobile infrastructure gets linked to fears about public health.

5.
Technological Forecasting and Social Change ; 186:122125, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2096056

ABSTRACT

Because of public health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, having an optimal medical infrastructure is an important way to maintain the normal operation of society and stimulate vitality in regional innovation. Based on the data on 260 cities at the prefecture level and above in China from 2001 to 2018, this paper investigates the characteristics and mechanisms of medical infrastructure on regional innovation. After a series of regressions, we robustly find that medical infrastructure has a significantly positive impact on regional innovation. In addition, based on the mediating effect model, the mechanism test shows that medical infrastructure can promote regional innovation through the channels of the natural population growth rate, educational level, and the environmental greening level. Finally, considering the urban heterogeneity, we find that the positive impact of medical infrastructure on regional innovation is reflected mainly in eastern and central cities, non-sub-provincial cities, and non-resource-based cities. These conclusions not only enrich the theoretical research on regional innovation from the perspective of medical infrastructure but also shed light on how to better promote regional innovation for China or even other countries.

6.
Popul Health Manag ; 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097274

ABSTRACT

Oral antivirals for COVID-19 can be game changers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Challenges that may hinder current and future oral antiviral rollouts span use in special populations, drug-drug and herb-drug interactions, adverse events, development of resistance, black markets, and equity in access and prescribing. Future antivirals may address some of these barriers; however, health systems around the world should be equipped to receive and administer COVID-19 oral antivirals. Improvements in manufacturing capacity, community engagement, capacity for testing and linkage to care, and systems for surveillance and safety monitoring could "change the game" for LMICs, irrespective of any specific antiviral drug. Investments in health care infrastructure can promote resilience, not only for COVID-19 but also for future local and global health crises.

7.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 83: 103419, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095460

ABSTRACT

Our modern world is highly dependent on the functioning of a complex system of interdependent infrastructures. Failure of one infrastructure can have severe and far-reaching impacts on other infrastructures and jeopardize the functioning of the whole system. While certain infrastructures have been considered highly critical and their dependencies and protection has been addressed extensively and for decades, others have been considered less or not at all critical and have been barely debated. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented strain on infrastructure systems and has revealed that different infrastructures become highly critical throughout an ongoing and long-lasting crisis than during a sudden but short-term crisis. This paper investigates the representation of critical infrastructure dependency descriptions in the literature before and since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this qualitative study, the quantity of descriptions per critical infrastructure dependency is analyzed and visualized and used to discuss the perception of how critical those infrastructures are. The study revealed that new infrastructures have been identified as critical in recent literature and that the focus was shifted to specific infrastructures that were in more pressing need during the pandemic. This shift of focus was observed to happen from the sectors of energy, water, transport & traffic, and ICT before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic to the sectors public health, constitutional institutions, transport & traffic, and food since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, analysis of the literature revealed infrastructures which had previously not been classified as critical, being discussed as new critical infrastructures. Urban green spaces, for example, have proven to be essential for the health and well-being of citizens during lockdown times. Further, social services like childcare, care of the elderly, delivery services, and online grocery shopping have been highlighted as essential services for maintaining workforces and the functioning of society during a pandemic. Overall, the analysis of descriptions of critical infrastructure dependencies before and since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed changes in the focus on critical infrastructures and in the perception of what makes critical infrastructures critical.

8.
Jarq-Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly ; 56(4):357-374, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2092623

ABSTRACT

Indica and japonica rice are commonly subjected to different market structures, and the international prices for both subspecies display different trends. The global indica and japonica rice markets in the mid and long term under climate change conditions were projected by the Rice Economy Climate Change (RECC) model. Additionally, endogenous agricultural investments were incorporated into the projections. A COVID-19 pandemic scenario was stimulated to observe its impact on the global indica and japonica rice markets. The results indicated that agricultural investments are expected to decrease in many indica rice-producing countries, whereas the investments will increase in many japonica rice -producing countries in the long term. Therefore, the global indica rice production will decrease due to its investment reduction;however, global japonica rice production will increase in the mid and long term. Due to the COVID-19 scenario, the international indica and japonica rice prices would decrease in 2020 due to the unprecedented shrinking economies worldwide, but the prices would increase from 2021 to 2040 compared with the baseline average of the price projections with the RECC model. The scenario simulation results reveal that the japonica rice markets are projected to have less impact than the indica rice markets from the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Health Rep ; 33(10): 3-13, 2022 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091443

ABSTRACT

Background: The lack of consistent measures of the cycling environment across communities hampers cycling research and policy action. Our goal was to develop the first national dataset in Canada for metrics of the cycling environment at the dissemination area (DA) level - the Canadian Bikeway Comfort and Safety (Can-BICS) metrics. Data and methods: The Can-BICS metrics are area-level metrics based on the quantity of cycling infrastructure within a 1 km buffer of the population-weighted centroid of DAs. The base data are a national cycling network dataset derived from OpenStreetMap (OSM) (extracted January 25, 2022) and classified by high-, medium- and low-comfort facilities. A Can-BICS continuous metric (sum of cycling infrastructure per square kilometre weighted by comfort class) and Can-BICS categorical metric were derived and mapped for all 56,589 DAs in Canada. The Can-BICS metrics were correlated with other national datasets (2016 Canadian Active Living Environments [Can-ALE] and 2016 Census journey-to-work data) to test for associations between Can-BICS and related measures. Additionally, city staff were engaged to provide feedback on metrics during the development phase. Results: One-third (34%) of neighbourhoods in Canada have no cycling infrastructure. According to the categorical measure, 5% of all DAs were assigned as the highest category of Can-BICS (corresponding to 6% of the population) and were nearly all within metro areas. The Can-BICS continuous metric had low correlation with bike-to-work rates (R = 0.29) and was more strongly correlated with sustainable-transportation-to-work rates (R = 0.56) and the Can-ALE metrics (R=0.62). These correlations were variable across cities. Interpretation: The Can-BICS metrics provide national research- and practice-ready measures of cycling infrastructure. The metrics complement existing measures of walking and transit environments (Can-ALE), collectively providing a cohesive set of active living measures. The datasets and code are publicly available, facilitating updates as new infrastructure is built.


Subject(s)
Bicycling , Environment Design , Humans , Canada , Transportation , Walking , Policy , Residence Characteristics
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e42431, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Until COVID-19, implementation and uptake of video consultations in health care was slow. However, the pandemic created a "burning platform" for scaling up such services. As health care organizations look to expand and maintain the use of video in the "new normal," it is important to understand infrastructural influences and changes that emerged during the pandemic and that may influence sustainability going forward. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to draw lessons from 4 National Health Service (NHS) organizations on how information infrastructures shaped, and were shaped by, the rapid scale-up of video consultations during COVID-19. METHODS: A mixed methods case study of 4 NHS trusts in England was conducted before and during the pandemic. Data comprised 90 interviews with 49 participants (eg, clinicians, managers, administrators, and IT support), ethnographic field notes, and video consultation activity data. We sought examples of infrastructural features and challenges related to the rapid scale-up of video. Analysis was guided by Gkeredakis et al's 3 perspectives on crisis and digital change: as opportunity (for accelerated innovation and removal of barriers to experimentation), disruption (to organizational practices, generating new dependencies and risks), and exposure (of vulnerabilities in both people and infrastructure). RESULTS: Before COVID-19, there was a strong policy push for video consultations as a way of delivering health care efficiently. However, the spread of video was slow, and adopting clinicians described their use as ad hoc rather than business as usual. When the pandemic hit, video was rapidly scaled up. The most rapid increase in use was during the first month of the pandemic (March-April 2020), from an average of 8 video consultations per week to 171 per week at each site. Uptake continued to increase during the pandemic, averaging approximately 800 video consultations per week by March 2021. From an opportunity perspective, participants talked about changes to institutional elements of infrastructure, which had historically restricted the introduction and use of video. This was supported by an "organizing vision" for video, bringing legitimacy and support. Perspectives on disruption centered on changes to social, technical, and material work environments and the emergence of new patterns of action. Retaining positive elements of such change required a judicious balance between managerial (top-down) and emergent (bottom-up) approaches. Perspectives on exposure foregrounded social and technical impediments to video consulting. This highlighted the need to attend to the materiality and dependability of the installed base, as well as the social and cultural context of use. CONCLUSIONS: For sustained adoption at scale, health care organizations need to enable incremental systemic change and flexibility through agile governance and knowledge transfer pathways, support process multiplicity within virtual clinic workflows, attend to the materiality and dependability of the IT infrastructure within and beyond organizational boundaries, and maintain an overall narrative within which the continued use of video can be framed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , State Medicine , Pandemics , Videoconferencing , Telemedicine/methods
11.
Public Performance & Management Review ; : 1-25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082585

ABSTRACT

Many cities around the world have adopted digital technologies to combat COVID-19, but they have experienced varying degrees of success. This research developed an analytical framework involving the components of "preparation", "praxis", and "paradox" regarding a city's leveraging of digital infrastructure for pandemic governance. Then, the case of Hangzhou is employed to illustrate this framework. This research finds that (1) the application of digital technologies should be a systematic arrangement based on institutional and technological preparations, (2) innovative governance instruments supported by digital infrastructure can be developed to respond to a variety of practical scenarios, and (3) adopting a paradox lens aids in mitigating potential negative socio-economic consequences. This research suggests that leveraging digital infrastructure for pandemic governance requires a coherent system that has the potential to aid cities around the world in better managing public health crises going forward.

12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082154

ABSTRACT

The development of medical care, technological advances, and the ageing of society have led to rising medical costs. As a result, there is a demand to improve the efficiency of healthcare delivery systems, including public healthcare institutions, in order to ensure the sustainability of healthcare functions. In 2004, as part of national civil service reform in Japan, national hospitals were merged in order to form the National Hospital Organization (NHO). The NHO used new public management methods and was required to be self-financing and to maintain critical functions under a five-year management plan. The objective of this study was to examine whether the NHO was able to maintain its key function in the national infrastructure in terms of management. An analysis of the business conditions of the NHO was performed based on the financial statements from FY 2004 to FY 2018 using evaluation indexes. In the first and second periods, the NHO achieved its targeted management improvements. However, since FY 2014, even with the utmost restrictions on capital investment, the profits have not increased, and the free cash flow has been negative. Our results suggest that further organizational reforms are needed in order to sustain the NHO infrastructure in the long term and to withstand health crisis management during periods such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(12), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080463

ABSTRACT

Brazil's primary sanitation sector has been neglected, especially concerning rural sanitation. Population dispersion and the difficulty of access in many rural communities bring more significant challenges to the universalization of the service and, consequently, vulnerabilities for the population. The present work builds a theoretical framework about the context of rural sanitation in Brazil, with history, weaknesses in the sector, the impact of COVID-19 and new technologies, and central public policies in the State of Pernambuco. It is known that COVID-19 has caused considerable challenges that, added to the obstacles to national sanitation, result in greater vulnerability to the population, especially for indigenous peoples, quilombolas, and diffuse rural communities. In the State of Pernambuco, certain policies, such as the One Million Rural Cisterns Program (P1MC), One Land and Two Waters Program (P1 + 2), Agua Doce Program and Operacao Pipa Program, significantly improved the quality of life of the rural population. However, these measures are not enough to remedy the sector's shortcomings. Although alternative sanitation technologies bring hope to the sector, there is a long way to go towards the universalization of sanitation.

14.
Health Soc Care Community ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078484

ABSTRACT

Veterans in rural areas of the United States face barriers to accessing healthcare and other services, which are intensified for those experiencing housing instability. Recent legislative acts have the potential to address obstacles faced by rural patients in the U.S. This study explores how infrastructure-including features related to the physical and digital environment-impacts the ability of rural Veterans experiencing housing instability to access healthcare and related services from the perspective of homeless service providers within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews (n = 22) with providers in high/low performing and/or resourced communities across the U.S. in May and June 2021 and analysed transcripts using template analysis. Themes described by providers highlight how infrastructure limitations in rural areas can exacerbate health disparities for Veterans experiencing housing instability, the impact of COVID-19 on service access, and recommendations to enhance service delivery. Providers suggested that VHA reconfigure where and how staff work, identify additional resources for transportation and/or alternative transportation models, and increase Veterans' access to technology and broadband Internet. Federal infrastructure investments should address challenges faced by Veterans experiencing housing instability in rural areas and the concerns of providers connecting them with care.

15.
Telemed J E Health ; 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077598

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited knowledge exists about the drivers of telehealth use among obstetricians during COVID-19 in the United States. We investigated the use of live video visits by Maternal-Fetal Medicine (MFM) clinicians, the factors associated with use and interest in future use. Methods: We drew survey data from 373 clinicians on two outcomes: (1) use of any (vs. no) live video visits during COVID-19 and (2) among users, the extent of live video use. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions quantified the association between predisposing (demographic and practice setting characteristics) and enabling factors (prepandemic telehealth use, structural and perceived patient barriers) and each outcome. Results: During the pandemic, 88% reported any use, a jump from 29% prepandemic utilization. Users (vs. nonusers) were younger (p = 0.02); tended to provide comprehensive prenatal care (p = 0.01) and/or inpatient care (p = 0.02), practice in university settings (p = 0.01), engage in various telehealth modalities prepandemic (p ≤ 0.01), and to perceive challenges with technical (p < 0.01), reimbursement (p = 0.05), and patient barriers to internet or data plan access (p ≤ 0.001). After adjusting for covariates, only prepandemic communication through patient portal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-11.12), perceived patient access barriers (aOR = 5.27; 95% CI = 1.95-14.23), and practice in multiple versus university settings (aOR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.06-0.56) remained significantly associated with use. Approximately 44% were high users. Prepandemic ultrasound use (aOR = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.17-3.16), perceived patient access barriers (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.12-3.06) and Midwest versus North practice location (aOR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.21-0.98) predicted high use. Among high users, 99% wanted to continue offering video visits. Conclusions: We found widespread use of live video obstetric care by MFM clinicians and continued interest in use postpandemic.

16.
South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science ; 88(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072139

ABSTRACT

A strategy in this paper was viewed as a plan of action for achieving the mission and vision of an organisation. This paper presents preliminary findings of the larger study which aimed to determine the strategies for research data management (RDM) at selected universities in KwaZulu-Natal. The current study used the community capability maturity model framework (CCMF) and the digital curation centre (DCC) lifecycle model as theoretical support to determine the strategies for RDM service provision with specific reference to the University of Zululand. The interpretive paradigm, following the qualitative research approach through a single case study, was used. Primary data was gathered through online interviews using Zoom and Teams with Librarians, Technicians, HODs, and DVC Research due to the Covid-19 pandemic and availability of technologies. The findings of the study revealed the University of Zululand does not have an RDM policy;however, research activities are practiced. The University lacks the infrastructure and investment to support RDM services and activities. The study is significant for providing the background for developing RDM in the public university through RDM strategy and policy. The findings also sought to inform the university's RDM agenda.

17.
30th International Cartographic Conference (Icc 2021), Vol 4 ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072057

ABSTRACT

The Cruise Line industry (CLI) is working on plans to recover from the economic impacts of COVID-19. Along with the expected benefits of a post COVID19 surge in cruise tourism, destination ports have an opportunity to mitigate potential impacts that come with the tourist economy. In this study, we expand on our previous work on four CLI destination sites (two in the Caribbean and two meso-American) to a larger regional study area in the Caribbean Sea and investigate the sustainability of destination marine infrastructure and near port transportation resilience. Twenty-Eight destinations were analyzed in the study. All the CLI destinations ports in the study are considered mature for cruise tourism and have tourist attractions of interest (including historic, natural, shopping, and other areas with sociocultural authenticity), which can be reached during a one day ship visit. An analysis of the marine traffic and geographic settings provides a more complete picture on key parameters that can potentially impact the commerce and livelihoods of local communities near destination ports. The results of the study also provide potential solutions for mitigating these impacts. As a baseline for fully operational cruise industry in the Caribbean Sea, the 2019 cruise year was analyzed since it was the last full year without impact from COVID-19. This paper offers a wider empirical view of CLI impacts on the Caribbean region once the industry resumes to full capacity following the COVID-19 pandemic, and it presents results and recommendations to build a framework for continued study of CLI sustainability.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071401

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a prevalent health issue. Evidence suggests that the availability of urban nature may reduce the risks of obesity. However, several knowledge gaps remain. This study explores the relationships between the dose (distance, duration and frequency) of urban nature and demographic factors towards obesity risks among people in Thailand. A total of 111 participants in three urban and peri-urban nature locations answered a survey regarding their distance from green spaces, frequency of visits, and duration of their typical stay, as well as their socio-demographics, and waist-hip ratio (WHR). The results suggested that at least 1-2 h per typical visit to nature predicted low-risk WHR in women. Male participants are more likely to have a high-risk WHR. Increasing age predicted low-risk WHR. Spending more time in green spaces predicted lower odds of high-risk WHR, while distance did not predict the odds. This research is one of the first to study the relationship between time spent in nature and obesity, and one of the first nature and health studies conducted in Thailand. Given that Thailand is one of the countries most affected by obesity in Southeast Asia, this study is relevant and essential. Future research should explore the quality factors of the park with longer duration of stay.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk , Risk Factors , Thailand/epidemiology , Waist-Hip Ratio
19.
Journal of Transport & Health ; 26, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069416

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We describe and analyse a new, open dataset of surveyed cycling infrastructure in London UK. We demonstrate its potential to contribute to research and evidence-based policy development through a spatial analysis of infrastructure provision in London, before evaluating administrative boroughs on their infrastructure mix and compliance with UK Cycle Infrastructure Design Standards. Methods: We processed and cleaned the 233,596 records in the London Cycling Infrastructure Database (CID) that contains nine infrastructure types. To support comparison between London boroughs, infrastructure provision was normalised to borough area, population size and level of commuter cycling. We generated variables capturing cyclist separation from motor vehicles and estimated cycle lane compliance for such segregation against design standards. Results: Each CID record contains the infrastructure survey date, spatial location, infrastructure -specific variables and accompanying photographs. Traffic calming assets are numerous and distributed throughout London. Cyclist signals, crossings, Advanced Stop Lanes and cycle lanes and tracks are less numerous and more commonly seen in inner rather than outer London. Normalisation by area and population did not change these spatial patterns. Six percent of on -road cycle lane length is physically segregated from vehicles. Estimated compliance with UK design standards was notably higher for inner London boroughs with 66% exceeding mean compliance compared to just 24% of outer London boroughs. Conclusions: In this first systematic description and analysis of the CID we have demonstrated its potential to quantitively and qualitatively compare infrastructure and a method to estimate compliance against design standards. We found that cycling infrastructure is not distributed equally across London and may not be of the quality that provides safe space for cycling. Such datasets are critical assets to evaluate infrastructure and guide health and transport policies.

20.
Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo - Oil Industry ; 2021(12):131-135, 2021.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2067557

ABSTRACT

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the possibility of remote (out-of-office) work for employees of Rosneft’ s research centers has been considered as a distant prospect that requires a balanced assessment and approbation. Rosneft as other Russian vertically integrated companies adhered to the information security policy for corporate research and design institutes and oil and gas producing enterprises based on the assumption that the employee's workplace should be located in the office, inside the protected perimeter of the network. Under the influence of restrictive measures caused by the spread of the virus, remote work has turned from an organizational and technical innovation into a necessary condition for the continuation of the centers' activities. The article covers the experience of Tyumen Petroleum Research Center, Rosneft corporate institute, gained in the process of switching to remote work in conditions of tight deadlines and restrictions of access to public cloud services. Main characteristics of research center IT infrastructure and implementation of technical solutions of remote work reviewed. Authors analyzed effect of IT infrastructure changes and the massive emergence of remote workplaces on IT budget and activity of IT service, and assessed an impact of new business schedule on routine activity of employees, middle and highlevel managers of research center. Tyumen Petroleum Research Center does not plan to return to the previous model after pandemic, and makes a forecast for the continuation of the practice of using remote and mixed workplaces for its employees. This will not negate significance and demand of personal interaction. Based on this prospective, development of technologies and infrastructure solutions in research center during next three years will progress alongside with digital transformation of processes, intellectualization of services and increasing of employee's workplace mobility. © 2021, Neftyanoe Khozyaistvo. All rights reserved.

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