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1.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(9):OC05-OC09, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067202

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) had devastating effects on the healthcare and economic sector worldwide. India stands second in the list of most number of COVID-19 cases. Most of the deaths due to COVID-19 were seen in patients with associated co-morbidities like hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and obesity. This study would like to examine specific co-morbidities in relation to the COVID-19 disease progression and outcomes. Aim(s): To compare the clinicoradiological profile and outcome of COVID-19 in patients with and without co-morbidities (diabetes and hypertension). Material(s) and Method(s): The present observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh between June 2020 to September 2020, after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) approval. A total of 148 patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. The COVID-19 patients admitted in the hospital were divided into four groups as those having only diabetes, only hypertension, both diabetes and hypertension, and those without any co-morbidities. Those with any other co-morbidity were excluded from the study. The general clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, disease severity, morbidity and mortality were compared among various groups and the data was analysed. Categorical data were analysed using the Chi-square test. Result(s): A total of 148 patients with COVID-19 were included in the study, of which 26 patients were diabetic, 36 were hypertensive, 24 were both hypertensive and diabetic and 62 patients didn't had any significant co-morbidity. Severe COVID-19 disease was most commonly observed in those with diabetes (n=14) (53.8%). The highest proportion of patients requiring oxygen (84.6%) and Non Invasive Ventilator (NIV) support (46.1%) was also seen among diabetics. The presence of diabetes, severe disease and leukocytosis at presentation increased the risk of mortality. The association of hypertension with COVID-19 does not seem to affect the in-hospital mortality. Conclusion(s): COVID-19 in diabetics is associated with both increased risk of severe disease and increased odds of death. In diabetics, those with uncontrolled diabetes were more prone to severe disease and death than those with good glycaemic control. Hypertension, on the other hand, showed no association. Copyright © 2022 Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013636

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and disease progression and mortality in COVID-19 patients. The files of 4213 patients over the age of 18 who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 20, 2020 and May 1, 2021 were retrospectively scanned. Sociodemographic characteristics, chronic diseases, hemogram and biochemical parameters at the time they were diagnosed with COVID-19 of the patients, duration of hospitalization, duration of intensive care unit (ICU), duration of intubation, in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 and outside-hospital mortality for another reason (within the last 1 year) and recurrent hospitalization (within the last 1 year) were recorded. The MELD scores of the patients were calculated. Two groups were formed as MELD score < 10 and MELD score ≥ 10. The rate of ICU, in-hospital mortality from COVID-19 and outside-hospital mortality from other causes, intubation rate, and recurrent hospitalization were significantly higher in the MELD ≥ 10 group. The duration of ICU, hospitalization, intubation were significantly higher in the MELD ≥ 10 group (p < 0.001). As a result of Univariate and Multivariate analysis, MELD score was found to be the independent predictors of ICU, in-hospital mortality, intubation, and recurrent hospitalization (p < 0.001). MELD score 18.5 predicted ICU with 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity (area under curve [AUC]: 0.740, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.717-0.763, p < 0.001) also MELD score 18.5 predicted in-hospital mortality with 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity (AUC: 0.797, 95% CI: 0.775-0.818, p < 0.001). The MELD score was found to be the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and intubation in COVID-19 patients.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939062

ABSTRACT

Information on the efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in daily clinical practice is very scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of fully vaccinated patients with mild to moderate breakthrough COVID-19 treated with molnupiravir between January 2022 and February 2022. Overall, 145 patients were enrolled. Their median age was 71.0 years, and 60.7% were males. The most common underlying condition was a severe cardiovascular disease (37.2%), followed by primary or acquired immunodeficiency (22.8%), and oncological/onco-hematological disease in the active phase (22.1%). At 30 days after breakthrough COVID-19 diagnosis, only 4 out of 145 patients (2.7%) required hospital admission. No patients developed severe COVID-19, were admitted to the ICU, or died during the follow-up period. Adverse events, mild in intensity, occurred in 2 patients (1.4%). Our results support the current evidence establishing positive clinical and safety outcomes of molnupiravir in fully vaccinated patients with mild or moderate breakthrough COVID-19.

4.
Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences ; 42(2):151-152, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928806
5.
Crit Care Explor ; 4(6): e0719, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908992

ABSTRACT

There is only low-certainty evidence on the use of predictive models to assist COVID-19 patient's ICU admission decision-making process. Accumulative evidence suggests that lung ultrasound (LUS) assessment of COVID-19 patients allows accurate bedside evaluation of lung integrity, with the added advantage of repeatability, absence of radiation exposure, reduced risk of virus dissemination, and low cost. Our goal is to assess the performance of a quantified indicator resulting from LUS data compared with standard clinical practice model to predict critical respiratory illness in the 24 hours following hospital admission. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Critical Care Unit from University Hospital Purpan (Toulouse, France) between July 2020 and March 2021. PATIENTS: Adult patients for COVID-19 who were in acute respiratory failure (ARF), defined as blood oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry less than 90% while breathing room air or respiratory rate greater than or equal to 30 breaths/min at hospital admission. Linear multivariate models were used to identify factors associated with critical respiratory illness, defined as death or mild/severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (Pao2/Fio2 < 200) in the 24 hours after patient's hospital admission. INTERVENTION: LUS assessment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred and forty COVID-19 patients with ARF were studied. This cohort was split into two independent groups: learning sample (first 70 patients) and validation sample (last 70 patients). Interstitial lung water, thickening of the pleural line, and alveolar consolidation detection were strongly associated with patient's outcome. The LUS model predicted more accurately patient's outcomes than the standard clinical practice model (DeLong test: Testing: z score = 2.50, p value = 0.01; Validation: z score = 2.11, p value = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: LUS assessment of COVID-19 patients with ARF at hospital admission allows a more accurate prediction of the risk of critical respiratory illness than standard clinical practice. These results hold the promise of improving ICU resource allocation process, particularly in the case of massive influx of patients or limited resources, both now and in future anticipated pandemics.

6.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 4(4): 100636, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the increased risk for severe illness and adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is well described, the association of infection with severe maternal morbidity has not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the risk for severe maternal morbidity associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study of all pregnant patients who had a SARS-CoV-2 test done and who delivered in a New York health system between March 1, 2020 and March 1, 2021. Patients with missing test results were excluded. The primary outcome of severe maternal morbidity, derived from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine example list of diagnoses and complications, was compared between the following 2 groups: patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and patients who tested negative. Secondary outcomes included subgroups of severe maternal morbidity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders such as maternal demographics, neighborhood socioeconomic status, hospital location, and pregnancy-related complications. A subanalysis was performed to determine if the risk for severe obstetrical hemorrhage and hypertension-associated or neurologic morbidity differed based on the timing of SARS-CoV-2 infection between those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at their delivery hospitalization (ie, active infection) and those who tested positive during pregnancy but negative at their delivery hospitalization (ie, resolved infection). RESULTS: Of the 22,483 patients included, 1653 (7.4%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more commonly Black, multiracial, Hispanic, non-English speaking, used Medicaid insurance, were multiparous, and from neighborhoods with a lower socioeconomic status. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were at an increased risk for severe maternal morbidity when compared with those without infection (9.3 vs 6.5%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.88). Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were also at an increased risk for severe obstetrical hemorrhage (1.1% vs 0.5%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.88), pulmonary morbidity (2.0% vs 0.5%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.90; 95% confidence interval, 2.52-5.89), and intensive care unit admission (1.8% vs 0.5%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.29; 95% confidence interval, 2.09-5.04) when compared with those without infection. The risk for hypertension-associated or neurologic morbidity was similar between the 2 groups. The timing of SARS-CoV-2 infection (whether active or resolved at time of delivery) was not associated with the risk for severe obstetrical hemorrhage or hypertension-associated or neurologic morbidity when compared with those without infection. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for severe maternal morbidity, severe obstetrical hemorrhage, pulmonary morbidity, and intensive care unit admission. These data highlight the need for obstetrical unit preparedness in caring for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, continued public health efforts aimed at minimizing the risk for infection, and support in including this select population in investigational therapy and vaccine trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
J Int Med Res ; 50(6): 3000605221102217, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intensive care unit (ICU) admission occurs at different times during hospitalization among patients with COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the time-dependent receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the ROC curve, AUC(t), and accuracy of baseline levels of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in predicting time to an ICU admission event in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. METHODS: In this observational study, we evaluated 724 patients with confirmed severe COVID-19 referred to Ayatollah Rohani Hospital, affiliated with Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran. RESULTS: The AUC(t) of CRP and NLR reached 0.741 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.661-0.820) and 0.690 (95% CI: 0.607-0.772), respectively, in the first 3 days after hospital admission. The optimal cutoff values of CRP and NLR for stratification of ICU admission outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 were 78 mg/L and 5.13, respectively. The risk of ICU admission was significantly greater for patients with these cutoff values (CRP hazard ratio = 2.98; 95% CI: 1.58-5.62; NLR hazard ratio = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.45-5.77). CONCLUSIONS: Using time-dependent ROC curves, CRP and NLR values at hospital admission were important predictors of ICU admission. This approach is more efficient than using standard ROC curves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
9.
Front Oncol ; 12: 857076, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822387

ABSTRACT

Background: A study conducted in China on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) showed that cancer conferred a five times increased risk for needing intensive care admission and mortality; No data has yet been collected and published from the Philippines. Thus, the investigators conducted this substudy to determine the association of having a history of cancer with clinical outcomes among patients included in the Philippine CORONA Study. Methodology: Multi-center, retrospective cohort design. Results: A total of 244 patients had a history of cancer, out of 10,881 COVID-19 hospital admissions. After adjusting for different confounding variables of interest, having cancer was significantly associated with a 75% increased odds of having severe/critical COVID-19 at nadir (CI 95% 1.32, 2.33; p < 0.001). After adjusting for different confounding variables of interest, having cancer was significantly associated with the following time-to-event outcomes: 72% increase in hazard of in-hospital mortality (CI 95% 1.37, 2.16; p < 0.001), 65% increase in hazard of respiratory failure (CI 95% 1.31, 2.08; p < 0.001), and 57% increase in hazard of being admitted to ICU (CI 95% 1.24, 1.97; p < 0.001). Conclusion: A history of cancer conferred poorer clinical outcomes on adult, hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 227(3): 488.e1-488.e17, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of COVID-19 in pregnancy on maternal outcomes and its association with preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus have been reported; however, a detailed understanding of the effects of maternal positivity, delivery mode, and perinatal practices on fetal and neonatal outcomes is urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on fetal and neonatal outcomes and the role of mode of delivery, breastfeeding, and early neonatal care practices on the risk of mother-to-child transmission. STUDY DESIGN: In this cohort study that took place from March 2020 to March 2021, involving 43 institutions in 18 countries, 2 unmatched, consecutive, unexposed women were concomitantly enrolled immediately after each infected woman was identified, at any stage of pregnancy or delivery, and at the same level of care to minimize bias. Women and neonates were followed up until hospital discharge. COVID-19 in pregnancy was determined by laboratory confirmation and/or radiological pulmonary findings or ≥2 predefined COVID-19 symptoms. The outcome measures were indices of neonatal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, neonatal positivity and its correlation with mode of delivery, breastfeeding, and hospital neonatal care practices. RESULTS: A total of 586 neonates born to women with COVID-19 diagnosis and 1535 neonates born to women without COVID-19 diagnosis were enrolled. Women with COVID-19 diagnosis had a higher rate of cesarean delivery (52.8% vs 38.5% for those without COVID-19 diagnosis, P<.01) and pregnancy-related complications, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and fetal distress (all with P<.001), than women without COVID-19 diagnosis. Maternal diagnosis of COVID-19 carried an increased rate of preterm birth (P≤.001) and lower neonatal weight (P≤.001), length, and head circumference at birth. In mothers with COVID-19 diagnosis, the length of in utero exposure was significantly correlated to the risk of the neonate testing positive (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-9.4 for length of in utero exposure >14 days). Among neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 diagnosis, birth via cesarean delivery was a risk factor for testing positive for COVID-19 (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.7), even when severity of maternal conditions was considered and after multivariable logistic analysis. In the subgroup of neonates born to women with COVID-19 diagnosis, the outcomes worsened when the neonate also tested positive, with higher rates of neonatal intensive care unit admission, fever, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and death, even after adjusting for prematurity. Breastfeeding by mothers with COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital neonatal care practices, including immediate skin-to-skin contact and rooming-in, were not associated with an increased risk of newborn positivity. CONCLUSION: In this multinational cohort study, COVID-19 in pregnancy was associated with increased maternal and neonatal complications. Cesarean delivery was significantly associated with newborn COVID-19 diagnosis. Vaginal delivery should be considered the safest mode of delivery if obstetrical and health conditions allow it. Mother-to-child skin-to-skin contact, rooming-in, and direct breastfeeding were not risk factors for newborn COVID-19 diagnosis, thus well-established best practices can be continued among women with COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications , Premature Birth , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology
11.
Journal of the Practice of Cardiovascular Sciences ; 7(2):135-141, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1701570

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective is to assess the clinical course and outcomes of heart transplant (HTx) recipients affected by COVID-19 disease in a tertiary care health care institution. Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is a contagious illness with alarming morbidity and mortality. The HTx recipients are chronically immunosuppressed and thus COVID-19 infection in them may result in an unpredictable clinical course. Materials and Methods: HTx recipients in a tertiary care transplant center in North India were retrospectively reviewed from January 2020 to January 2021. Case records of 28 patients of HTx were reviewed, and four (14%) were found to have developed Covid-19 infection. Clinical parameters and outcomes of these four HTx recipients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection are described. Results: Fourteen percent of our HTx patients (4 out of 28 patients under follow-up) developed COVID-19 in the first infection wave. The study population consisted of 3 males and 1 female patient with a median age of 28 years (range 15-39). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (100%), myalgia (100%) and cough (75%). There was no mortality observed in this study. None required intensive care admission or mechanical ventilatory support. Three were managed with hospital admission while one was subjected to home isolation. The mean hospital stay was 13.5 days (12-17 days). Immunosuppressants were modified by reducing tacrolimus and mycophenolate, however, corticosteroids were continued. Conclusion: The dose modification rather than discontinuation of immunomodulatory agents should be established as standard of care for transplant recipients. Steroids may provide added benefit and should be continued. The morbidity and mortality in such cases may be lower than anticipated;however, this needs to be substantiated with larger multicentric studies.

12.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 9: 100197, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 second wave in Brazil, there has been a significant increase in the number of daily cases and deaths, including pregnant and postpartum women. We assess risk factors and outcomes for this priority group compared to the COVID-19 non-pregnant cohort in two epidemic waves. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study we evaluated data of hospitalized pregnant, postpartum, and nonpregnant women aged 15-44 years, between epidemiological weeks 2020-8 and 2021-15, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, retrieved from the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System maintained by Ministry of Health of Brazil. We analysed in-hospital case fatality rate, crude and adjusted risk ratios on different outcomes aiming to compare data in two waves. FINDINGS: The study included pregnant women (n = 7,132), postpartum women (n = 2,405) and nonpregnant women (n = 76,278) hospitalized with COVID-19. Case fatality rates of pregnant women were lower in both waves compared to nonpregnant women, but higher among postpartum women. The risk for admission to the intensive care unit and invasive mechanical ventilation requirement in both waves was significantly higher among postpartum women compared to nonpregnant women. Cardiac disease, diabetes, obesity, and asthma were the most frequent underlying medical conditions in all patient groups. These comorbidities were significantly less frequent among pregnant women. INTERPRETATION: Pregnant women with COVID-19 are at lower risk of poor outcome compared to nonpregnant women. On the other hand, postpartum women are at higher risk of adverse outcomes compared to pregnant and nonpregnant women, especially during the second wave. There was a significant increase in the in-hospital case fatality rate for all patient groups during the second wave of COVID-19. FUNDING: This study was financed in part by CAPES, CNPq, FAPEMIG and UFSJ.

13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(1): 137-146, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621545

ABSTRACT

During the spring of 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic caused an unprecedented demand for intensive-care resources in the Lombardy region of Italy. Using data on 43,538 hospitalized patients admitted between February 21 and July 12, 2020, we evaluated variations in intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and mortality over the course of 3 periods: the early phase of the pandemic (February 21-March 13), the period of highest pressure on the health-care system (March 14-April 25, when numbers of COVID-19 patients exceeded prepandemic ICU bed capacity), and the declining phase (April 26-July 12). Compared with the early phase, patients aged 70 years or more were less often admitted to an ICU during the period of highest pressure on the health-care system (odds ratio (OR) = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41, 0.54), with longer ICU delays (incidence rate ratio = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.52, 2.18) and lower chances of dying in the ICU (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.64). Patients under 56 years of age had more limited changes in the probability of (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.76) and delay to (incidence rate ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.42) ICU admission and increased mortality (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.07). In the declining phase, all quantities decreased for all age groups. These patterns may suggest that limited health-care resources during the peak phase of the epidemic in Lombardy forced a shift in ICU admission criteria to prioritize patients with higher chances of survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Time Factors
14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(46): 7995-8009, 2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus most commonly presents with respiratory symptoms. While gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations either at presentation or during hospitalization are also common, their impact on clinical outcomes is controversial. Some studies have described worse outcomes in COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms, while others have shown either no association or a protective effect. There is a need for consistent standards to describe GI symptoms in COVID-19 patients and to assess their effect on clinical outcomes, including mortality and disease severity. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of GI symptoms in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and their correlation with disease severity and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 601 consecutive adult COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization between May 1-15, 2020. GI symptoms were recorded at admission and during hospitalization. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were retrieved. Clinical outcomes included all-cause mortality, disease severity at presentation, need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and need for mechanical ventilation. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictors of the adverse outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of any GI symptom at admission was 27.1% and during hospitalization was 19.8%. The most common symptoms were nausea (98 patients), diarrhea (76 patients), vomiting (73 patients), and epigastric pain or discomfort (69 patients). There was no difference in the mortality between the two groups (6.21% vs 5.5%, P = 0.7). Patients with GI symptoms were more likely to have severe disease at presentation (33.13% vs 22.5%, P < 0.001) and prolonged hospital stay (15 d vs 14 d, P = 0.04). There was no difference in other clinical outcomes, including ICU admission, development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, or need for mechanical ventilation. Drugs associated with the development of GI symptoms during hospitalization were ribavirin (diarrhea 26.37% P < 0.001, anorexia 17.58%, P = 0.02), hydroxychloroquine (vomiting 28.52%, P = 0.009) and lopinavir/ritonavir (nausea 32.65% P = 0.049, vomiting 31.47% P = 0.004, and epigastric pain 12.65% P = 0.048). In the multivariate regression analysis, age > 65 years was associated with increased mortality risk [odds ratio (OR) 7.53, confidence interval (CI): 3.09-18.29, P < 0.001], ICU admission (OR: 1.79, CI: 1.13-2.83, P = 0.012), and need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.89, CI:1.94-2.99, P = 0.007). Hypertension was an independent risk factor for ICU admission (OR: 1.82, CI:1.17-2.84, P = 0.008) and need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.66, CI: 1.05-2.62, P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: Patients with GI symptoms are more likely to have severe disease at presentation; however, mortality and disease progression is not different between the two groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Digestive System , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Qatar/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Diabetes Ther ; 12(11): 2857-2870, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358129

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the effect of preexisting treatment with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) on COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study was conducted using patient data extracted from the Turkish National Electronic Database. All patients who tested positive for COVID-19 (PCR test) between 11 March through to 30 May 2020 were screened for eligibility (n = 149,671). Following exclusion of patients based on pre-determined inclusion criteria, patients with T2DM using a DPP-4i or glucose-lowering medications other than a DPP-4i were compared for mortality and hospitalization. The propensity score method was used to match age, gender, micro- and macrovascular complications, and medications in the two groups. Independent associates of mortality were analyzed using multivariable analysis on the whole T2DM population. RESULTS: A total of 33,478 patients with T2DM who tested postive for COVID-19 who met the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Median (interquartile range) age was 54 (22) years and 42.4% were male. Of these, 9100 patients using DPP-4is (n = 4550) or other glucose-lowering drugs (n = 4550) were matched in two groups. After matching, analysis revealed a lower mortality in the DPP-4i group (9.5 vs. 11.8%; p < 0.001). In the multivariable model, the use of DPP-4is (odds ratio [OR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.91; p = 0.02) was associated with lower mortality in the whole sample, while age, male gender, computed tomography finding of COVID-19, obesity, low glomerular filtration rate, and an insulin-based regimen also predicted increased risk of death. There was no association between the preexisting treatment with DPP-4is and COVID-19-related hospitalization in the matched analysis or multivariate model. The rate of admission to the intensive care unit and/or mechanical ventilation favored the DPP-4i group (21.7 vs. 25.2%; p = 0.001), although this association became saturated in the multivariate analysis (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39-1.08; p = 0.099). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate an association between DDP-4i use and reduced mortality in people with T2DM who tested PCR positive for COVID-19.

17.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 209: 106348, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic results in an intense flow of patients to hospitals especially to the intensive care units (ICUs) to be treated. The ICUs will therefore be confronted with a massive influx of patients (e.g. Spain and Italy). However, if the number of patients is higher than the resources available in ICUs, rationing decisions such as determining and evaluating the criteria for ICU admission becomes essential. In this case, the decision of which patients will be admitted to the ICUs may put significant pressure on healthcare personnel. The goal of this paper is to determine the criteria to be used in the decision of admission of COVID-19 patients to the ICUs. METHODS: A three-step methodology is applied. In the first step, the evaluation criteria are determined, and then the criteria are prioritized using a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in an uncertain and multiple-criteria environment choice. Finally, COVID-19 patients are ranked using the Multi-Objective Optimization Method by Ratio Analysis to find out which patient is more urgent. RESULTS: According to experts' evaluation of ICU admission criteria, "increment of >2 in SOFA score" seems the most dominant factor among others. The proposed methodology is tested on 10 anonymous COVID-19 positive patients being treated in a public hospital and the ICU admission results are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Obtained priorities and ranking is in line with the hospitals' behavior that potentially depicts the usefulness and validity of the proposed approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Decision Making , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 647880, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332132

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate if the number of admitted extremely preterm (EP) infants (born before 28 weeks of gestational age) differed in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of the SafeBoosC-III consortium during the global lockdown when compared to the corresponding time period in 2019. Design: This is a retrospective, observational study. Forty-six out of 79 NICUs (58%) from 17 countries participated. Principal investigators were asked to report the following information: (1) Total number of EP infant admissions to their NICU in the 3 months where the lockdown restrictions were most rigorous during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) Similar EP infant admissions in the corresponding 3 months of 2019, (3) the level of local restrictions during the lockdown period, and (4) the local impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the everyday life of a pregnant woman. Results: The number of EP infant admissions during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was 428 compared to 457 in the corresponding 3 months in 2019 (-6.6%, 95% CI -18.2 to +7.1%, p = 0.33). There were no statistically significant differences within individual geographic regions and no significant association between the level of lockdown restrictions and difference in the number of EP infant admissions. A post-hoc analysis based on data from the 46 NICUs found a decrease of 10.3%in the total number of NICU admissions (n = 7,499 in 2020 vs. n = 8,362 in 2019). Conclusion: This ad hoc study did not confirm previous reports of a major reduction in the number of extremely pretermbirths during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrial.gov, identifier: NCT04527601 (registered August 26, 2020), https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04527601.

19.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(12): 3737-3742, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303364

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Social vulnerability is a known determinant of health in respiratory diseases. Our aim was to identify whether there are socio-demographic factors among COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Spain and their potential impact on health outcomes during the hospitalization. METHODS: A multicentric retrospective case series study based on administrative databases that included all COVID-19 cases admitted in 19 Spanish hospitals from 1 March to 15 April 2020. Socio-demographic data were collected. Outcomes were critical care admission and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: We included 10,110 COVID-19 patients admitted to 18 Spanish hospitals (median age 68 (IQR 54-80) years old; 44.5% female; 14.8% were not born in Spain). Among these, 779 (7.7%) cases were admitted to critical care units and 1678 (16.6%) patients died during the hospitalization. Age, male gender, being immigrant, and low hospital saturation were independently associated with being admitted to an intensive care unit. Age, male gender, being immigrant, percentile of average per capita income, and hospital experience were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Social determinants such as residence in low-income areas and being born in Latin American countries were associated with increased odds of being admitted to an intensive care unit and of in-hospital mortality. There was considerable variation in outcomes between different Spanish centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , 34658
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227018

ABSTRACT

In this work we look at the past in order to analyze four key variables after one year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Galicia (NW Spain): new infected, hospital admissions, intensive care unit admissions and deceased. The analysis is presented by age group, comparing at each stage the percentage of the corresponding group with its representation in the society. The time period analyzed covers 1 March 2020 to 1 April 2021, and includes the influence of the B.1.1.7 lineage of COVID-19 which in April 2021 was behind 90% of new cases in Galicia. It is numerically shown how the pandemic affects the age groups 80+, 70+ and 60+, and therefore we give information about how the vaccination process could be scheduled and hints at why the pandemic had different effects in different territories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
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