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1.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(12):1771-1775, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2033834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the differences of clinical characteristics, laboratory tests and imaging examinations in patients with Novel Coronavirus(SARS-COV-2)Delta variant infection in Gansu province, so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of SARS-COV-2. METHODS: The medical records, laboratory tests and imaging studies of 140 patients with SARS-COV-2 Delta variant infection admitted to Yantan Branch and Zhangye Second Hospital of Lanzhou Second People's Hospital from Oct. to Dec. 2021 in Gansu province were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 140 infected patients, 65 were males and 75 were females. The oldest was 87 years old, and the youngest was 1 year and 8 months, with an average age of(42.65+or-20.87) years old. Twenty percent of confirmed patients had fever. The mean duration of positive nucleic acid was 19.74 days. There were significant differences in the expression levels of serum amyloid A(SAA), interleukin-6(IL-6), C-reactive protein(CRP), basophil granulocytes(BAS) and lymphocyte(LYM) in patients with different types. Pulmonary lesions were found in 101 patients(72.14%) by imaging, and the proportion of abnormal lung imaging in mild, ordinary and severe patients accounted for 55.81%, 73.13% and 100% respectively. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with COVID-19 Delta infection in Gansu province were mild and ordinary type. There were fewer fever patients. The main clinical manifestations were cough, expectoration and pharyngeal discomfort. Severe and critically ill patients are older and have more underlying diseases.

2.
Infezioni in Medicina ; 30(3):344-352, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033628

ABSTRACT

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a rare condition, has been reported approxi-mately 2-4 weeks after the onset of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, causing inflammation in multiple systems, including cardiovascular and respiratory, digestive, and central nervous systems. This condition is also known as hyperinflammatory shock, Kawa-saki-like disease, and Pediatric Inflammatory Multi-system Syndrome (PIMS). The signs and symptoms include but are not limited to fever, rash, peripheral edema, gastrointestinal symptoms, conjunctivitis, and shock. Thirty-eight studies met our criteria, with a to-tal of 5822 patients. The most affected population was between 5-18 years of age. We noted that MIS-C pre-sented with a wide range of signs and symptoms that overlap with Kawasaki Disease, including high fever, sore throat, malaise, tachypnea, tachycardia, conjunc-tival injection, mucosal edema, cardiac involvement, and gastrointestinal symptoms. It causes an increase in IL-17A, IL-6, and arterial damage, a distinct differ-ence from Kawasaki disease. The laboratory findings in MIS-C showed an increase in inflammatory markers like CRP, ESR, ferritin, leukocytes, and TNF-α. WHO stated that 23% of affected children with MIS-C had underlying conditions like chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular disease, and immunosuppression. In most affected children, aspirin and IVIG were success-ful, which resulted in a decrease in the inflammatory markers. We find that MIS-C is a rare, but potential-ly fatal pediatric complication, after COVID-19 infec-tion. The aim of this article is to study the emerging relationship between COVID-19 and MIS-C in children and adolescents affected by this condition, to discuss the immunological mechanisms, and explore potential therapies.

3.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 53(15):4781-4794, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033401

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the application pattern and mechanism of medicine and food homologous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) against modern viral diseases. Methods The method of literature mining was applied based on the characteristics of modern viral diseases, combining with ancient books and modern prescriptions for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases to build a relevant prescription database. Then SPSS and R language were used to analyze the high-frequency medicine and food homologous TCM and high confidence medicine and food homologous prescriptions in these prescriptions, and cluster analysis was carried out. The antiviral characteristic active ingredients of high-frequency medicinal and food homologous TCN were identified and analyzed, and the action mechanism of active ingredients against modern viral diseases was evaluate by network pharmacology. Results In the prevention and treatment of modern viral diseases, Gancao (Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma)-Chenpi (Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium)-Fuling (Poria) had the highest confidence, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Jiegeng (Platycodonis Radix) had the highest support. At the same time, the prescriptions were clustered and analyzed to obtain Jinyinhua (Lonicerae Japonicae Flos)-Huangqi (Astragali Radix)-Huoxiang (Agastache rugosa), Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Xingren (Armeniacae Semen Amarum)-Poria-Platycodonis Radix-Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Ganjiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma)-Renshen (Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma), Zisu (Perilla frutescens)-Gegen (Puerariae Lobatae Radix), Lugen (Phragmitis Rhizoma)-Sangye (Mori Folium), Shengjiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens)-Dazao (Jujubae Fructus) clustering new prescription. The core action targets of EGFR, CASP3, VEGFA, STAT3, MMP9, HSP90AA1, mTOR, PTGS2, MMP2, TLR4, MAPK14, etc were identified. The action mechanism involved human cytomegalovirus infection, coronavirus disease-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), etc. The core action pathway were phosphatidylinositol-3/kinase protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signal pathway, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway, interleukin-17 (IL-17) signal pathway, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signal pathway, etc. Conclusion Through data mining, six new prescriptions for preventing and controlling modern viral diseases were obtained, and the mechanism of action was preliminarily discussed, which provided some reference for the research and development of medicine and food homologous TCM prescriptions for the prevention and treatment of viral epidemics and related health products.

4.
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 21(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033387

ABSTRACT

Donepezil hydrochloride is an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor studied and approved to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, this drug can have positive therapeutic potential in treating different conditions, including various neurodegenerative disorders such as other types of dementia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, psychiatric and mood disorders, and even infectious diseases. Hence, this study reviewed the therapeutic potential of this drug in treating Alzheimer’s and other diseases by reviewing the articles from databases including Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, and Science Direct. It was shown that donepezil could affect the pathophysiology of these diseases via mechanisms such as increasing the concentration of acetylcholine, modulating local and systemic inflammatory processes, affecting acetylcholine receptors like nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and activating various cellular signaling via receptors like sigma-1 receptors. Despite many therapeutic potentials, this drug has not yet been approved for treating non-Alzheimer’s diseases, and more comprehensive studies are needed.

5.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032774

ABSTRACT

Type 2 helper T (Th2) cells, a subset of CD4+ T cells, play an important role in the host defense against pathogens and allergens by producing Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, to trigger inflammatory responses. Emerging evidence reveals that Th2 cells also contribute to the repair of injured tissues after inflammatory reactions. However, when the tissue repair process becomes chronic, excessive, or uncontrolled, pathological fibrosis is induced, leading to organ failure and death. Thus, proper control of Th2 cells is needed for complete tissue repair without the induction of fibrosis. Recently, the existence of pathogenic Th2 (Tpath2) cells has been revealed. Tpath2 cells produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and induce type 2 inflammation when activated by antigen exposure or tissue injury. In recent studies, Tpath2 cells are suggested to play a central role in the induction of type 2 inflammation whereas the role of Tpath2 cells in tissue repair and fibrosis has been less reported in comparison to conventional Th2 cells. In this review, we discuss the roles of conventional Th2 cells and pathogenic Th2 cells in the sequence of tissue inflammation, repair, and fibrosis.

6.
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032744

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and Gram-negative bacteria are a major cause of severe pneumonia. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, the rise of multidrug-resistant organisms and hypervirulent strains demonstrates that there will continue to be challenges with traditional treatment strategies using antibiotics. Hence, an alternative approach is to focus on the disease tolerance components that mediate immune resistance and enhance tissue resilience. Adaptive immunity plays a pivotal role in modulating these processes, thus affecting the incidence and severity of pneumonia. In this review, we focus on the adaptive T cell responses to pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. We highlight key factors in these responses that have potential for therapeutic targeting, as well as the gaps in current knowledge to be focused on in future work.

7.
ASAIO Journal ; 68:3, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032175

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Release and circulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines or “cytokine storm,” a pathophysiologic component of severe COVID-19, is associated with thrombosis and clot embolization. Compromised patients often require extracorporeal oxygenation and mechanical circulatory support (MCS), imparting blood flow disturbances and exogenous shear stress, further amplifying thrombotic potential. Central in these processes is the platelet. The dynamic interaction of MCS flow/shear and inflammatory cytokines and their propensity for altering platelet function remains unknown. We hypothesized that platelet function is modified in an MCS + pro-inflammatory cytokine environment. We examined platelet aggregation as a function of time, exposing platelets to COVID-19-associated cytokines under MCS flow in vitro. Methods: An Impella5.5® was affixed in a closed loop and positioned with outflow cannula in a 1-inch tube region, maintained at differential 60mmHg pressure. Alternatively, a CentriMag® was affixed in series with a similar closed loop. Porcine PRP, obtained via centrifugation of fresh, ACD-A anticoagulated whole blood was used as circulating fluid. A cytokine “COVID cocktail” of porcine IL-6 (4.5 ng/mL), IL-1β (0.5 ng/mL), IL-8 (2.7 ng/mL), and TNFα (1 ng/mL) was added to PRP and circulated at 5 L/ min. After 5, 60 and 240min of circulation, platelet samples were taken and measured for aggregation with ADP (20uM), and expression of activation markers (CD62P, AnnV) via flow cytometry. Samples were measured in duplicate from N ≥ 2 pigs per experiment. Results: The addition of COVID Cocktail cytokines led to an increase in overall aggregability of platelets over time. In contrast, the addition of shear via MCS devices led to a decrease in platelet aggregability despite Cytokine addition (Fig 1). Notably, platelet aggregability was more greatly reduced with CentriMag (85% reduction) than with Impella (65% reduction). There was no significant difference in platelet activation (AnnV binding, CD62P exposure) between CentriMag and Impella 5.5 in the cytokine environment. (Figure Presented).

8.
HemaSphere ; 6:523, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032145

ABSTRACT

Background: During the coronavirus pandemic, the risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality are higher in certain groups, in particular in patients with oncohematological diseases. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a special group of oncohematological diseases in which mortality in the era of COVID-19 has increased 2-3 times. Currently, there is no consensus on the treatment of ALL during coronavirus infection. Aims: To determine the basic principles and features of the management of patients with ALL during COVID-19. Methods: 46 patients with ALL and COVID-19 (men 52.2%, women 47.8%) aged 18-74 years (median-44.5) were treated at the Moscow City Clinical Hospital 52 on 01.04.20-01.11.21. B-ALL was 58.7% (27 patients), T-ALL - 34.8% (16 patients), biphenotypic - 4.3% (2 patients), not defined - 2.2% (1 patient), Ph-positive ALL - 17.4% (8 patients). The status of the disease of patients upon admission to the Hospital differed: debut of ALL - 20 patients (43.5%), remission - 16 patients (34.8%), relapse and refractory course - 10 patients (21.7%). All patients were treated COVID-19 in accordance with the current guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID- 19 (interleukin 6 inhibitor, anticoagulant and antibacterial therapy, glucocorticoids (GCs), human immunoglobulin (IG) against COVID-19). According to vital indications and with stabilization of the patient's condition, 18 patients (39.1%) received chemotherapy (CT). Results: There were no deaths in the group of patients with remission of ALL. In patients with the debut of ALL, mortality was 45% (9 patients), in relapse and refractory course - 50% (5 patients) (p=0.005). Mortality in the group who did not receive CT was 35.7%, and in the group who received CT - 22.2%. 6 patients with Ph-positive ALL (75.0%) continued therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). According to the protocol for the treatment of ALL, full doses of GCs (100%) and anthracyclines (ATC) (100%) were used, lumbar punctures (LP) and intrathecal (IT) injections of CT (100%) were continued. Due to the high risk of thrombotic complications in COVID-19 and asparaginase therapy, anticoagulant therapy was performed (100%). Prevention of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) (89.1%), antifungal (37.0%) and antibacterial (87.0%) therapy were carried out in the treatment of COVID-19. With the persistence of COVID-19 and the absence of antibodies to COVID-19, 2 patients received repeated transfusion of human IG against COVID-19. Summary/Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients in remission of ALL coronavirus infection are treated and controlled. Treatment of COVID-19 in patients with ALL is carried out according to general protocols for the treatment of COVID-19, taking into account the peculiarities of nosology (agranulocytosis, high risk of PCP and fungal infection with long-term therapy of GCs, persistence of COVID-19). When the patient's condition is stabilized, the issue of CT should be decided individually in each case, taking into account all the risks of ALL and COVID-19. During CT, use full doses of GCs, ATC. In patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, continue LP and IT injections of CT, therapy with TKI.

9.
HemaSphere ; 6:1630-1631, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032118

ABSTRACT

Background: Cohort A of the multicohort phase 2 CARTITUDE-2 (NCT04133636) study is assessing ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel), a B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who received 1-3 prior lines of therapy (LOT) and were refractory to lenalidomide (len). This population is difficult to treat and has poor prognosis. Aims: To present updated results from CARTITUDE-2 Cohort A. Methods: All patients provided informed consent. Eligible patients had progressive MM after 1-3 prior LOT that included a proteasome inhibitor (PI) and an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD). Patients were len-refractory and had no prior exposure to BCMA-targeting agents. Patients received a single cilta-cel infusion (target dose: 0.75×106 CAR+ viable T cells/kg) after lymphodepletion. Cilta-cel safety and efficacy were assessed. The primary endpoint was minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity at 10-5 by next generation sequencing. Patient management strategies were used to reduce the risk of movement and neurocognitive adverse events (MNTs). Other assessments included pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses (Cmax and Tmax of CAR+ T-cell transgene levels in blood), levels of cytokine release syndrome (CRS)-related cytokines (e.g., IL-6) over time, peak levels of cytokines by response and CRS, association of cytokine levels with immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), and CAR+ T cell CD4/CD8 ratio by response, CRS, and ICANS. Results: As of January 2022 (median follow-up: 17.1 months [range: 3.3-23.1]), cilta-cel was administered to 20 patients (male: 65%;median age: 60 years [range: 38-75]). Median number of prior LOT was 2 (range: 1-3);median time since MM diagnosis was 3.5 years (range: 0.7-8.0). 95% of patients were refractory to their last LOT;40% were triple-class refractory. Overall response rate was 95%, with 90% of patients achieving ≥complete response and 95% achieving ≥very good partial response. Median time to first response was 1.0 month (range: 0.7-3.3);median time to best response was 2.6 months (range: 0.9-13.6). All MRD-evaluable patients (n=16) achieved MRD negativity at 10-5. Median duration of response was not reached. The 12-month progression-free survival rate was 75% and the 12-month event-free rate was 79%. CRS occurred in 95% of patients (grade 3/4: 10%), with a median time to onset of 7 days (range: 5-9) and median duration of 3 days (range: 2-12). 30% of patients had neurotoxicity (5 grade 1/2 and 1 grade 3/4). ICANS occurred in 3 patients (15%;all grade 1/2);1 patient had facial paralysis (grade 2). No MNTs were observed. 1 death due to COVID-19 occurred and was assessed as treatment-related by the investigator;2 deaths due to progressive disease and 1 due to sepsis (not related to treatment) also occurred. Based on preliminary PK analyses of CAR transgene by qPCR, peak expansion of CAR-T cells occurred at day 10.5 (range: 8.7-42.9);median persistence was 153.5 days (range: 57.1-336.8). Summary/Conclusion: A single cilta-cel infusion led to deepening and durable responses at this longer follow-up (median 17.1 months) in patients with MM who had 1-3 prior LOT and were len-refractory. Follow-up is ongoing. We will present updated and detailed PK, cytokine, and CAR-T subset analyses as well as clinical correlation to provide novel insights into biological correlates of efficacy and safety in this difficult-to-treat patient population, which is being further evaluated in the CARTITUDE-4 study (NCT04181827;enrollment concluded).

10.
HemaSphere ; 6:1038, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032104

ABSTRACT

Background: Vulnerability of patients (pts) with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and their susceptibility to Covid-19 infection is documented in several studies with reported case fatality rates (CFRs) up to 40%, but there is still paucity of data on identifying risk factors of their adverse outcome. Aims: To evaluate demographic, patient-related, CLL-related and Covid-19 related risk factors in hospitalized pts with concurrent CLL and Covid-19. Methods: Total of 81 CLL pts were identified in medical records of three University centers in Belgrade: Clinical Hospital Center (CHC) Zemun, CHC Bezanijska kosa and CHC Zvezdara dedicated to treatment of Covid-19 pts during pandemic (from 15 March 2020 to 31 December 2021). Results: For all 81 pts CFR was 32.1%. Age (median age 68 yrs;range 45-90 yrs) and sex (apparent male prevalence: 61 male and 20 female;M:F=3.05) had no influence on outcome. Pts with Charlson comorbidity index >4 (29/81;35.8%) had significantly higher CFR (38% vs 9.5%, p=0,025). Concerning CLL-directed treatment: 26/81(32.1%) pts were on active treatment (5 pts were on Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, 21pts receiving imunochemotherapy), 11/81(13.6%) pts were in remission on previous lines of therapy, while 44/81(54.3%) pts were treatment naive. CLL treatment history had no impact on CFR, as well as anemia (Hb<100g/l) that was present in 29/81(35.8%)pts, hipogammaglobulinemia (21/81;26%pts) and hiperferritinemia>450ng/mL (50/81;61.7%pts). Of evaluated laboratory parameters, high levels of lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH>2xUNL:6/81;7.4%pts), D-dimer (>1000ng/mL:36/81;44.4%pts), and C-reactive protein (CRP>100mg/L: 31/81;38.3%pts) proved to be associated with adverse outcome;p-values 0.002, 0.039 and <0.001, respectively. According to Covid-19 clinical course, the severe Covid-19 score had 35(43,2%)pts, and critical 19(23.5%)pts. Covid-19 infection was treated according to current National guidelines. Corticosteroids were administrated to 81.5% of pts, antiviral agents to 38.3%, IL-6 receptor inhibitor to 11.1%, antiviral monoclonal antibodies to 7.4% and intravenous immunoglobulin to 19.8% of pts. None of listed therapeutic approaches had impact on CFRs. Antibiotics were administrated to 43/81 (53.1%) of pts with documented or highly suspected concomitant bacterial infection (procaltitonin level>0.5ng/mL and/or chest X-Ray image corresponding to bacterial pneumonia), and the bacterial coinfection had adverse impact on CFR (51.2% vs.10.2%;p<0.001). Significantly higher mortality was documented in pts who needed supplemental oxygen (58/81;71%) (CFR 43.1 vs.4.3%;p<0.001), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (25/81-30.9%;19/25 needed mechanical ventilation) (CFR 88% vs.7.1%;p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, bacterial coinfection and ICU admission proved to be the most significant adverse parameters influencing outcome (p=0.012). Summary/Conclusion: Our study proved the dismal outcome of CLL pts with concurrent Covid-19. That could be mainly attributed to the high proportion of bacterial coinfections reflecting their frailty and sucessibility to both viral and bacterial infections.

11.
Ageing Res Rev ; 80: 101697, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031135

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine regulating different tissues and organs in diverse and sometimes discrepant ways. The dual and sometime hermetic nature of IL-6 action has been highlighted in several contexts and can be explained by the concept of hormesis, in which beneficial or toxic effects can be induced by the same molecule depending on the intensity, persistence, and nature of the stimulation. According with hormesis, a low and/or controlled IL-6 release is associated with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and pro-myogenic actions, whereas increased systemic levels of IL-6 can induce pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic responses. However, many aspects regarding the multifaceted action of IL-6 and the complex nature of its signal transduction remains to be fully elucidated. In this review we collect mechanistic insight into the molecular networks contributing to normal or pathologic changes during advancing age and in chronic diseases. We point out the involvement of IL-6 deregulation in aging-related diseases, dissecting the hormetic action of this key mediator in different tissues, with a special focus on skeletal muscle. Since IL-6 can act as an enhancer of detrimental factor associated with both aging and pathologic conditions, such as chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, this cytokine could represent a "Gerokine", a determinant of the switch from physiologic aging to age-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Hormesis , Interleukin-6 , Aging/physiology , Humans , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress
12.
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology ; 11(3):45-50, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030692

ABSTRACT

Background: Idiopathic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICOPD) is a prevalent human disease. The etiology of the disease is yet to be clarified. The main aim of this project was to explore serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in the ICOPD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and TGF-β were evaluated in the 70 non-smoker ICOPD patients and 70 sex and age matched controls, using ELISA technique by the commercial kits from Karmania Pars Gene Company. Analysis of data was performed by parametric independent and Pearson correlation test. Results: Serum levels of IL-6 and TGF-β, but not TNF-α, were significantly decreased in the ICOPD patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and TGF-β were not altered in the ICOPD male in comparison to female and also in mild when compared to moderate ICOPD patients. Conclusions: Down-regulation of TGF-β may be the main risk factor for deterioration of inflammation in the ICOPD patients. Decreased IL-6 may be related to the idiopathic type of COPD.

13.
European Journal of Inflammation ; : 1-8, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2029597

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Association of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and kidney injury has been noted in previous studies. However, the mechanisms remain unknown. The present study aimed to explore the potential mechanisms of kidney injury in COVID-19. Methods: Demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, signs, symptoms, and laboratory data of 100 COVID-19 patients were collected and analyzed in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate, and severe to critical group. Kidney injury was evaluated by markers including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and cystatin C. Results: A total of 100 patients with 12 mild, 63 moderate, and 25 severe to critical COVID-19 were included in this study. The kidney injury markers including eGFR, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and cystatin C all worsened significantly with an increase in disease severity. The correlation test showed that cytokines IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were statistically correlated with eGFR and cystatin C. In multivariate analysis, log IL-6 (β = −0.331, p =.001 for eGFR and β = 0.405, p <.001 for cystatin C) and log TNF-α (β = −0.316, p =.001 for eGFR and β = 0.534, p <.001 for cystatin C) were found to be the major independent predictors of kidney injury. Conclusion: Serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were the major independent predictors of kidney injury in COVID-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of European Journal of Inflammation is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; undefined(undefined)2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025976
15.
Acta Microbiologica Sinica ; 7(23), 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025659

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study is to screen an ideal adjuvant for an inactivated porcine deltacoronavirus(PDCoV) vaccine to induce mucosal immunity and reduce the side effect of the vaccine. We used different mucosal adjuvants to prepare the inactivated PDCoV vaccines. We then used mouse model to evaluate the humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses induced by the inactivated vaccines via different immunization routes.

16.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(17):9669, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023746

ABSTRACT

Although interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a life-threatening pathological condition that causes respiratory failure, the efficiency of current therapies is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of human MIKO-1 (hMIKO-1), a hybrid protein that suppresses the abnormal activation of macrophages, on murine macrophage function and its therapeutic effect in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced ILD (BLM-ILD). To this end, the phenotype of thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages co-cultured with hMIKO-1 was examined. The mice were assigned to normal, BLM-alone, or BLM + hMIKO-1 groups, and hMIKO-1 (0.1 mg/mouse) was administered intraperitoneally from day 0 to 14. The mice were sacrificed on day 28, and their lungs were evaluated by histological examination, collagen content, and gene expression levels. hMIKO-1 suppressed the polarization of murine macrophages to M2 predominance in vitro. The fibrosis score of lung pathology and lung collagen content of the BLM + hMIKO-1 group were significantly lower than those in the BLM-alone group. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, F4/80, and TIMP-1 in the lungs of the BLM + hMIKO-1 group were significantly lower than those in the BLM-alone group. These findings indicate that hMIKO-1 reduces lung fibrosis and may be a future therapeutic candidate for ILD treatment.

17.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(17):9584, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023742

ABSTRACT

Furthermore, hematologic abnormalities associated with immunological dysregulation have been observed in several infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, and autoimmune diseases as well. [...]there is a close pathophysiological relationship between hematological diseases and the immune system, and the elucidation of these molecular mechanisms will advance the diagnosis and treatment of benign and malignant hematologic, infectious, and autoimmune diseases. [...]the development of molecular agents that target functional polymorphisms in the NLRP3 gene may prevent post-transplantation organ damage and mortality. [...]research on these gene mutations is important, because they may lead to specific and effective molecular-targeted therapies for acute myeloid leukemia, such as CAR-T cell therapy and peptide vaccine therapy. [3] found that three pediatric patients treated with donor lymphocyte infusion for immunodeficiency-associated viral infections (Epstein–Barr virus in two, adenovirus in one) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation developed CRS and ICANS with increased TNF-α and IL-1b. [...]their study showed that treatment with the TNF-α inhibitor infliximab was effective in all three cases of ICANS.

18.
Antioxidants ; 11(8):1576, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023090

ABSTRACT

[...]the launch of this Special Issue in 2021 coincided with the 25th anniversary of the comeback of the topics related to the biochemistry and pharmacology of sulfur compounds to science. [...]in the aforementioned paper by Skibska et al., the authors showed that the administration of LPS to rats resulted in the inflammation of the ventricles and atria and oxidative stress, confirmed by an increase in thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substance (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). In their article, the authors presented the structure and biological activity of many VSCs, starting with the simple volatile inorganic sulfur compounds, such as H2S and sulfur dioxide (SO2), through the active ingredients contained in commonly-known plants, such as garlic, onion, mustard, and broccoli, and finishing with many lesser-known sulfur compounds appearing in shiitake mushroom and in durian fruit. [...]recently, SO2 was only thought to be a toxic gas and an air pollutant, the molecule responsible for the occurrence of acid rain, and was generally viewed as a foe.

19.
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022799

ABSTRACT

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNA transcripts that are over 200 nucleotides and rarely encode proteins or peptides. They regulate gene expression and protein activities and are heavily involved in many cellular processes such as cytokine secretion in respond to viral infection. In severe COVID-19 cases, hyperactivation of the immune system may cause an abnormally sharp increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, known as cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which leads to severe tissue damage or even organ failure, raising COVID-19 mortality rate. In this review, we assessed the correlation between lncRNAs expression and cytokine release syndrome by comparing lncRNA profiles between COVID-19 patients and health controls, as well as between severe and non-severe cases. We also discussed the role of lncRNAs in CRS contributors and showed that the lncRNA profiles display consistency with patients' clinic symptoms, thus suggesting the potential of lncRNAs as drug targets or biomarkers in COVID-19 treatment.

20.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022728

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic generated by SARS-CoV-2 has led to mass vaccination with different biologics that have shown wide variations among human populations according to the origin and formulation of the vaccine. Studies evaluating the response in individuals with a natural infection before vaccination have been limited to antibody titer analysis and evaluating a few humoral and cellular response markers, showing a more rapid and intense humoral response than individuals without prior infection. However, the basis of these differences has not been explored in depth. In the present work, we analyzed a group of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines, antibody titers, and cell populations in peripheral blood of individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection using BNT162b2 biologic. Our results suggest that higher antibody concentration in individuals with an earlier disease could be generated by higher production of plasma cells to the detriment of the presence of memory B cells in the bloodstream, which could be related to the high baseline expression of cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) before vaccination.

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