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1.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039571

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 has entered our lives for a long time as an infection with high mortality rates. Although the vaccination process has provided benefits, the death toll remains to be frightening worldwide. Therefore, drugs and combined therapies that can be used against Covid-19 infection are still being investigated. Most of these antiviral medications are investigational drug candidates which are still in clinical trials. In this context, holistic and different approaches for the treatment of Covid-19 including prophylactic use of natural medicines are under investigation and may offer potential treatment options due to the fact that this is still an unmet medical need in the world. Thus, inhibiting the increased glycolysis on Covid-19 infection with glycolysis inhibitors may be beneficial for patient survival. This short review highlights the potential benefits of glycolysis inhibition as well as controlling the elevated glucose levels in patients with the treatment of Covid-19.

2.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 18:101-102, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032336

ABSTRACT

Objectives:Nylon fiber is a synthetic polymer that possesses outstanding physical and chemical properties such as good strength, flexibility, and air permeability. Nylon fiber has been widely used worldwide for various products including bedding, wipes, clothing, surgical gowns, wig, etc. The outbreak of COVID-19 boosts a surge in consumer demand for antibacterial fabrics that have the ability of resistance to bacteria attack because textile materials are good medium for microorganism growth and breeding. The present study thus aims to develop a durable antibacterial nylon fabric that could be used as wig against householdwashing. Thiswig would provide a solution for patients need chemotherapy to increase their self-confidence. Methods: The method of pad-dry-cure process was used to treat the nylon fabric samples. The N1 finishing formulation was prepared by adding binder and cationic antibacterial agent to deionized water. N2 finishing solution was prepared by mixing binder and inorganic antibacterial agent in deionized water. The sample was first padded with the pre-prepared finishing formulation. Afterwards, the sample was dried in an oven at 100oC for 2 min and then cured at 150oC for 1 min. After antibacterial finishing, the samples were washed with shampoo for different cycles at room temperature. Each cycle lasts 1 min. Finally, the antibacterial property of treated samples was qualitatively conducted against gram-positive S. aureus and gram-negative K. pneumoniae according to AATCC TM 147-2011. Results: The antibacterial results demonstrate that both samples treated with N1 and N2 have excellent antibacterial activities, particularly against S. aureus. However, after washing with shampoo, N1 samples show a distinct decrease in the inhibition zone and the samples fail to kill bacteria. By contrast, N2 samples show satisfactory antibacterial properties after 52 washing cycles. Moreover, there is no significant change in the antibacterial activity of N2 samples after 52 washing cycles. This suggests that the inorganic antibacterial agent has stronger affinity to nylon fiber than cationic antibacterial agent treated nylon fabric presents durable antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The inorganic antibacterial agent shows strong affinity to nylon fiber and can be used for developing durable antibacterial nylon fabrics against washing.

3.
HemaSphere ; 6:2239-2240, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032132

ABSTRACT

Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell tumor which often relapses. BCR inhibitors (Ibrutinib, Acalabrutinib) and antiapoptotic BCL2-family members blockers BH3-mimetics (Venetoclax, ABT-199) are effective drugs to fight MCL. However, the disease remains incurable, due to therapy resistance, even to the promising Venetoclax and Ibrutinib combination. Therefore, there is a profound need to explore novel useful therapeutic targets. CK2 is a S/T kinase overexpressed in several solid and blood tumors. We demonstrated that CK2, operating through a 'non-oncogene addiction' mechanism promotes tumor cell survival, and counteracts apoptosis, by activating pro-survival signaling cascades, such as NF-κ B, STAT3 and AKT. CK2 could regulate also BCL2 family members. The CK2 chemical inhibitor CX-4945 (Silmitasertib, Sil) is already under scrutiny in clinical trials in relapsed multiple myeloma, solid tumors and COVID-19. Aims: In this work, we tested the effect of CK2 chemical inhibition or knock down on Venetoclax (Ven)-induced cytotoxicity in MCL pre-clinical models to effectively reduce MCL cell growth and clonal expansion. Methods: CK2 expression and BCR/BCL2 related signaling components were analyzed in MCL cells and control cells by Western blotting. CK2 and BCL2 inhibition was obtained with Sil and Ven, respectively and with CK2 gene silencing through the generation of anti-CK2 shRNA IPTG-inducible MCL cell clones. Survival, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and proliferation were investigated by FACS analysis of AnnexinV/PI and JC-10 staining. The synergic action of Ven and Sil was analyzed by the Chou-Talalay combination index (CI) method. CK2 knock down in vivo was obtained in xenograft NOD-SCID mouse models Results: CK2 inactivation (with Sil or CK2 silencing) determined a reduction in the activating phosphorylation of S529 p65/RelA and S473 and S129 AKT, important survival cascades for MCL. Sil or CK2 silencing caused BCL2 and related MCL1 protein reduction, causing cell death. Importantly, we confirmed these results also in an in vivo xenograft mouse model of CK2 knockdown in MCL. Sil +Ven combination increased MCL cell apoptosis, as judged by the augmented frequency of Annexin V positive cells and expression of cleaved PARP protein, and JC-10 mitochondrial membrane depolarization, with respect to the single treatments. Captivatingly, Sil or CK2 gene silencing led to a substantial reduction of the Ven-induced increase of MCL-1, potentially counteracting a deleterious Ven-induced drawback. Analysis of cell cycle distribution confirmed an increased frequency of apoptotic cells in the sub G1 phase in CK2-silenced cells and a modulation of the other phases of the cell cycle. Remarkably, the calculated CI less than 1 suggested a strong synergic cell-killing effect between Sil and Ven, on all the cell lines tested, including those less sensitive or resistant to Ven Summary/Conclusion: We demonstrated that the simultaneous inhibition/knock down of CK2 and BCL2 synergistically cooperates in inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of MCL malignant B-lymphocytes and has the potential of reducing MCL clonal growth, also counterbalancing mechanism of resistance that may arise with Ven. Therefore, CK2 is a rational therapeutic target for the treatment of MCL to be tested in combination with Ibrutinib or Ven.

4.
HemaSphere ; 6:2642-2643, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032108

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with transfusion-dependent-thalassaemia (TDT) are considered as increased risk population for severe and/or morbid COVID-19 infection. Timely vaccination is the main preventive method for severe COVID-19. Aims: To provide an overview of the clinical profile and outcome of COVID-19 infection in patients with TDT as well as to study the immune response after 3 and 6 months after vaccination against COVID-19 in adult patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia. Methods: This analysis focused on the evaluation in TDT patients on the long-term immune response post vaccination and on the course of COVID-19 infection and its correlation with immunization status. Serum was collected at 4 pre-defined time points, namely, just before 1st dose (TP1), 7 weeks after the 1st dose (TP2), 3 months (TP3) and 6 months (TP4) after 2nd dose. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 were measured using FDA-approved methods. According to manufacturer, the scale of NAbs titer is 0-100%, with ≥30% considered as positive and ≥50% as clinically relevant viral inhibition. Age-matched healthy volunteers (median age: 46 years, range: 24-64 years, 24 males / 53 females) who received mRNA vaccines served as the control group for NAbs evaluation. Results: 340 (170female/170male) TDT patients older than 18 years (mean 43.6±11.5 years) followed in a single unit were included in the analysis. 270 patients (79%) were vaccinated with 2 or 3 doses. Immune response to vaccination was evaluated in 90 patients (median age: 46 years, range: 19-63 years, 40 males / 50 females). NAbs were at the level of non-immunity in all the patients at baseline (TP1) (mean 16.57% ±11.85) and showed a significant increase after the second dose (TP2) mean 86.96%±12.95 (p<0.0001). At TP3 and TP4 Nabs showed a significant decrease but remained in protective levels for the majority of the patients (mean 88.75% ±9.7 and 74.64% ±17.2 respectively(p<0.0001). The kinetics of NAbs were similar to controls except for levels at TP4 (p=0.02) (Figure 1). Up to 10/FEB/2022, 43 TDT patients (median age 43.52 range 18.6-57.9 years) were diagnosed with COVID-19, with 1 of them being infected twice. Of them, 17 were unvaccinated, 18 had received 2 doses of vaccine, while 8 had received 3 doses of the vaccine. The incidence rate was 9.6% and 24.3% for vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, respectively. The severity of the COVID-19 for vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were as follows, respectively, ;Grade 1 (asymptomatic): 0 and 1, Grade 2 (mild symptoms, symptomatic therapy, no COVID19 specific therapy): 23 and 9, Grade 3 (mild symptoms, symptomatic therapy, with COVID19 specific therapy): 1 and 3, Grade 4 (moderate: pneumonia, thrombophlebitis, Hospitalization): 2 and 3, Grade 5 (Hospitalization requiring ICU, death): 0 and 1. Thrombotic event was documented in 1 patient. All patients except one from unvaccinated group are alive. Summary/Conclusion: Immune response to vaccination may wean faster in TDT patients. in Unvaccinated TDT patients were more likely to be infected and to develop more serious COVID-19 infection compared to vaccinated patients. (Figure Presented).

5.
Gynecologic Oncology ; 166:S166-S167, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031756

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has demonstrated efficacy in a small fraction of patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC), some with durable responses. The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL and its sole ligand, GAS6, are possible mediators of T cell exclusion and an attractive target due to the expected synergy between AXL inhibition and immune targeting agents. The recommended phase II dose (RP2D), safety, and efficacy of the combination of AXL inhibition via AVB-S6-500 with durvalumab (MEDI4736) were evaluated in patients with PROC. Methods: In this open-label Phase Ib open-label study, patients with PROC received AVB-S6-500 and durvalumab therapy in escalating dosing regimens guided by a Bayesian optimal interval (BOIN) design: durvalumab (1500 mg Q4W) and AVB-S6-500 (10mg/kg Q2W, 15mg/kg Q2W, 20mg/kg Q2W) with durvalumab infused prior to AVB-S6-500. The response was evaluated using modified RECIST v1.1. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies were collected, and PD-L1 status and tumor/tumor microenvironment AXL and GAS6 staining pre and on-treatment were assessed. Results: Eleven patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (six clear cells [55%], four high-grade serous [36%], one endometrioid histology [1%]) received treatment per protocol. The median number of prior lines of therapy was 3 (range: 1-5);73% (8/11) of patients had received prior bevacizumab. There were no DLTs noted over the 6-week period and no grade ≥3 adverse events attributed to study drugs. Five patients experienced an immune-related AE, most commonly liver enzyme elevations (36%). Infusion reaction with AVB-S6- 500 was noted in the first two subjects, prompting the institution of a premedication regimen, after which only one of the nine additional patients experienced an infusion reaction. Dose delays greater than one week occurred in six (55%) patients;three patients experienced delays for cancer-related complications (small bowel obstruction, pneumonia, severe fatigue), while three patients experienced delays for non-medical causes (COVID/travel, weather). Patients received therapy for a median of two cycles (range: 1-6), and there were no responses noted across all dosing levels. One patient had stable disease, with a duration of response of three months. Only two patients had strong (2+) AXLstaining on pretreatment biopsy, both with high-grade serous histology. The majority of serum AXL levels were within previously demonstrated ranges (range: 5.6-112ng/mL), though two patients had comparatively high levels (102, 112ng/mL). PK/PD analysis revealed expected AVB-S6-500 levels at initial postdose (C1D1), but low levels at trough (C2D1 predose) when compared to prior AVB-S6-500 data [1]. Conclusions: The combination of AVB-S6-500 and durvalumab was tolerable in this PROC patient population at all dosing levels tested. Exploratory studies to correlate lack of response to AXL-GAS6 pathway alterations, tumor microenvironment, and clinical characteristics, such as prior treatment, dosing delays, burden of disease, and ascites, are ongoing.

6.
Viruses ; 14(8):1692, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024273

ABSTRACT

Annual vaccination against influenza is the best tool to prevent deaths and hospitalizations. Regular updates of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV) are necessary due to high mutation rates in influenza viruses. TIV effectiveness is affected by antigenic mismatches, age, previous immunity, and other host factors. Studying TIV effectiveness annually in different populations is critical. The serological responses to Southern-Hemisphere TIV and circulating influenza strains were evaluated in 2018–2020 among Brazilian volunteers, using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Post-vaccination titers were corrected to account for pre-vaccination titers. Our population achieved >83% post-vaccination seroprotection levels, whereas seroconversion rates ranged from 10% to 46%. TIV significantly enhanced antibody titers and seroprotection against all prior and contemporary vaccine and circulating strains tested. Strong cross-reactive responses were detected, especially between H1N1 subtypes. A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016, included in the 2018 TIV, induced the poorest response. Significant titer and seroprotection reductions were observed 6 and 12 months after vaccination. Age had a slight effect on TIV response, whereas previous vaccination was associated with lower seroconversion rates and titers. Despite this, TIV induced high seroprotection for all strains, in all groups. Regular TIV evaluations, based on regional influenza strain circulation, should be conducted and the factors affecting response studied.

7.
Healthcare ; 10(8):1477, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023386

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Psychological well-being (PWB) is a multidimensional construct which is a key protective factor against chronic diseases in older adults. Numerous psychological and cognitive factors can influence older people’s PWB. However, while most studies have explored the effect of general cognition, only a few investigated the role of specific cognitive functions such as the efficiency of executive functions. Thus, the present study aimed to directly explore the relationships between PWB, age, and the core executive functions (namely working memory, flexibility, and inhibition). (2) Methods: A sample of 51 healthy older adults (age range: 60–88) were enrolled and tested both for PWB (by Ryff’s psychological well-being scale) and the core executive functions (by the Digit span backward, the Trail Making Test, and the Stroop test). (3) Results: Age and inhibitory skills are negatively correlated to the personal growth subscale of the PWB scale. Moreover, a hierarchical regression analysis showed that inhibition, but not working memory and flexibility, predicted the sense of continued growth and development (personal growth) of older adults, even after controlling for age and educational levels. Limitations and implications for future research and prevention interventions are discussed.

8.
Front Oncol ; 12:879876, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination reduces risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 severity and death. However, the rate of seroconversion after COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients requiring systemic anticancer treatment is poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of seroconversion after COVID-19 vaccination in advanced skin cancer patients under active systemic anticancer treatment. METHODS: This prospective single-center study of a consecutive sample of advanced skin cancer patients was performed from May 2020 until October 2021. Inclusion criteria were systemic treatment for advanced skin cancer, known COVID-19 vaccination status, repetitive anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG serum quantification and first and second COVID-19 vaccination. Primary outcome was the rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG seroconversion after complete COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Of 60 patients with advanced skin cancers, 52 patients (86.7%) received immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI), seven (11.7%) targeted agents (TT), one (1.7%) chemotherapy. Median follow-up time was 12.7 months. During study progress ten patients had died from skin cancer prior to vaccination completion, six patients were lost to follow-up and three patients had refused vaccination. 41 patients completed COVID-19 vaccination with two doses and known serological status. Of those, serum testing revealed n=3 patients (7.3%) as anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG positive prior to vaccination, n=32 patients (78.0%) showed a seroconversion, n=6 patients (14.6%) did not achieve a seroconversion. Patients failing serological response were immunocompromised due to concomitant hematological malignancy, previous chemotherapy or autoimmune disease requiring immunosuppressive comedications. Immunosuppressive comedication due to severe adverse events of ICI therapy did not impair seroconversion following COVID-19 vaccination. Of 41 completely vaccinated patients, 35 (85.4%) were under treatment with ICI, five (12.2%) with TT, and one (2.4%) with chemotherapy. 27 patients (65.9%) were treated non adjuvantly. Of these patients, 13 patients had achieved objective response (complete/partial response) as best tumor response (48.2%). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG seroconversion in advanced skin cancer patients under systemic anticancer treatment after complete COVID-19 vaccination is comparable to other cancer entities. An impaired serological response was observed in patients who were immunocompromised due to concomitant diseases or previous chemotherapies. Immunosuppressive comedication due to severe adverse events of ICI did not impair the serological response to COVID-19 vaccination.

9.
Frontiers in Nutrition ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022809

ABSTRACT

It is well recognized that redox imbalance, nitric oxide (NO), and vitamin D deficiencies increase risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, and infectious diseases. However, clinical studies assessing efficacy of NO and vitamin D supplementation have failed to produce unambiguous efficacy outcomes suggesting that the understanding of the pharmacologies involved is incomplete. This raises the need for using systems pharmacology tools to better understand cause-effect relationships at biological systems levels. We describe the use of spectral clustering methodology to analyze protein network interactions affected by a complex nutraceutical, Cardio Miracle (CM), that contains arginine, citrulline, vitamin D, and antioxidants. This examination revealed that interactions between protein networks affected by these substances modulate functions of a network of protein complexes regulating caveolae-mediated endocytosis (CME), TGF beta activity, vitamin D efficacy and host defense systems. Identification of this regulatory scheme and the working of embedded reciprocal feedback loops has significant implications for treatment of vitamin D deficiencies, atherosclerosis, metabolic and infectious diseases such as COVID-19.

10.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2022745

ABSTRACT

Influenza vaccines remain the most effective tools to prevent flu and its complications. Trivalent or quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines primarily elicit antibodies towards haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. These vaccines fail to induce high protective efficacy, in particular in older adults and immunocompromised individuals and require annual updates to keep up with evolving influenza strains (antigenic drift). Vaccine efficacy declines when there is a mismatch between its content and circulating strains. Current correlates of protection are merely based on serological parameters determined by haemagglutination inhibition or single radial haemolysis assays. However, there is ample evidence showing that these serological correlates of protection can both over- or underestimate the protective efficacy of influenza vaccines. Next-generation universal influenza vaccines that induce cross-reactive cellular immune responses (CD4+ and/or CD8+ T-cell responses) against conserved epitopes may overcome some of the shortcomings of the current inactivated vaccines by eliciting broader protection that lasts for several influenza seasons and potentially enhances pandemic preparedness. Assessment of cellular immune responses in clinical trials that evaluate the immunogenicity of these new generation vaccines is thus of utmost importance. Moreover, studies are needed to examine whether these cross-reactive cellular immune responses can be considered as new or complementary correlates of protection in the evaluation of traditional and next-generation influenza vaccines. An overview of the assays that can be applied to measure cell-mediated immune responses to influenza with their strengths and weaknesses is provided here. Copyright © 2022 Janssens, Joye, Waerlop, Clement, Leroux-Roels and Leroux-Roels.

11.
Infancy ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2019347

ABSTRACT

The association between prenatal stress and children's socioemotional development is well established. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a particularly stressful period, which may impact the gestational environment. However, most studies to-date have examined prenatal stress at a single time point, potentially masking the natural variation in stress that occurs over time, especially during a time as uncertain as the pandemic. This study leveraged dense ecological momentary assessments from a prenatal randomized control trial to examine patterns of prenatal stress over a 14-week period (up to four assessments/day) in a U.S. sample of 72 mothers and infants. We first examined whether varied features of stress exposure (lability, mean, and baseline stress) differed depending on whether mothers reported on their stress before or during the pandemic. We next examined which features of stress were associated with 3-month-old infants' negative affect. We did not find differences in stress patterns before and during the pandemic. However, greater stress lability, accounting for baseline and mean stress, was associated with higher infant negative affect. These findings suggest that pathways from prenatal stress exposure to infant socioemotional development are complex, and close attention to stress patterns over time will be important for explicating these pathways.

12.
22nd International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications , ICCSA 2022 ; 13382 LNCS:264-274, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013919

ABSTRACT

A new highly efficient GPU-equipped computing platform for studying the molecular inhibition mechanisms of the Sars-Cov-2 virus by natural compounds and aptamers has been installed and configured. Studies will be carried out by means of molecular dynamics methods and programs. For this reason, we have assembled specific hardware components into a 4U rack, together with a NVIDIA RTX 3060 GPU for speeding up molecular dynamics calculations and visualizing their outcomes. In fact, not only computational resources, in terms of computing power and execution times, are needed by molecular dynamics programs adopted by us, but also a system allowing the rendering and visualization of large biomolecules and their trajectories, such as viruses and proteins, represents a key factor for our work. Details about platform implementation and preliminary tests carried out are discussed. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009659

ABSTRACT

Background: Gal-3 is a protein that binds specifically to N-acetylglucosamine-expressing carbohydrates, which are upregulated on key tumorigenic cell surface proteins. Gal-3 is widely over-expressed in the tumor microenvironment and is generally linked to poor outcomes. Gal-3 regulates immune cell function of T cells and macrophages, and promotes neovascularization and fibrosis [Peng Cancer Res 2008;Markowska J Biol Chem 2011;Kouo Cancer Immunol Res 2015]. Gal-3 sequesters interferon gamma, reduces T-cell influx, and contributes to tumor cell evasion of the immune system via LAG-3 activation [Chen PNAS 2009;Gordon-Alonso Nat Commun 2017]. Gal-3 has been identified as a marker of resistance to checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs);patients with stage IV NSCLC with high Gal-3 levels (> 70% Gal-3 immunohistochemical staining) have been shown to be resistant to the CPI pembrolizumab [Capalbo Int J Mol Sci 2019]. Animal data indicate synergy between CPI therapy and Gal-3 inhibition [Vuong Cancer Res 2019;Zhang FEBS Open Bio 2021]. Thus, inhibiting Gal-3 together with CPI-based immunotherapy may enhance tumor-specific immune responses, and overcome CPI resistance. Methods: GALLANT-1 (NCT05240131) is a 3-part, placebo-controlled phase Ib/IIa trial that will investigate safety and efficacy of GB1211 (a Gal-3 inhibitor) + atezo vs placebo + atezo in patients with advanced NSCLC. Part A will include 8-12 patients and study safety and tolerability of 200 mg and 400 mg GB1211 twice-daily + atezo (open-label). Primary endpoint is number of adverse events (AEs) after 12 weeks' treatment and will determine the dosage for Part B. Part B will include 75-94 patients, and is a randomized, double-blind study of GB1211 + atezo or placebo + atezo. Primary endpoints are safety (number of AEs) and efficacy (percentage change from baseline in the sum of longest diameter of target lesions after 12 weeks' treatment). Part C is an expansion study including patients from Parts A and B, with safety and efficacy assessments. Eligibility criteria: advanced or metastatic stage IIIB or IV NSCLC adenocarcinoma;measurable disease per RECIST v1.1;expression of programmed death ligand-1 on ≥50% of tumor cells;eligible for 1200 mg atezo every 3 weeks. Exclusion criteria: symptomatic, untreated, or actively progressing central nervous system metastases;prior systemic chemotherapy for treatment of recurrent advanced or metastatic disease, except if part of neoadjuvant/ adjuvant therapy;prior treatment with immune CPIs and/or GB1211;presence of EGFR mutation and ALK, ROS1, and RET alterations;treatment with antineoplastic or systemic immunotherapeutic agents prior to first GB1211 dose;severe infectious disease < 4 weeks prior to first GB1211 dose;active hepatitis B or C, HIV, or COVID-19. The study is being initiated;updated enrollment status will be presented at the meeting.

14.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009616

ABSTRACT

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) constitute the mainstay of treatment in several unresectable locally advanced and metastatic solid cancers. mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are immunogenic and can modulate intrinsic host immunostimulatory properties however the effect of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination on outcomes in patients receiving ICI is not well understood. This study examines the outcomes in cancer patients receiving ICI according to their vaccination status. Methods: From January 2021 to December 2021, we identified adult patients with locally advanced and metastatic solid tumors at the University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System who had received at least one dose of ICI, either as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy or targeted therapy, in any line of cancer treatment. Patients were stratified by COVID-19 vaccination status and treatment type (monotherapy versus combined chemoimmunotherapy). Endpoints included immune-related adverse events (IRAEs), progression-free survival (PFS) from ICI initiation and overall survival (OS). Results: Among 89 patients meeting these inclusion criteria, the mean age at diagnosis was 66 years, patient sex was about equally split (female 50.5% to male 49.5%), most patients were minorities (including 58.4% African American), vaccinated (78.7%), had lung cancer (57.3%), were stage IV (71.1%), and had received ICI monotherapy (67.4%). There were no significant differences in the rate of IRAEs between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients (p= 0.53). Patients who received ICI monotherapy had higher rates of IRAEs (p< 0.001). There was no difference in PFS between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients (p= 0.7) and no difference in OS between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients (p= 0.59). Conclusions: In this real-world sample of patients with advanced solid cancers who received ICI there were no significant differences in IRAEs, PFS or OS between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients, which may be due to the relatively small sample size. Larger real-world datasets with long-term follow-up are needed to study the effect of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination on outcomes in advanced cancer patients receiving ICI.

15.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009611

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer patients infected with COVID-19 are very vulnerable to increased complications and mortality while actively being treated with chemotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The full impact of COVID-19 infections on this subset of patients has not been fully defined. Our goal was to track clinical outcomes in patients with an underlying malignancy and COVID-19 infection who received chemotherapy or ICIs. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 121 patients (age > 18 years) at the University of Alabama-Birmingham from January 2020 till November 2021 with an advanced solid malignancy that were treated with chemotherapy or ICIs within 12 months of their COVID-19 diagnosis. The aim of this study was to track clinical outcomes including: hospitalization rates, ICU admissions, treatments, and deaths of any cause. Results: A total of 121 patients were examined in this study and 61 received immunotherapy treatment within 12 months. The median age at diagnosis for the ICI group was 62.3 years and 54% were male while for the patients that receive chemotherapy the median age at diagnosis was 65.1 years and 53% were male (Table1). The 3 most common cancers represented in the ICI cohort were lung (30%, NSCLC), liver (13%, HCC) and renal (11%, RCC). While in the chemotherapy group, the 3 most cancers were NSCLC (40%), HCC (12%,), and head & neck (10%, H&N). 25% of patients on ICIs died while only 13% of patients died post chemotherapy. Of the ICI patients that died, 33% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 53% received oxygen, steroids and antiviral therapy. For the chemotherapy patients that died, 25% were admitted to the ICU and 50% received oxygen, steroids and antiviral therapy. Patients with lower ECOG (0.98) had lower mortality compared to patients with worse functional status (0.98 vs 1.52;t = 3.20;p < 0.01). Factors associated with increased admission were higher ECOG (1.07 vs 1.67;f = 3.05;p = 0.05), higher AST (21.2 vs 40.9, f = 10.2;p < 0.001), lower absolute lymphocyte count (1122.8 vs 408.9, f = 5.99;p < 0.01) and higher oxygen needs (0.02 vs 1.11, f = 29.5;p < 0.001). Conclusions: ICI mortality was higher compared to patients receiving chemotherapy, especially for those with reduced functional status. Factors for hospitalization included: higher ECOG, higher AST, lower lymphocyte count and increased oxygen needs. However, further investigation still needs to be undertaken to understand if the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway with the subsequent inflammatory cascade post COVID-19 can impact overall survival.

16.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1122, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008794

ABSTRACT

Background: Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKi) are relatively new to the feld of rheumatology and provide health professionals in rheumatology (HPRs) with more therapeutic options for treating infammatory arthritis (IA), specifcally rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) [1]. Aside from a different target, JAKi differ from often currently prescribed biologics by being administered orally. To date, there is a lack of evidence on what HPRs think about their real-world use and how the COVID-19 pandemic affects JAKi prescription. Objectives: To explore UK-based HPRs' perspectives towards JAKi use in IA patients, and in the context also of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A 15-item anonymous online survey, with both closed and open-ended questions, was designed and piloted on 5 HPRs with amendments made based on their feedback. The survey was advertised on Twitter and shared by email in September 2021. Data were exported from the online survey platform and analysed descriptively with the assistance of statistical software. Results: Fifty-one HPRs responded to the survey: 37 Consultants, 7 Registrars, 5 Clinical Nurse Specialists, 1 Clinical Fellow and 1 'other rheumatology role' (not stated). Responses were received from 11/12 UK regions. Most represented was Greater London (18%) and North-West England (16%). 69% of respondents worked in secondary care, with the remaining 31% in tertiary care. The majority (40%) spent 1-25% of their job role doing research, followed by 27% who were not research active. 60% of HPRs indicated that 1-5% of their RA and/or PsA patients take a JAKi (no HPRs had more than 15% of their RA/PsA patients on a JAKi). 96% of HPRs indicated that they prescribe JAKi in their clinical practice, with 91% of those who prescribe following their local guidelines. 72% of respondents who prescribe JAKi, prescribed them 'frequently' as a monotherapy. Figure 1 shows responses chosen for when JAKi therapy is usually started and for feeling less confdent with JAKi prescription. Of those HPRs who prescribe, 17% have continued JAKi in their patients. When discontinuation occurred, the most common reasons chosen (multiple responses allowed) were 'due to inefficacy' (60%), 'due to other adverse events' i.e., non-major adverse cardiovascular events (32%) and 'due to herpes zoster infection' (28%). 55% of HPRs would consider switching patients to another JAKi after initial failure. Across prescrib-ers, 49% indicated no impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their prescribing of JAKi. Common reasons chosen for a change in prescribing patterns for JAKi as a result of the pandemic (multiple responses allowed) included: prescribing them more as 'an alternative to infusions, in order to reduce hospital visits' (23%) and as 'an alternative to injections, in order to reduce at-home training visits' (21%). This was followed by 'other reason' (15%) with the free text from all 7 respondents highlighting the benefts of the shorter half-life of JAKi e.g., 'Prescribed more as quick on and quick off so can be discontinued quickly in event of severe infection' (Registrar, Greater London). Safety concerns around the use of JAKi were raised in 13/14 free text comments left at the end of the survey e.g., 'I am concerned about recent reports of increased VTE [venous thromboembolism] and malignancies' (Consultant, Yorkshire and the Humber) and 'Concerns about cardiovascular safety' (Clinical Fellow, Scotland). Conclusion: A large proportion of HPRs indicate confdence in prescribing JAKi to their patients with IA, adhering to local guidelines. JAKi are largely prescribed as monotherapy, with the most frequent reason for discontinuation being ineffi-cacy. The COVID-19 pandemic seems to have positively impacted JAKi prescription, however, safety concerns over JAKi use remain for some HPRs.

17.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2008189

ABSTRACT

Global COVID-19 pandemic is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Continuous emergence of new variants and their rapid spread are jeopardizing vaccine countermeasures to a significant extent. While currently available vaccines are effective at preventing illness associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, these have been shown to be less effective at preventing breakthrough infection and transmission from a vaccinated individual to others. Here we demonstrate broad antiviral activity of cysteamine HCl in vitro against major emergent infectious variants of SARS-CoV-2 in a highly permissible Vero cell line. Cysteamine HCl inhibited infection of wild type, alpha, beta, gamma, delta, lambda, and omicron variants effectively. Cysteamine is a very well-tolerated US FDA-approved drug used chronically as a topical ophthalmic solution to treat ocular cystinosis in patients who receive it hourly or QID lifelong at concentrations 6 times higher than that required to inhibit SARS CoV-2 in tissue culture. Application of cysteamine as a topical nasal treatment can potentially1) mitigate existing infection 2) prevent infection in exposed individuals, and 3) limit the contagion in vulnerable populations.

18.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007813

ABSTRACT

5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a vital precursor for the biosynthesis of tetrapyrrole compounds, has been widely applied in agriculture and medicine, while extremely potential for the treatment of cancers, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and metabolic diseases in recent years. With the development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, the biosynthesis of 5-ALA has attracted increasing attention. 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), the key enzyme for 5-ALA synthesis in the C4 pathway, is subject to stringent feedback inhibition by heme. In this work, cysteine-targeted mutation of ALAS was proposed to overcome this drawback. ALAS from Rhodopseudomonas palustris (RP-ALAS) and Rhodobacter capsulatus (RC-ALAS) were selected for mutation and eight variants were generated. Variants RP-C132A and RC-C201A increased enzyme activities and released hemin inhibition, respectively, maintaining 82.5% and 81.9% residual activities in the presence of 15 μM hemin. Moreover, the two variants exhibited higher stability than that of their corresponding wild-type enzymes. Corynebacterium glutamicum overexpressing RP-C132A and RC-C201A produced 14.0% and 21.6% higher titers of 5-ALA than the control, respectively. These results strongly suggested that variants RP-C132A and RC-C201A obtained by utilizing cysteine-targeted mutation strategy released hemin inhibition, broadening their applications in 5-ALA biosynthesis.

19.
SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine ; 4(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2007346

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are a vulnerable population in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. The impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) on the outcomes of COVID-19 infection in cancer patients remains largely unclear. We retrospectively investigated all solid cancer patients who received at least one cycle of ICIs at a single institution between August 2020 and August 2021. All stage IV solid cancer patients who were on or ceased ICI treatment when diagnosed with COVID-19 were eligible. All COVID-19 infections were confirmed by RT-PCR. Risk factors for hospitalization, severe symptoms, and death were analyzed. A total of 56 patients were included in our study. Twenty (35.7%) patients require hospitalization, 12 (21.4%) developed severe symptoms, and 10 (17.9%) died from COVID-19 infection. ICI treatment was interrupted in 37 patients (66.1%), 24 of whom (64.9%) had treatment resumed. Eight (80%) COVID-19-related death occurred in unvaccinated individuals. Reinfection occurred in seven patients (12.5%), and three of them died from their second COVID-19 infection. Factors associated with hospitalization were high Charlson comorbidity score (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.10–2.23, p = 0.01) and lymphocyte ≤ 1500 mm3 (OR 10.05, 95% CI 2.03–49.85, p = 0.005). Age, chemoimmunotherapy, and ICI treatment duration were not associated with increased risk of hospitalization, severe symptoms, or COVID-19-related mortality. ICI therapy does not impose an increased risk for severe COVID-19 infection in stage IV cancer patients. Vaccination should be encouraged among this population. Clinicians should be cognizant of a potential worse outcome in COVID-19-reinfected patients.

20.
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology ; 65, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005787

ABSTRACT

Obesity is one of the main health problems associated with a range of diseases. Genetic disposition is related to the risk for obesity but external conditions such lifestyle also increase the incidence. Current COVID-19 pandemic conditions around the globe have been reported to increase the cases of Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to prolonged sedentary life. Among the various treatment modalities, applications of alpha-amylase inhibitors are commonly used worldwide. Commercially available anti-diabetic drugs are potent inhibitors of alpha-amylase that reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, alpha-amylase inhibition efficiencies of some 1,2,4-triazole derivatives were evaluated. Furthermore, it has been attempted to determine the possible inhibition mechanism of the strongest inhibitor compound among the 8 candidate molecules for alpha-amylase. Compound VII showed the strongest inhibition on alpha-amylase activity with low IC50 value (150 mu M). An inhibitory kinetic analysis on alpha-amylase activity by Compound VII was found to be reversible and uncompetitive. Furthermore, molecular docking studies with this molecule showed that it could bind to the catalytic site of the enzyme by performing weak interactions with Ser56, Tyr59, Tyr62, Asp176, Asp274 and Leu142 residues. Cytotoxic potential of Compound VII on amylase overexpressing AR42J pancreatic cancer cells was also performed using trypan blue staining and the compound at the highest dose 10 mu M was found to be cytotoxic, but effective for alpha amylase inhibition at non-cytotoxic doses. The results showed in vitro effect of Compound VII on alpha-amylase inhibition in cells. Here, we suggest an alternative and non-cytotoxic alpha-amylase inhibitor for T2DM.

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