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1.
Int J Retina Vitreous ; 8(1): 33, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879264

ABSTRACT

Tertiary outpatient ophthalmology clinics are high-risk environments for COVID-19 transmission, especially retina clinics, where regular follow-up is needed for elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. Intravitreal injection therapy (IVT) for chronic macular diseases, is one of the most common procedures performed, associated with a significant burden of care because of the vigorous treatment regimen associated with multiple investigations. While minimizing the risk of COVID-19 infection transmission is a priority, this must be balanced against the continued provision of sight-saving ophthalmic care to patients at risk of permanent vision loss. This review aims to give evidence-based guidelines on managing IVT during the COVID-19 pandemic in common macular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macula edema and retinal vascular disease and to report on how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected IVT practices worldwide.To illustrate some real-world examples, 18 participants in the International Retina Collaborative, from 15 countries and across four continents, were surveyed regarding pre- and during- COVID-19 pandemic IVT practices in tertiary ophthalmic centers. The majority of centers reported a reduction in the number of appointments to reduce the risk of the spread of COVID-19 with varying changes to their IVT regimen to treat various macula diseases. Due to the constantly evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the uncertainty about the normal resumption of health services, we suggest that new solutions for eye healthcare provision, like telemedicine, may be adopted in the future when we consider new long-term adaptations required to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Pain Physician ; 25(3): 223-238, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1871335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple publications have shown the significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on US healthcare and increasing costs over the recent years in managing low back and neck pain as well as other musculoskeletal disorders. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many modalities of treatments, including those related to chronic pain management, including both interventional techniques and opioids. While there have not been assessments of utilization of interventional techniques specific to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, previous analysis published with data from 2000 to 2018 demonstrated a decline in utilization of interventional techniques from 2009 to 2018 of 6.7%, with an annual decline of 0.8% per 100,000 fee-for-service (FFS) in the Medicare population. During that same time, the Medicare population has grown by 3% annually. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this analysis include an evaluation of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as an updated assessment of the utilization of interventional techniques in managing chronic pain in the Medicare population from 2010 to 2019, 2010 to 2020, and 2019 to 2020 in the FFS Medicare population of the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Utilization patterns and variables of interventional techniques with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in managing chronic pain were assessed from 2000 to 2020 in the FFS Medicare population of the United States. METHODS: The data for the analysis was obtained from the master database from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) physician/supplier procedure summary from 2000 to 2020. RESULTS: The results of the present investigation revealed an 18.7% decrease in utilization of all interventional techniques per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries from 2019 to 2020, with a 19% decrease for epidural and adhesiolysis procedures, a 17.5% decrease for facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint blocks, and a 25.4% decrease for disc procedures and other types of nerve blocks. The results differed from 2000 to 2010 with an annualized increase of 10.2% per 100,000 Medicare population compared to an annualized decrease of 0.4% from 2010 to 2019, and a 2.5% decrease from 2010 to 2020 for all interventional techniques. For epidural and adhesiolysis procedures decreases were more significant and annualized at 3.1% from 2010 to 2019, increasing the decline to 4.8% from 2010 to 2020. For facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint blocks, the reversal of growth patterns was observed but maintained at an annualized rate increase of 2.1% from 2010 to 2019, which changed to a decrease of 0.01% from 2010 to 2020. Disc procedures and other types of nerve blocks showed similar patterns as epidurals with an 0.8% annualized reduction from 2010 to 2019, which was further reduced to 3.6% from 2010 to 2020 due to COVID-19. LIMITATIONS: Data for the COVID-19 pandemic impact were available only for 2019 and 2020 and only the FFS Medicare population was utilized; utilization patterns in Medicare Advantage Plans, which constitutes almost 40% of the Medicare enrollment in 2020 were not available. Moreover, this analysis shares the limitations present in all retrospective reviews of claims based datasets. CONCLUSION: The decline driven by the COVID-19 pandemic was 18.7% from 2019 to 2020. Overall decline in utilization in interventional techniques from 2010 to 2020 was 22.0% per 100,000 Medicare population, with an annual diminution of 2.5%, despite an increase in the population rate of 3.3% annualized (38.9% overall) and Medicare enrollees of 33.4% and 2.9% annually.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain , Aged , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , Humans , Medicare , Pain Management/methods , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States
3.
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology ; 258(12):2655-2660, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1863848

ABSTRACT

PurposeTo quantify the shrinking in outpatient and intravitreal injections’ volumes in a tertiary referral retina unit secondary to virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).MethodsIn this retrospective cross-sectional study, we reviewed the charts of all patients who had a visit at a medical retina referral center during the Italian quarantine (from 9th of March 2020 to 3rd of May 2020). Number and characteristics of these data were compared with data from the same period in 2019 (from 9th of March 2019 to 3rd of May 2019).ResultsIn the 2019 study period, there were 303 patients attending clinic (150 males, 153 females). In the 2020 study period, patients decreased to 75 (48 males, 27 females;P = 0.022 comparing gender prevalence between the two periods) with an overall reduction of 75.2%. Mean ± SD age was 71.4 ± 14.3 years (range 25–93 years) in the 2019 study period and 66.7 ± 13.1 years (range 32–91 years) in the 2020 study period (P = 0.005). The largest drop in outpatient volume was recorded in AMD patients (− 79.9%). Regarding the intravitreal treatments, there were 1252 injections in the 2019 period and 583 injections in the 2020 period (− 53.6% in injections). The drop in intravitreal treatments was larger in patients with posterior uveitis, retinal vein occlusion, and diabetes (− 85.7%, − 61.9%, and − 59.6%, respectively).ConclusionThe volume of outpatient visits and intravitreal injections declined during the COVID-19 quarantine. The short- and long-term impacts are that routine in-person visits and intravitreal injections are expected to increase after the quarantine and, even more, after the pandemic.

4.
Qatar Medical Journal ; 2022(2):1-2, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1811101

ABSTRACT

Background: Skin prick test (SPT) and intradermal test (IDT) are standard procedures in the allergy practice that are safe when performed. Individuals with a history of allergic reaction to the COVID-19 vaccine can undergo allergy skin testing for polyethylene glycol and polysorbate 80 to determine their eligibility for the same vaccine or a safe alternative. Hypopigmentation is an infrequent adverse effect of corticosteroids, including triamcinolone acetonide, following local and intralesional treatment. Exposure to high potency corticosteroids for a long duration and the intradermal injection route are risk factors for hypopigmentation. In this case report, we describe the development of hypopigmentation following triamcinolone ID testing. Case report: A 29-year-old lady with a history of immediate severe allergic reaction following the first dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer) underwent SPT and IDT for polysorbate 80 and polyethylene glycol. Triamcinolone acetonide and Prevnar 13 were used as an indicator of polysorbate 80. Following a negative SPT, IDT for triamcinolone acetonide was negative at 1:10 of 40 mg/mL and positive at 1:1 of 40 mg/mL. A few days later, she noticed hypopigmented lesions at the site of the intradermal skin test for both concentrations of triamcinolone. The lesions have increased in size since then (see image). The patient was diagnosed with steroid-induced hypopigmentation secondary to triamcinolone IDT injection. Conclusion: Skin hypopigmentation following intraarticular and intralesional triamcinolone injection has been reported previously. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of steroid-induced hypopigmentation following intradermal skin testing. Furthermore, this report highlights that even a low dose of local triamcinolone can cause hypopigmentation. We believe that this case report regarding the rare adverse event will alert clinicians to the potential complication of corticosteroid IDT and help them counsel the patients and provide a thorough explanation before any procedure. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Qatar Medical Journal is the property of Hamad bin Khalifa University Press (HBKU Press) and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(3)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765809

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for new drugs to overcome the challenge of the ever-growing drug resistance towards tuberculosis. A new, highly efficient anti-tuberculosis drug, Perchlozone (thioureidoiminomethylpyridinium perchlorate, Pz), is only available in an oral dosage form, though injectable forms and inhalation solutions could be better alternatives, offering higher bioavailability. To produce such forms, nano- and micro-particles of APIs would need to be prepared as dispersions with carriers. We use this case study to illustrate the principles of selecting solvents and excipients when preparing such formulations. We justify the choice of water-THF (19.1 wt % THF) as solvent and mannitol as carrier to prepare formulations of Pz-a poorly soluble compound-that are suitable for injection or inhalation. The formulations could be prepared by conventional freeze-drying in vials, making the proposed method suitable for industrial scaling. A similar strategy for selecting the organic solvent and the excipient can be applied to other compounds with low water solubility.

7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 743486, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725416

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe pneumonia (SP) has a high mortality rate and is responsible for significant healthcare costs. Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) have been widely used in China as a novel and promising treatment option for SP. Therefore, this study assessed and ranked the effectiveness of CHIs to provide more sights for the selection of SP treatment. Method: Seven databases were searched from their inception up to April 1, 2021. The methodological quality of included study was evaluated by the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Then, a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed by OpenBUGS 3.2.3 and STATA 14.0 software. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) probability values were applied to rank the examined treatments. A clustering analysis was utilized to compare the effect of CHIs between two different outcomes. Results: A total of 64 eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 5,904 participants were identified for this analysis. Six CHIs including Xuebijing injection (XBJ), Tanreqing injection (TRQ), Reduning injection (RDN), Xiyanping injection (XYP), Shenfu injection (SF), and Shenmai injection (SM) were included. The results of the NMA showed that XBJ [odds ratio (OR) = 0.24, 95% credible interval (CI): 0.19, 0.30], TRQ (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.37), RDN (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.94), and SM (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.63) combined with conventional Western medicine (WM) improved the clinical effective rate more significantly than WM alone. Based on SUCRA values, TRQ + WM (SUCRA: 66.4%) ranked the highest in improving the clinical effective rate, second in four different outcomes, and third in only one. According to the cluster analysis, TRQ + WM exerted a positive effect on improving the efficacy of SP. As for safety, less than 30% (18 RCTs) of the included studies reported adverse drug reactions/adverse drug events (ADRs/ADEs), including 14 RCTs of XBJ, 3 RCTs of TRQ, and 1 RCT of RDN. Conclusion: In conclusion, the study found that the CHIs as co-adjuvant therapy could be beneficial for patients with SP. TRQ + WM showed an outstanding improvement in patients with SP considering both the clinical effective rate and other outcomes. Systematic Review Registration: [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/], identifier [CRD42021244587].

8.
Ann Ig ; 34(2): 184-189, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689832

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic has inevitably changed the treatment of many chronic diseases which has been suspended or has suffered dangerous slowdowns. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common musculoskeletal disease. As a result, the medical management of Osteoarthritis was heavily impacted by the pandemic, and it required new therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this descriptive review is to provide an overview of how much the pandemic has affected the medical management of osteoarthritis and to outline a number of possible countermeasures. The COVID-19 pandemic requires a "multimodal approach": physicians are called to test the management of Osteoarthritis patients at a distance, through the tools made available by telemedicine, for all cases in which direct contact is avoidable. Therapies that instead require a direct intervention on the patient impose that all the procedures are carried out in complete safety, scrupulously keeping to the use of personal protective equipements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoarthritis , Humans , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int Ophthalmol ; 42(6): 1749-1762, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the most common reasons for blindness in the world today. The most common treatment for wet AMD is the intravitreal injections for inhibiting vascular-endothelial-derived growth factor (VEGF). This treatment usually involves multiple injections and thus multiple clinic visits, which not only causes increased cost on national health services but also causes exposure to the hospital environment, which is sometimes high risk considering current COVID crisis. The treatment, in spite of the above concerns, is usually effective. However, in some cases, either the medicine fails to produce the anticipated favourable outcome, resulting in waste of time, medication, efforts, and above all, psychological distress to the patients. Hence, early predictability of anatomical as well as functional effectiveness of the treatment appears to be a very desirable capability to have. METHOD: A machine learning approach using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) of two-sample prediction model has been presented that requires only the baseline measurements and changes in visual acuity (VA) as well as macular thickness (MAC) after four months of treatment to estimate the values of VA and MAC at 8 and 12 months. In contrast to most of the AI techniques, ANFIS approach has shown the capability of the algorithm to work with very small dataset as well, which makes it a perfect candidate for the presented solution. RESULTS: The presented model has shown to have a very high accuracy (> 92%) and works in near-real-time scenarios. It has been converted into a smart phone App, OphnosisAMD, for convenient usage. With this App, the clinician can visualize the progression of the patient for a specific treatment and can decide on continuing or changing the treatment accordingly. The complete AI engine developed with the ANFIS algorithm is localized to the phone through the App, implying that there is no need for internet or cloud connectivity for this App to function. This makes it ideal for remote usage, especially under the current COVID scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: With a smart AI-based App on their fingertips, the presented system provides ample opportunity to the doctors to make a better decision based on the estimated progression, if the same drug is continued with (good/fair prognosis) or alternate treatment should be sought (bad prognosis). From a functional point of view, a prediction algorithm is triggered through simple entry of the relevant parameters (baseline and 4 months only). No internet/cloud connectivity is needed since the algorithm and the trained network are fully embedded in the App locally. Hence, using the App in remote and/or non-connected isolated areas is possible, especially in the secluded patients during the COVID scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Phone , Wet Macular Degeneration , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Prognosis , Ranibizumab , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
10.
International Journal of Operations and Quantitative Management ; 27(3):237-244, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1637553

ABSTRACT

In the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic, there is another challenge to face: how to effectively dispense some medicines (like Remdesivir injection) amongst the multitudes to quickly achieve immunity against the corona infection. To overcome this situation, researchers and doctors are continuously active. This result into infected people get recovered. In this context, nations are now getting ready to face one more big challenge that is increases biomedical waste which causes carbon emissions. Since spoilage and deterioration results into a significant loss in medicines which hampers consumer’s satisfaction level as well affect the green environment. Keeping this in mind, the proposed article is addressed for an inventory model with carbon emissions sensitive demand which is a more realistic assumption and carbon tax policy is levied to diminish carbon emissions. A non-linear formulation is revealed with an objective to determine the optimum cycle length as to minimize total cost. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by presenting a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to verify its factual practice. © 2021, International Forum of Management Scholars. All rights reserved.

11.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 31, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639456

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Myofascial pain is a complex health condition that affects the majority of the general population. Myalgia has been recognized as a symptom of long COVID syndrome. The treatment for long COVID syndrome-related myalgia lacks research. Dry needling is a technique that involves the insertion of a needle into the tissue of, or overlaying, a pain point. Wet needling is the addition of an injection of an analgesic substance such as lidocaine while performing needling. Both dry and wet needling have are practiced as treatment modalities for myofascial pain. Limited literature exists to define long COVID syndrome-related myalgia and its relation to myofascial pain, or to examine the utility of needling techniques for this pain. We report a case of dry and wet needling as effective treatments for long COVID-related myofascial pain. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old, previously healthy Hispanic male with no comorbid conditions was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient suffered moderate disease without hypoxia and was never hospitalized. Three months later, the patient continued to suffer from symptoms such as exertional dyspnea, "brain fog," and myalgia. An extensive multisystem workup revealed normal cardiac, pulmonary, and end organ functions. The patient was then diagnosed with long COVID syndrome. The nature and chronicity of the patient's myalgia meet the criteria for myofascial pain. Both wet and dry needling were used to treat the patient's myofascial pain, with good short- and long-term therapeutic effects. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infection has been shown to exacerbate preexisting myofascial pain syndrome. Our case report indicates that long COVID syndrome-related myalgia is likely a form of new-onset myofascial pain. Additionally, both wet and dry needling can be utilized as an effective treatment modality for this pain syndrome, with short- and long-term benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dry Needling , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia , SARS-CoV-2 , Trigger Points
12.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 260(6): 1877-1886, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616129

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the impact of the first coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) wave in 2020 on patients scheduled for intravitreal injections (IVI) in a German metropolitan region. METHODS: We performed a multicentre prospective survey and retrospective analysis of the records of patients treated with intravitreal injections during the 20-week period from March to July 2020 in all four hospital eye departments in the city of Hamburg using a questionnaire (on treatment adherence, SarsCoV2-related personal, familial and social data) and treatment data. RESULTS: A total of 1038 patients (2472 IVI, 1231 eyes) and 818 questionnaires were evaluated. Longer duration of therapy, lower visual acuity (VA) of the treated and higher VA of the fellow untreated eye was were associated with a higher probability of visit cancellation. Every additional year of life posed a 2.6% lower risk of noncompliance. A COVID-19 infection in the family environment displayed a 5.5-fold chance of visit cancellation. Patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) had a 36% reduced risk of visit cancellation compared to patients with diabetic macular oedema (DME). CONCLUSION: A long preceding treatment period, low VA of the treated eye, high VA of the untreated eye, COVID-19 in the family and DME were identified as risk factors for IVI visit cancellations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compliance to treatment might be improved in the future by taking these risk factors into account when scheduling patients for IVI during the exceptional circumstances of a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Ranibizumab , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
Korean J Pain ; 35(1): 14-21, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594139

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has been rampant since the end of 2019, has evidently affected pain management in clinical practice. Fortunately, a COVID-19 vaccination program is currently in progress worldwide. There is an ongoing discussion that pain management using steroid injections can decrease COVID-19 vaccine efficacy, although currently there is no direct evidence to support this statement. As such, the feeling of pain in patients is doubled in addition to the co-existing ill-effects of social isolation associated with the pandemic. Thus, in the COVID-19 era, it has become necessary that physicians be able to provide high quality pain management without negatively impacting COVID-19 vaccine efficacy. Steroids can alter the entire process involved in the generation of adaptive immunity after vaccination. The period of hypophysis-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression is known to be 1 to 4 weeks after steroid injection, and although the exact timing for peak efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines is slightly different for each vaccine, the average is approximately 2 weeks. It is suggested to avoid steroid injections for a total of 4 weeks (1 week before and after the two vaccine doses) for the doubleshot vaccines, and for 2 weeks in total (1 week before and after vaccination) for a single-shot vaccine. This review focuses on the basic concepts of the various COVID-19 vaccines, the effect of steroid injections on vaccine efficacy, and suggestions regarding an appropriate interval between the administration of steroid injections and the COVID-19 vaccine.

14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(47): 8199-8200, 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580315

ABSTRACT

In 2016, the World Health Assembly adopted a Global Health Sector Strategy on viral hepatitis, with targets set for the years 2020 and 2030 to achieve hepatitis elimination. The main target of hepatitis elimination strategy is to reduce the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 90% and mortality by 65% in 2030. In last 5 years, the number of people receiving HCV treatment has increased from 1 million to 9.4 million; however, this number is far from the 2030 target of 40 million people receiving HCV treatment. HBV and HCV incidence rates are down from 1.4 million to 1.1 million annual deaths but this is far from the 2030 target of < 0.5 million deaths. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has severely affected the efforts in the fight against hepatitis. No major donor has committed to investing in the fight against hepatitis. Time is running out. There is a need to speed up efforts in the fight against hepatitis to achieve hepatitis elimination by 2030.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Global Health , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Musculoskeletal Care ; 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559898

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Injected glucocorticoid's (corticosteroids) are commonly used in musculoskeletal practice. The current global COVID-19 pandemic has increased attention on the potential for locally injected corticosteroids to exert a systemic immunosuppressive effect and the implications this may have in relation to COVID-19 infection and vaccination. AIM: This narrative review summarises the evidence regarding the potential systemic immunosuppressive effects of peripheral corticosteroid injections in relation to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A narrative review was selected to allow inclusion of evidence related to a diverse range of topics relevant to this subject in order to provide the most comprehensive and clinically relevant guidance for clinicians. RESULTS/DISCUSSION: Current evidence demonstrates that cytotoxic, phagocytic and antigen presenting cells involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses are suppressed for 48 h post-injection and messenger cytokines that are integral to immune function are suppressed for over 96 h post-injection. This potentially reduces an individual's ability to prevent viral infection, limit early viral replication, and delays activation of adaptive immune mechanisms (T and B lymphocytes) and subsequent viral clearance and elimination. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be suppressed for 2-4 weeks or longer following peripheral corticosteroid injections. The role of the HPA axis in immune function is not fully understood, however this could potentially indicate longer lasting immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: This review found evidence of suppression of immune cell numbers for the first 48 h post-injection, cytokines for over 96 h post-injection and HPA axis suppression lasting for 2-4 weeks or longer. There is currently no evidence that these physiological changes translate into a clinically meaningful increased risk of COVID-19 infection or related morbidity or mortality, but there is also no persuasive evidence that they do not. This review discusses the implications of the current evidence in relation to shared decision making, informed consent, risk management and COVID-19 vaccination to provide clinicians with a pragmatic guide to help navigate the current uncertainty regarding the potential immunosuppressive effects of peripheral corticosteroid injections.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 610745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554748

ABSTRACT

Background: Pneumonia is a prevalent and complicated disease among adults, elderly people in particular, and the debate on the optimal Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) is ongoing. Our objective is to investigate the comparative effectiveness of various CHIs strategies for elderly patients with pneumonia. Methods: A comprehensive search strategy was executed to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by browsing through several databases from their inception to first, Feb 2020; All of the direct and indirect evidence included was rated by Network meta-analysis under a Bayesian framework. Results: We ultimately identified 34 eligible randomized controlled trials that involved 3,111 elderly participants and investigated 4 CHIs combined with Western medicine (WM) (Xiyanping injection [XYP]+WM, Yanhuning injection [YHN]+WM, Tanreqing injection [TRQ]+WM, Reduning injection [RDN]+WM), contributing 34 direct comparisons between CHIs. Seen from the outcome of Clinical effective rate and time for defervescence, patients taking medicine added with CHIs [Clinical effective rate, XYP + WM(Odd ratio (OR): 0.74, 95%Credible intervals (CrIs):0.55-0.98), YHN + WM(OR: 0.66, 95%CrI: 0.45-0.95), TRQ + WM(OR: 0.65, 95%CrI: 0.50-0.83), RDN + WM(OR: 0.60, 95%CrI: 0.40-0.89); Time for defervescence, YHN + WM(Mean difference (MD): -2.11, 95%CrI: -3.26 to -0.98), XYP + WM(MD: -2.06, 95%CrI: -3.08 to -1.09), RDN + WM(MD: -1.97, 95%CrI: -3.61 to -0.35), TRQ + WM(MD: -1.69, 95%CrI: -2.27 to -1.04)] showed statistically better effect compared with participants in the Control group (CG) who only took WM. Meanwhile, based on the time for disappearance of cough, 3 out of 4 CHIs [TRQ + WM(MD: -2.56, 95%CrI: -3.38 to -1.54), YHN + WM(MD: -2.36, 95%CrI: -3.86 to -1.00) and XYP + WM(MD: -2.21, 95%CrI: -3.72 to -1.10)] strategies indicated improvement of clinical symptoms. Only XYP + WM(MD -1.78, 95%CrI: -3.29 to -0.27) and TRQ + WM (MD: -1.71, 95%CrI: -2.71 to -0.73) could significantly shorten the time for disappearance of pulmonary rales. Conclusion: According to the statistical effect size (The surface under the cumulative ranking), we found that XYP + WM was presumably to be the preferable treatment for treating elderly patients with pneumonia compared with WM alone in terms of clinical effective rate. Our findings were based on very limited evidence and thus should be interpreted with caution. The application of the findings requires further research.

17.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480702

ABSTRACT

Adult immunization practices leave much to be desired. Misinformation has increased mistrust. As a result, Latino and African American populations have low rates of annual flu vaccinations and, during the COVID-19 pandemic, lag behind for COVID-19 vaccination. Historically, healthcare staff have failed to adhere to adult immunization guidelines contributing to patient infections. Healthcare staff, both clinical and non-clinical, must lead by example by making "prevention primary". Most adults may not realize they need immunizations. We recommend the following steps to increase immunization uptake: Make adult immunization a standard of patient care as we do for children. Assess immunization status at every clinical opportunity. Strongly recommend vaccinations needed. Administer needed vaccinations, multiple if warranted. Document vaccines received by your patient. Participate in your state's immunization registry and work with community organizations that can help make adult immunization the norm.

18.
Pain Med ; 23(1): 164-188, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455341

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of percutaneous interventional treatments for prevention of migraine through a qualitative and (when possible) quantitative analysis. METHODS: An expert panel was asked to develop recommendations for the multidisciplinary preventive treatment of migraine, including interventional strategies. The committee conducted a systematic review and (when evidence was sufficient) a meta-analytic review by using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) criteria and the modified Cochrane Risk of Bias analysis available in the Covidence data management program. Clinical questions addressed adults with migraine who should be offered prevention. Examined outcomes included headache days, acute medication use, and functional impairment. Acute management of migraine was outside the scope of this guideline. RESULTS: The committee screened 1,195 studies and assessed 352 by full text, yielding 16 randomized controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: As informed by evidence related to the preselected outcomes, adverse event profile, cost, and values and preferences of patients, onabotulinumtoxinA received a strong recommendation for its use for chronic migraine prevention and a weak recommendation against its use for episodic migraine prevention. Greater occipital nerve blocks received a weak recommendation for their use for chronic migraine prevention. For greater occipital nerve block, steroid received a weak recommendation against its use vs the use of local anesthetic alone. Occipital nerve with supraorbital nerve blocks, sphenopalatine ganglion blocks, cervical spine percutaneous interventions, and implantable stimulation all received weak recommendations for their use for chronic migraine prevention. The committee found insufficient evidence to assess trigger point injections in migraine prevention and highly discouraged the use of intrathecal medication.


Subject(s)
Migraine Disorders , Adult , Anesthetics, Local , Cervical Vertebrae , Headache/therapy , Humans , Injections , Migraine Disorders/prevention & control
19.
Regen Med ; 16(12): 1051-1056, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438395

ABSTRACT

Diabetic foot infection is frequent in diabetic patients and is due to neuropathy, trauma or peripheral arterial disease. The presence of an abscess requires urgent drainage and specific antibiotic therapy. Patients with critical limb ischemia need revascularization and, subsequently the intervention of a plastic surgeon is often required in cases of exposure of tendons and ligaments. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a patient was refered to our department with an abscess on the dorsum of the left foot. After urgent drainage with tendon exposure, he started specific antibiotic therapy and underwent tibial vessels angioplasty. After infection healing cord blood platelet gel was applied, accelerating the healing process, with injection of its liquid part into the exposed tendons, thus retaining the vital functions of the tendons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot , Amputation , Blood Platelets , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Humans , Ischemia , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tendons , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(9): 1313-1318, 2021 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428156

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess functional and anatomical consequences of the delay in intravitreal injections for diabetic macular edema (DME) patients during the corona virus pandemic lockdown in Morocco as well as to evaluate factors associated with disease progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included DME patients who did not complete their scheduled intravitreal bevacizumab injections during the Lockdown period (March 20, 2020 to May 20, 2020). Data recorded included age, duration of diabetes, number of previous intravitreal injections, best-corrected visual acuity, and central macular thickness before and after the lockdown. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty four eyes of 104 patients were analyzed. 57.8% were male. The mean age was 59.4±9.04 years. The mean duration of delay of intravitreal injections was 57.3±6.7 days. The mean number of intravitreal bevacizumab injections received before the lockdown was 2.29±2.1. Worsening of visual acuity was noted in 44.8% of patients and was associated with a lower number of intravitreal injections performed prior to the lockdown (P=0.001) and with glycemic imbalance (P=0.04). An increase in central macular thickness was noted in 26.6% of patients and was associated with a lower number of intravitreal injections (P=0.038). CONCLUSION: The delay in intravitreal injections during the lockdown had negative effects on visual acuity and central macular thickness in eyes with DME. Prolonged delay in intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in diabetic patients should be avoided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Edema , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome
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