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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 957598, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099174

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of the study is to assess the effect of chronic lung disease on mortality in patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of prevariant COVID-19 Pneumonia compared to patients without chronic lung disease. Research design and methods: A cohort of 1,549 patients admitted to the pandemic clinic with a COVID-19 Pneumonia diagnosis was analyzed. Group 1 and Group 2 were compared in terms of the treatment they received, admission to intensive care, mortality and follow-up parameters. Results: The patient group with COVID-19 and lung disease consisted of 231 participants (14.91%) (Group 1). The patient group with COVID-19 but without lung disease had 1,318 participants (85.19%). Group 1 cases were found to receive more oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation than Group 2 cases (p ≤ 0.001), Following univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses, it was determined that patients with chronic lung disease had a 25.76% higher mortality risk [OR: 25.763, 95% CI (Lower-Upper) (2.445-271.465), p = 0.007]. Conclusion: It was found that chronic lung disease contributed significantly to mortality in this study. Among chronic lung diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) were shown to be more effective than other chronic lung diseases in patients with prevariant COVID-19 population.

2.
Ter Arkh ; 94(4): 497-502, 2022 May 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091496

ABSTRACT

Treatment of patients with long-term persistent symptoms after COVID-19 is an urgent problem for clinicians around the world. One of the most significant manifestations of post-COVID-19 syndrome is organizing pneumonia that is usually treat with corticosteroids. The paper presents a clinical case of typical course of post-COVID-19 organizing pneumonia in a patient without previous lung disease. Risk factors, diagnostic methods and treatment options in this group of patients are also discuss.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1530-1532, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066667

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is an infectious disease, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and there have been outbreaks worldwide. The presentation may include unspecific and mild symptoms, myalgia, headaches, high fever, dry cough, severe dyspnea and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). CASE STUDY: We present a rare case of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) with interstitial lung disease and without renal involvement misdiagnosed as COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Differential diagnosis of COVID-19 is extremely important, and must be correctly identified in order to proceed with correct treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):420, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063366

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Extra-pulmonary organs from donors with SARS-CoV-2 detection during donor evaluation are not accepted by many centers due to theoretical concerns for productive infection and organ injury from COVID-related sequelae. We aimed to compare outcomes for kidney transplantation (KT) from donors with and without SAR-CoV-2 RNA detection, CoVD+ and CoVDneg, respectively. Method(s): We retrospectively reviewed donor data, recipient data and key outcomes for all adult CoVD+ KTs performed at our center between 2/1/2021 and 10/31/2021 and compared such data to all consecutive adult CoVDneg KTs during the same period. Organ selection was by protocol and excluded donors within the 1st 14 days of diagnosed symptomatic infection. No COVID-directed therapies were provided to CoVD+ KT recipients (KTRs). Vaccination was not required in early 2021. Result(s): There were 159 KTs, including 71 (44%) from 41 CoVD+'s with mean follow up 151d (range 35-291d). Of the 41 CoV+ donors, 16 (40%) died of COVID complications, mostly hypoxic respiratory failure, with 4 on VV ECMO. For those dying of COVID, the median time from first SARS-CoV2 RNA detection to donation was 28d (range 16-65). Compared to CoVneg donors, CoV+D's had lower KDPI (mean 31 v 43, mean difference -10.8, 95% CI -18.41 to -3.17, p=0.006), and were more likely DCD (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.28-0.463, p=0.007). Having a CoV+ donor was not associated with delayed graft function (DGF). On multivariable analysis, CoVD+ was not associated with a higher serum creatinine (Cr) at 1, 3 or 6 months, but DCD was. There was 1 death (from pre-existing interstitial lung disease without SARS-CoV-2 detection from the lower airway) at 4 mo and 1 graft loss at 6 wk post-KT, both in the CoVD+ group. Neither of these KTR's donors had died of a COVID-related cause. Rejection occurred in 3 CoVD+ and 4 CoVneg KTRs. Six (3.7%) KTRs were diagnosed with COVID, all >3 mo post-KT, with 5/6 occurring >6 mo post-KT during peak periods of circulating virus. Conclusion(s): In a large series, kidney transplant outcomes from CoVD+s were similar to CoVDnegs up to 6 months post-transplant. CoVD+ KT recipients likely benefited from lower KDPI organs. We demonstrate safe and successful transplantation of CoVD+ kidneys outside of the peak period of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Figure Presented).

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A1320, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060986

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Challenges in Cystic Fibrosis Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is seen in 30-50% of patients (most commonly Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonitis) but cystic lung disease is extremely rare (1). Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is an inflammatory lung disease that is characterized by infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells (2), and associated with lung cysts. Oftentimes, it is associated with HIV, lymphoma, and primary Sjogren's Syndrome (SS) (2), however there are rare reports of LIP associated with SLE (1). We present a case of a young male with incidental lung cysts who was found to have a new diagnosis of SLE. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old male with a past medical history of premature birth at 5 months and prior mild COVID-19 infection presented with 3 weeks of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and unintentional 15-pound weight loss. He endorsed dry mouth, frequent cavities, and a new rash involving his chest, face, and lower extremities. Physical exam was significant for malar rash and dry mucous membranes. Labs revealed pancytopenia, sedimentation rate 61 mm/hour and C-reactive protein 5.54 mg/L. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed several thin-walled cysts in all bilateral lung lobes (predominant in right upper lobe) and bilateral axillary lymph nodes [Figure 1]. CT abdomen and pelvis was unremarkable. Autoimmune work-up resulted in a positive antinuclear antibody >1:1280, double stranded DNA antibody elevated at 34, elevated SSA and SSB antibodies (>8.0 and 1.4 respectively), and decreased Complement 3 (59.5 mg/dl) and 4 (10.1 mg/dl) levels. Peripheral smear, right axillary lymph node and bone marrow biopsies were negative for malignancy. He was started on prednisone and Plaquenil with symptomatic improvement. There is high suspicion of LIP given the clinical and radiological findings. He will follow up in clinic to obtain PFTs and schedule a lung biopsy. DISCUSSION: Interstitial lung disease in SLE presents in middle-aged patients at a later part of their disease course, with a female preponderance (2,3). An initial presentation of SLE and secondary SS in a young male and associated cystic lung disease is rare. The suspicion for LIP in association with SLE is high in our patient given variable size and distribution of lung cysts and coexisting secondary Sjogren's syndrome, although no ground glass or nodular opacities were found on CT chest as reported in typical LIP (3). Though this patient has no pulmonary symptoms, cysts/LIP in SLE tend to progress and have a high incidence of developing lymphomas, gammaglobulinemia and amyloidosis (2,3). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to establish a histopathological diagnosis and obtain baseline PFTs to monitor pulmonary disease manifestations. In addition to controlling the primary disease with antirheumatic drugs, steroids have been found to be useful in acute pulmonary flares (2). Reference #1: Maeda R, Isowa N, Miura H, Tokuyasu H. Systemic lupus erythematosus with multiple lung cysts. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2009 Jun;8(6):701-2. doi: 10.1510/icvts.2008.200055. Epub 2009 Mar 12. PMID: 19282324. Reference #2: Yood RA, Steigman DM, Gill LR. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1995 Apr;4(2):161-3. doi: 10.1177/096120339500400217. PMID: 7795624. Reference #3: Filipek MS, Thompson ME, Wang PL, Gosselin MV, L Primack S. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: radiographic and high-resolution CT findings. J Thorac Imaging. 2004 Jul;19(3):200-3. doi: 10.1097/01.rti.0000099464.94973.51. PMID: 15273618. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Matthew Fain No relevant relationships by Christina Fanous No relevant relationships by Rathnavali Katragadda No relevant relationships by CHRISELYN PALMA

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A2559, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060962

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Lung Transplantation: New Issues in 2022 SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: Donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) is a promising plasma analyte for surveillance of rejection and lung transplant (LT) injury. Herein we report our preliminary real-world experiences in concert with standard of practice (SOP) assessments. METHODS: We performed a prospective, cross-sectional, cohort study of a clinically available dd-cfDNA test (the Prospera™ test, Natera, Inc.) combined with SOP clinical assessments − spirometry, fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB), donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA). Single LT dd-cfDNA results were corrected (2X) for lung mass before analysis. Clinical-pathologic cohorts were assigned based on ISHLT guidelines for acute cellular rejection (ACR), uncomplicated chronic lung allograft dysfunction (U-CLAD), and either CoVid-19 or Non-CoVid-19 allograft infection. We also compared median dd-cfDNA fractions between patients experiencing allograft dysfunction (AD) (defined by ΔFEV1≥ -10%) vs stability (STA) and stratified by DSA status. Groups were analyzed by Mann-Whitney (p<0.05) and data expressed as median with 25-75% interquartile range (IQR). RESULTS: A total of 54 plasma samples from 42 unique LT recipients (Single=6, Double=36) were collected at Spectrum Health between November 2021 and February 2022. Primary diagnoses included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=7), interstitial lung disease (n=31), CoVid-19 related ARDS (n=2), CF (n=1) and PAH (n=1). Matching histopathology was available for 68% of dd-cfDNA samples. dd-cfDNA fraction trended 2-fold higher in patient with ACR (1.59%, IQR: 0.09-3.57;n=3) and U-CLAD (1.88%, IQR: 0.88-3.32;n=4) than STA (0.86%, IQR: 0.21-1.62;n=14) patients. Patients with CoVid-19 had significantly higher dd-cfDNA fraction (6.91%, IQR: 2.41-9.77;n=4) than both STA (p=0.035) and NON-CoVid-19 infection cohorts (p=0.049). Although no antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) events were observed, dd-cfDNA fraction was significantly elevated in DSA(+) patients (2.75%, IQR: 1.72-6.25;n=8, class I (4) and II (4)) vs DSA(-) (1.035%, 0.04-1.64;n=46) cohorts (p=0.011). A trend was noted with elevated dd-cfDNA with AD (1.58%, IQR: 0.74-3.62;n=17) vs AS (1.05%, 0.66-1.79;n=37) (p=0.29). CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary experience is consistent with prior studies, suggesting elevated dd-cfDNA fraction during LT allograft rejection and specific types of infection, in particular, CoVid-19. Of interest, dd-cfDNA detected potential occult molecular injury associated with anti-HLA DSA. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: dd-cfDNA fraction assessment after LT represents a valuable clinical tool for clinical surveillance of organ transplant health. DISCLOSURES: Employee relationship with Veracyte, Inc Please note: 2 years by Sangeeta Bhorade, value=Salary Removed 04/03/2022 by Sangeeta Bhorade Employee relationship with Natera Inc Please note: 2/22/22- present Added 04/03/2022 by Sangeeta Bhorade, value=Salary Employee relationship with Natera Please note: 05/2021-present Added 04/04/2022 by Kathryn Crabtree, value=Salary research relationship with United Therapeutics Please note: 2016- ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research research relationship with Pfizer Please note: 2014-2020 by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Boehringher Ingelheim Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Genentech Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria no disclosure on file for Cameron Lawson;No relevant relationships by Edward Murphy Employee relationship with Natera, Inc. Please note: 2020- present by David Ross, value=Salary

7.
Chest ; 162(4):A2552-A2553, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060959

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Issues in Transplantation Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Fibrotic interstitial lung disease (fILD) can be idiopathic or associated with several underlying conditions and in response to various types of injury. Post COVID-19 fILD is an increasingly recognized clinical entity with the potential for a large burden of morbidity and mortality.[1] We present a series of 6 patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis as sequela of COVID-19 requiring lung transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: Four of the 6 patients had known underlying chronic ILD prior to COVID-19 infection (2 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis [IPF] and 1 each with scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis associated ILD). The other 2 patients had no prior history of lung disease and asymptomatic before infection. One of these had a strong family history of IPF. The presentations involved signs of progressive respiratory failure after the initial lung injury from COVID-19. 4 patients were hospitalized during their acute COVID-19 illness and had varying treatments including steroids, antibiotics, anti-virals, convalescent plasma, Tocilizumab, and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. At the time of transplant evaluation, CT imaging showed prominent interstitial thickening, honeycombing consistent with fibrotic processes for all our patients;PFT revealed severe restrictive ventilatory defect with reduced diffusion capacity ranging 24%-53%;3 patients required venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to transplantation for 14 and 93 days. The remainder required 6-10 L of supplemental oxygenation at rest. Two patients underwent initial transplant evaluation while in respiratory failure.5 patients received bilateral lung transplantation and one single left lung transplantation.Duration of time between initial COVID-19 induced lung injury and transplantation ranged from 3-13 months, with a median 6-7 months.Lung explant pathology showed advanced usual interstitial pneumonia in all. Superimposed diffuse alveolar damage was noted in 3 cases. Post-transplant to discharge ranged 10-31 days and at 2 months follow-up, all patients were liberated of oxygen needs. All subjects remain alive at a median 11-12 months, with no evidence of allograft dysfunction. DISCUSSION: Since the emergence of SARS-COV2 in 2019, histopathological fibrotic anomalies have been found to be present in up to one-third of those who recover from ARDS due to COVID-19 [2] and their incidence increases as duration of ARDS increases [3]. Further work is required to understand the pathogenesis of the fibrotic process following acute COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight this syndrome with our case series of 6 patients who showed progressive fibrotic disease after COVID-19. Patients with pre-exiting ILD appear to be particularly at risk but this entity may occur in those without pre-existing ILD. Lung transplantation offers a viable treatment option for selected patients with an otherwise poor prognosis. Reference #1: 1.Bharat, A., Querrey, M., Markov, N. S., Kim, S., Kurihara, C., Garza-Castillon, R., Manerikar, A., Shilatifard, A., Tomic, R., Politanska, Y., Abdala-Valencia, H., Yeldandi, A. V., Lomasney, J. W., Misharin, A. V., & Budinger, G. (2020). Lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis secondary to severe COVID-19. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences, 2020.10.26.20218636. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.26.20218636 Reference #2: 2. Rai DK, Sharma P, Kumar R. Post covid 19 pulmonary fibrosis. Is it real threat?. Indian J Tuberc. 2021;68(3):330-333. doi:10.1016/j.ijtb.2020.11.003 Reference #3: 3. Williamson EJ, Walker AJ, Bhaskaran K, Bacon S, Bates C, Morton CE, Curtis HJ, Mehrkar A, Evans D, Inglesby P, Cockburn J, McDonald HI, MacKenna B, Tomlinson L, Douglas IJ, Rentsch CT, Mathur R, Wong AYS, Grieve R, Harrison D, Forbes H, Schultze A, Croker R, Parry J, Hester F, Harper S, Perera R, Evans SJW, Smeeth L, Goldacre B. Factors associated with C VID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY. Nature. 2020 Aug;584(7821):430-436. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4. Epub 2020 Jul 8. PMID: 32640463;PMCID: PMC7611074. DISCLOSURES: no disclosure on file for Philip Camp;research relationship with United Therapeutics Please note: 2016- ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research research relationship with Pfizer Please note: 2014-2020 by Reda Girgis, value=Grant/Research Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Boehringher Ingelheim Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Genentech Please note: 2016-ongoing by Reda Girgis, value=Honoraria No relevant relationships by Ryan Hadley No relevant relationships by Sheila Krishnan No relevant relationships by Sheetal Maragiri No relevant relationships by Edward Murphy No relevant relationships by Jay Patel No relevant relationships by Keval Ray No relevant relationships by Gayathri Sathiyamoorthy No relevant relationships by Neel Shah No relevant relationships by Subhan Toor

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A2494, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060954

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Dyspne Mysteries SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Anti-synthetase (AS) syndrome is characterized by interstitial lung disease (ILD), arthritis, myositis, fever, or Raynaud's phenomenon in the presence of an AS autoantibody (1). At least 70% of patients with AS syndrome develop ILD (2), and it represents the major cause of mortality in these patients with a 10 year survival rate of 73%. In a small cohort study, the anti-PL-12 antibody subtype was found to be strongly associated with ILD (3). CASE PRESENTATION: A 35 year old female with a history of tobacco use disorder presented to the hospital with three months of recurrent subjective fevers, non-productive cough, and dyspnea on exertion. She denied arthralgias, muscle weakness and hemoptysis. She initially presented to her primary care physician with these symptoms and was prescribed amoxicillin for streptococcal pharyngitis. The patient continued to be symptomatic and was treated empirically for COVID-19 pneumonia twice despite two negative COVID-19 tests and without any significant clinical improvement in her respiratory status. On admission, she was febrile, tachycardic, and had a new oxygen requirement with bilateral coarse breath sounds on exam. She had no leukocytosis and her COVID-19 test was negative. CT angiography of the chest showed extensive mixed reticular and airspace opacities with peribronchial predilection and peripheral sparing (figure 1). A bronchial alveolar lavage was notable only for neutrophilia (19%) and eosinophilia (4%). Rheumatological workup revealed elevated rheumatoid factor, positive antinuclear antibody (1:40), weakly positive anti–Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen A antibody (50 AU/ml), undetectable anti-Jo-1 antibody and positive anti-PL-12 antibody. Pulmonary function testing revealed a TLC of 40% and DLCO of 28%, consistent with a restrictive pattern. Considering the patient's organizing pneumonia, positive antibodies, and findings of "mechanic's hands,” the patient was diagnosed with anti-synthetase syndrome with ILD. She was started on oral prednisone and mycophenolate mofetil. On follow-up, she was noted to have symptomatic improvement and stable hypoxia without clinical signs of disease progression. DISCUSSION: During the coronavirus pandemic, the resemblance of COVID-19 pneumonia to other diseases, in the absence of conscious suspicion for other etiologies, can lead to anchoring and availability bias thereby delaying diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Additionally, anti-synthetase syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ILD even in the absence of arthritis and myositis, as respiratory symptoms are often the first presenting signs. CONCLUSIONS: Increased responsibility is required of diagnosticians to exercise due diligence and active recognition of COVID availability and anchor bias to avoid missing crucial diagnoses. Reference #1: Cojocaru, Manole, Inimioara Mihaela Cojocaru, and Bogdan Chicos. "New insights into antisynthetase syndrome.” Maedica 11.2 (2016): 130. Reference #2: Marco, Joanna L., and Bridget F. Collins. "Clinical manifestations and treatment of antisynthetase syndrome.” Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology 34.4 (2020): 101503. Reference #3: Kalluri, Meena, et al. "Clinical profile of anti-PL-12 autoantibody: cohort study and review of the literature.” Chest 135.6 (2009): 1550-1556. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mario Flores No relevant relationships by David Jackson No relevant relationships by Lisa Saa No relevant relationships by Abu Baker Sheikh

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A2258, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060923

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Autoimmune Diseases Gone Wild: Rare Cases of Pulmonary Manifestations SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a complex entity related to autoimmune dysfunction and inflammation that can cause mass-like lesions and fibrosis of a variety of organs, including pancreas and/or lungs. IgG4-RD in the lung can have diverse clinical and radiographic presentations. We present a case of suspected IgG4-RD that manifested as idiopathic pancreatitis and interstitial lung disease that mimicked coal workers' pneumoconiosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72 year-old male with a decades-long coal mining history and a presumptive diagnosis of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis was admitted to the hospital for necrotizing pancreatitis. There was no evidence of gallstones, elevated triglycerides, history of alcohol use or medication known to precipitate pancreatitis. Two years prior, a presumptive diagnosis of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis had been reached largely on the basis of history and chest imaging (Figure 1) showing a progressive massive pulmonary fibrosis pattern. His hospital course was protracted and complicated by nosocomial COVID-19 treated with remdesivir and a 10-day course of dexamethasone. He then had persistent hypoxemia that worsened after dexamethasone was discontinued. Empiric high-dose methylprednisolone was given and the hypoxemia improved dramatically. However, the hypoxemia and pancreatitis repeatedly worsened with significant dose decrease. Inpatient CT chest showed worsening interstitial reticulation and ground-glass opacities superimposed on prior fibrosis (Figure 2). Serum IgG subclass levels were checked;IgG4 and IgG4:IgG ratio were mildly elevated at 93mg/dL and 0.09, respectively. In the setting of idiopathic pancreatitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and steroid-sensitive hypoxemia, he was diagnosed with probable IgG4-RD involving pancreas and lungs. An association between inhaled occupational exposures and development of IgG4-RD has been observed. To confirm the diagnosis of pulmonary IgG4-RD, a tissue biopsy will be necessary. He is now discharged from hospital on a long steroid taper. DISCUSSION: A serum IgG4 level >125mg/dL or an IgG4:total IgG ratio >0.08 support the diagnosis, as does clinical response to steroids. However, these criteria are nonspecific and will be in the normal range in a substantial minority of cases. Lymphocytes and a predominance of IgG4-positive plasma cells infiltrating fibrotic tissue in involved organs are pathologic hallmarks of IgG4-RD. Lung involvement in patients with pancreatitis due to IgG4-RD is common and likely under recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary involvement in IgG4-RD can show a wide array of radiographic patterns, but that seen in this case with pseudotumor and fibrosis is among the most commonly reported. Given the overlap in risk factors and radiographic appearance between IgG4-RD and pneumoconiosis, vigilance for IgG4-RD is warranted. Reference #1: Hirano K., Kawabe T., Komatsu Y., et al. High-rate pulmonary involvement in autoimmune pancreatitis. Internal Medicine Journal. 2006;36(1):58–61. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2006.01009.x Reference #2: Kamisawa T, Zen Y, Pillai S, Stone JH. IgG4-related disease. Lancet. 2015 Apr 11;385(9976):1460-71. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60720-0. Epub 2014 Dec 4. PMID: 25481618. Reference #3: de Buy Wenniger, L. J., Culver, E. L., & Beuers, U. (2014). Exposure to occupational antigens might predispose to IgG4-related disease. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 60(4), 1453–1454. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.26999 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Jordan Minish, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Robert Ousley, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Meagan Reif, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Derek Russell, source=Web Response

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A2252, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060921

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Treatment Debates in Critical Care SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 1:15 pm PURPOSE: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the common internal organ manifestation of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) that can severely affect the course and prognosis of the disease. Rituximab (RTX) has been used to treat IIM, including variants with ILD. OBJECTIVES:To describe the course of disease in IIM patients with ILD, treated with RTX in long-term follow-up. METHODS: Our prospective study included 35 pts with IIM fulfilling Bohan and Peter criteria and having ILD. The mean age was 51.8±11.9 years, female-26 pts (74%);24 (68.5%) with antisynthetase syndrome, 5 (14.3%) dermatomyositis (DM), 5 (14.3%) with a-Pm/Scl overlap myositis and 1 (2,9%) with a-SRP necrotizing myopathy were included. 25 (71,4% ) patients had nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, 9 (25,7%) organizing pneumonia (OP) and 1 (2,9%) OP, transformed to diffuse alveolar damage. All pts had the standard examination including manual muscle testing (MMT), creatinkinase (CK) anti-Jo-1 antibodies (anti-Jo-1) assay;forced vital capacity (FVC) and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) evaluation as well as high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning of the chest were performed at baseline, and 36 and more months. The median disease duration was 3.2 [0.16-18] years, 21 (60%) of pts were positive for a-Jо-1 antibody. All pts received prednisolone at a mean dose of 24.3±13 mg/day, immunosupressants at inclusion received 25 (71%) pts: cyclophosphamide 18, mycophenolate mofetil 6 and comdination 1;Rituximab (RTX) was administered in case of severe course of disease and intolerance or inadequate response to GC and other immunosuppressive drugs. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period after the first infusion of RTX was 47.2±11.9 months. Pts received 1-11 courses of RTX. The cumulative mean dose of RTX was 4.6 ±2.5g. MMT 8 increased from 135.8±13.5 to 148.75±3.5 (p=0.000001). CK level decreased ΔCK – 762 u/l(median 340;25th% 9;75th% 821). anti-Jo-1 decreased from 173.4±37 to 96.5±79 u/ml (p=0.00002), FVC increased from 82±22.6 to 96,9±22% (p=0.00011). DLCO increased from 51.4±15.2 to 60±77.8% (p=0.0001). The mean prednisone dose was reduced from 24.3±13 to 5.7±2.4 mg/day. 3 pts died: ILD progression was the cause of death in 1 case, 1 bacterial pneumonia and COVID19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm the positive effect of RTX in IIM patients with ILD (increase of muscle strength and improve lung function, decrease in anti-Jo-1 levels) and also its good steroid-sparing effect. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: RTX could be considered as an effective drug for the complex therapy of IIM patients with ILD when standard therapy is ineffective or impossible DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Lidia Ananyeva No relevant relationships by Maria Aristova No relevant relationships by Oxana Desinova No relevant relationships by Liudmila Garzanova No relevant relationships by Anna Khelkovskaya-Sergeeva No relevant relationships by Olga Koneva No relevant relationships by Dmitry Kulikovsky

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A2248-A2249, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060919

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by low serum IgG, IgA and/or IgM, and poor specific antibody production. CVID is estimated to affect as many as 1 in 25,000 individuals. Chronic lung disease is a common problem in patients with CVID. About 10-20% of patients have lymphocytic infiltrates and/or sarcoid-like granulomas, with several histological findings, termed granulomatous and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). CASE PRESENTATION: Patient is a 61-year-old Caucasian woman with a history significant for CVID in remission who presented to the Pulmonary Clinic with a chief compliant of dyspnea of exertion (DOE). Patient was not suffering from any respiratory complaints until the diagnosis of severe COVID-19 pneumonia 4 months prior. For the following months, patient was slowly improving but was still suffering from severe DOE that has negatively impacted her quality of life. Patient has a remote history of smoking, having quit 10 years ago. Patient denied any joint pain, stiffness, swelling, skin rash, muscle ache, or weakness. No known history of SLE, Rheumatoid Arthritis, or other collagen vascular disorders had been reported. Patient denied any exposure to birds. Physical exam was significant only for bilateral basal rales with no wheezing or crackles. No skin rash, joints deformities, or clubbing was noticed. Laboratory studies revealed ESR was 17 with a CRP of 10.6. Negative ANA, SM, RNP, and SSA/SSB antibodies. Her Immunoglobulins levels were low with IgG 382 (nl > 610) and IgA < 2 (nl > 85). Her PFT revealed severe restrictive process with TLC 46% of predicted and severe reduction in DLCO at 35%. CT chest revealed diffuse central groundglass opacities, and interstitial thickening with traction bronchiectasis. Lung biopsy via VATS revealed lung parenchymal with focal, noncaseating granulomas, foci of focal interstitial lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis;features consistent with Granulomatosis-Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung Disease (GLILD). Systemic steroid initiated and for the following weeks patient reports significant improvement in DOE. Her PFT at 3 month follow up showed significant improvement in FVC (5% increase), TLC (11% increase), and DLCO (5% increase). DISCUSSION: The respiratory manifestations of CVID follow two main mechanisms: injury due to acute or recurrent infections and damage due to poorly understood immune-mediated processes. Severe COVID-19 results in dysregulated immune and inflammatory response that can worsen an underlying lung disease. Previous cases have been reported about CVID with GLILD complicated with COVID-19 infection but not vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is a rare case of CVID complicated by GLILD triggered by recent COVID-19 infection. However, little is known about the association between COVID-19 infection and GLILD and further investigation is needed. Reference #1: Ho HE, Mathew S, Peluso MJ, Cunningham-Rundles C. Clinical outcomes and features of COVID-19 in patients with primary immunodeficiencies in New York City. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020;S2213–2198(20):31102–8. Reference #2: Prasse A, Kayser G, Warnatz K. Common variable immunodeficiency-associated granulomatous and interstitial lung disease. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2013;19:503–9. Reference #3: Cunningham-Rundles C, Bodian C. Common variable immunodeficiency: clinical and immunological features of 248 patients. Clin Immunol. 1999;92:34–48. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by husam nayef No relevant relationships by Arshia Vahabzadeh No relevant relationships by Zaid Yaqoob No relevant relationships by Mohammad Zalt

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A2245, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060918

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Systemic Disease with Diffuse Lung Symptoms Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) is a rare and potentially fatal manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM) and has considerable impact in terms of the prognosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old male demonstrated DM-typical rash, fever, mialgias, and mild muscle weakness 3 months after asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Two weeks later dysphonia and progressive dyspnea appeared. Lung CT scan showed the picture of organizing pneumonia. His COVID-19 PCR test was negative multiple times. Laboratory tests revealed the following numbers: ALT 210 IU/L, AST 748 IU/L, LDH 613 IU/L, CPK 1165 IU/L, ferritin 1145ϻg/l, CRB 11 mg/l. The patient was tested positive for anti-Ro52 antibodies, while anti-synthetase and scleroderma-associated antibodies were not discovered. Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) test was not available due to the lack of the necessary test systems in the country. The patient was diagnosed with DM. Combined immunosuppressive therapy was administered, including: oral prednisolone 60 mg per day and 720 mg intravenously, dexamethasone 64-24 mg intravenously per diem, ciclosporin 200 mg и cyclophosphamide 600 mg, and 3 plasmapheresis sessions followed by an intravenous immunoglobulin. As a result of the therapy, muscle weakness disappeared and CPK levels returned to normal limits, however dyspnea progressed and ferritin levels hit 3500ϻg/l. After the following 3 weeks of intensive combined immunosuppressive therapy, the patient demonstrated symptoms of severe respiratory failure (RF). CT scan showed multiple traction bronchiectasis, wide areas of ground glass opacity, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema of a neck and supraclavicular regions. Ciclosporin was replaced with tofacitinib with the dose of 10 mg per diem, IL-6 inhibitor (olokizumab 256 mg) was injected intravenously, massive broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was administered. RF progressed and the patient was put on mechanical ventilation. The patient died of acute RF and sepsis a week later. DISCUSSION: RP-ILD is a common manifestation of severe MDA5+ DM, which is also associated with necrotizing vasculitis and amyopathic/hypomyopathic muscle involvement. In this case acute ILD in a patient with typical DM could also have been provoked by previous COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The courses of disease for COVID-19 and MDA5+ DM have several similarities, which means it can be the same for their pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. In spite of early screening and intensive immunosuppressive therapy in such cases, the prognosis of patients with DM and RP-ILD is still poor and is associated with high mortality. Reference #1: Wang G, Wang Q, Wang Y, et al. Presence of Anti-MDA5 Antibody and Its Value for the Clinical Assessment in Patients With COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Front Immunol. 2021 Dec 20;12:791348. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.791348. PMID: 34987516;PMCID: PMC8720853. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Lidia Ananyeva No relevant relationships by Maria Aristova No relevant relationships by Liudmila Garzanova No relevant relationships by Anna Khelkovskaya-Sergeeva No relevant relationships by Dmitry Kulikovsky

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A2186, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060908

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Systemic Diseases Causing Pulmonary Havoc SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era, the etiology of interstitial lung disease (ILD) should remain broad to ensure accurate diagnosis and the proper treatment of patients. Vital to the art of medicine is taking a comprehensive history, and anchoring on a common diagnosis such as COVID-19 can result in early dismissal of alternate etiologies that physicians have an obligation to explore. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old male with a history of diabetes, hypothyroidism, and hypertension presented to the emergency department (ED) with dyspnea and fever. Initial CT chest imaging was significant for reticular and fibrotic changes with peripheral ground-glass and solid nodular opacities, some with areas of central clearing. Despite negative PCR testing, he was diagnosed with COVID-19 and discharged on oxygen with pulmonary follow-up. He continued to have arthralgias, proximal muscle weakness, low-grade fevers, and weight loss. He re-presented to the ED and was admitted for hypovolemia and further exploration into a potential autoimmune etiology of his symptoms. Labs were significant for a creatine kinase of 3,381 U/L, positive autoimmune antibodies [ANA (1:320), Jo-1 (>8.0 U), and SS-A/Ro (1.4 U)], and elevated ESR and CRP (30 mm/hr and 81 mg/L). Repeat CT revealed persistent parenchymal changes. Bronchoscopy was performed without anatomical abnormalities, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was normal in appearance and negative for infectious etiologies. Though the patient was a farmer and possessed risk factors for hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lack of lymphocytic predominance on BAL, negative hypersensitivity panel, and uncharacteristic CT findings helped exclude this diagnosis. The patient was diagnosed with antisynthetase syndrome and treated with pulse dose intravenous solumedrol before transitioning to prednisone with resolution of muscle weakness and radiographic improvement in lung infiltrates. Muscle biopsy was deferred given the rapid clinical response and serum markers consistent with the diagnosis. DISCUSSION: Antisynthetase syndrome is a rare cause of ILD and often presents with myositis, arthritis, skin changes, Raynaud's phenomenon, and fever [1]. These symptoms, combined with the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibody—most commonly the Jo-1 antibody—help confirm the diagnosis [2]. Due to a lack of established diagnostic criteria, muscle biopsy is often used to exclude other causes of myositis [3]. The ILD associated with antisynthetase syndrome is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and delay in diagnosis can lead to progression of lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: Chest imaging findings in COVID-19 are nonspecific, and post-COVID lung disease often presents similarly to other ILDs [1]. Because of this, history and physical exam remain crucial tools to reflect on alternate diagnoses for ILD and will continue to be necessary as we evolve through this COVID-19 era. Reference #1: Devi HG, Pasha MM, Padmaja MS, Halappa S. Antisynthetase Syndrome: A Rare Cause for ILD. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR. 2016;10(3):OD08. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2016/16872.7361 Reference #2: Cavagna L, Trallero-Araguás E, Meloni F, et al. Influence of Antisynthetase Antibodies Specificities on Antisynthetase Syndrome Clinical Spectrum Time Course. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019;8(11). doi:10.3390/jcm8112013 Reference #3: Schmidt J. Current Classification and Management of Inflammatory Myopathies. J Neuromuscul Dis. 2018;5(2):109-129. doi: 10.3233/JND-180308. PMID: 29865091;PMCID: PMC6004913. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Dustin Norton No relevant relationships by Alyssa Simon No relevant relationships by Kang Rui Xiang

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A2165, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060905

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Systemic Disease with Diffuse Lung Symptoms Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Since its first detection at Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus 2019) has engulfed the world with more than 100 million cases and manifestations of COVID19 have been evolving over time. Various post COVID19 syndromes are being recognized. Reactive arthritis, connective tissue disorders such as myositis and pulmonary complications have been correlated with exposure to COVID infection. We describe the case of antisynthetase syndrome in a patient correlated with exposure to COVID infection or vaccine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68 year old female with history of hypertension and exposure to COVID infection in the family member, presented with 2-3 months worsening generalized body ache/pain started 2 weeks after receiving second dose of mRNA vaccine. Patient also reported dyspnea and leg swelling for 1 month. Upon presentation, she was placed on 4 liter oxygen via nasal cannula. Chest x-ray concerning for infiltrates, possibly COVID. CT chest no pulmonary embolism but evidence of pneumonia superimposed on chronic appearing bronchiectasis. Flu and Covid testing were negative. Patient was started on IV antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia. Labs showed elevated ESR, CRP and CK level. No fever, weakness, mechanics hands, rash or Raynaud's phenomenon. Infectious work up remained negative. No lymphadenopathy on CT chest to suggest sarcoid. ACE level normal. ANA and anti aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibody positive but other ENA were negative. HMG-COA ab negative. MPO/PR3 neg. Echocardiogram was unremarkable. Work up was suggestive of Anti synthetase syndrome with interstitial lung disease(ILD), a form of dermatomyositis. Patient was started on intravenous steroid with good improvement in symptoms and later transitioned to oral prednisone. Patient was discharged on minimal home oxygen with plan to start immunosuppressive medications. DISCUSSION: We are unsure if our patient had COVID19 infection since COVID testings were negative (antigen, antibody and nucleic acid detection ). The likelihood of autoimmune and rheumatic diseases in COVID19 survivors is a big issue. COVID19 infection may unmask previously undiagnosed rheumatic conditions and precipitate de novo disease, both of which may persist after resolution of the initial infection. Corticosteroids remain the cornerstone of early treatment with initial doses at 1mg/kg of the ideal body weight. In an effort to reduce steroid related side effects, other immunosuppressive agents should be considered at the outset of therapy, particularly when treating anti-synthetase syndrome with manifestations of ILD. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with anti-synthetase syndrome with ILD could have correlation with exposure to COVID infection or vaccination, and are steroid responsive. It is likely that clinical improvement may result from prompt suppression of inflammatory systemic response by corticosteroid. Reference #1: 1. Ahmed S, Zimba O, Gasparyan AY. COVID-19 and the clinical course of rheumatic manifestations. Clin Rheumatol. 2021;40(7):2611-2619. doi:10.1007/s10067-021-05691-x Reference #2: 2. Witt LJ, Curran JJ, Strek ME. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Antisynthetase Syndrome. Clin Pulm Med. 2016;23(5):218-226. doi:10.1097/CPM.0000000000000171 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by ELINA MOMIN No relevant relationships by Mohammedumer Nagori

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A2072, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060894

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Tales in Bronchoscopy SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Peripheral pulmonary nodule biopsy can be challenging based on its location and size. Robotic bronchoscopy is augmenting peripheral navigation, allowing for approximation of peripheral nodules. The diagnostic yield is variable and is primarily dependent upon operator experience, selection of biopsy equipment and nodule texture. Hard pulmonary nodules are difficult to biopsy with a needle, brush and forceps. We report a case of utilizing combined disposable 1.1 mm cryoprobe and robotic bronchoscopy to diagnose a right lower lobe nodule. CASE PRESENTATION: A 83-year-old woman with a remote history of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented with dyspnea and fatigue. 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a 2.7 cm hypermetabolic nodule with central photopenia in the right lower lobe (RLL) along with patchy bilateral ground-glass opacities related to COVID-19 infection. After a few weeks, robotic navigation was used for approximation of the RLL superior segment nodule. Under fluoroscopic and radial guidance with circumferential signal, 6 forcep biopsies and 5 fine needle aspirations with 21-gauge needle yielded a non-diagnostic sample. A decision was made to utilize a 1.1 mm disposable cryoprobe, which was inserted through the opening made by the forceps into the target lesion. Six cryo biopsies were obtained with 4-6 seconds freeze time. Minimal bleeding was encountered and no pneumothorax occurred. Histopathological examination revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of combination 1.1 mm disposable cryoprobe biopsy with robotic bronchoscopy. Interventional pulmonologists are primarily using cryo probe for mechanical tumor debulking and peripheral lung biopsy for diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. The use of a 1.1 mm cryoprobe under robotic guidance allows for well-preserved tissue samples and possibly boosting diagnostic yield. The advantage of the 1.1 mm cryoprobe lies with its size and excellent flexibility. The robotic platform also corrects for any unwanted deflection. One limitation of using a flexible cryoprobe is its blunt tip, requiring an additional step in gaining access to nodules located outside the airway with either the biopsy needle or forceps. Future improvements in cryoprobe design with a sharp tip may address this limitation. CONCLUSIONS: Combining 1.1 mm disposable cryoprobe with robotic bronchoscopy is safe and can be considered as an adjunct to conventional biopsy, allowing for well-preserved tissue. Further prospective studies to evaluate its performance and safety is warranted. Reference #1: Kho SS, Chai CS, Nyanti LE, et al. Combination of 1.1 mm flexible cryoprobe with conventional guide sheath and therapeutic bronchoscope in biopsy of apical upper lobe solitary pulmonary nodule. BMC Pulm Med. 2020. 158(20). doi.org/10.1186/s12890-020-01199-3 Reference #2: Chen AC, Pastis NJ Jr, Mahajan AK, et al. Robotic Bronchoscopy for Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions: A Multicenter Pilot and Feasibility Study (BENEFIT). Chest. 2021;159(2):845-852. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.08.2047 Reference #3: Sahajal Dhooria, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Ashutosh NA Digambar Behera, Ritesh Agarwal. Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Cryoprobe Transbronchial Lung Biopsy in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Respiratory Care. 2016. 61(5):700-712. doi.org/10.4187/respcare.04488 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sailendra Chundu No relevant relationships by Moiz Javed No relevant relationships by Abid Khokar No relevant relationships by Ali Saeed No relevant relationships by Andrew Talon No relevant relationships by Melinda Wang

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A2002, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060885

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) one of the most common interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and is caused by an allergic reaction to an inciting agent in the airway of a susceptible individual1. The diagnosis is challenging as many of the classic symptoms, dyspnea and fatigue, are nonspecific. An accurate diagnosis involves careful history taking, physical exam, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), chest computed tomography (CT) imaging, and lung biopsy. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient is a 51 year old female with no PMH presents to clinic with worsening dyspnea and nonproductive cough. Symptoms began 6 months ago. She could not identify any triggers and was prescribed steroids and antibiotics with minimal relief. The patient has never smoked, denies drug use but had two pigeons. During the COVID pandemic she admitted to staying indoors more often and was not nearly as active outdoors as before. She denied fevers, chills, night sweats and weight loss. CXR showed no focal infiltrates, sharp costophrenic angels with no evidence of acute pathology. PFT's showed FVC pre 1.78, FVE1 pre 1.35, FVE1 % predicted pre 48%, FEV1/FVC pre 76%, TLC pre 3.23, VC pre 2.06 and a DLCO pre 10.98 with her LLN of 16.59. FVC post 1.91, FEV1 post 1.57, FVE1 % predicted post 58%, FEV1/FVC post 82% (Fig 1). She had positive pigeon serum antibodies. CT chest showed faint diffuse ground glass opacities bilaterally with mild mosaic attenuation reflecting HP (Figs 2, 3). The patient was diagnosed with HP, started on steroids and surrendered her pigeons with resolution of her symptoms. DISCUSSION: Diagnosis of HP is challenging as the classic symptoms of dyspnea and fatigue can be nonspecific. Physicians should be aware about increasing exposures to home antigens during the COVID pandemic in patients who have been indoors for prolonged periods of time. PFTs show a restrictive pattern and DLCO impairment. CT show the presence of centrilobular nodules, ground-glass opacities, mosaic attenuation/perfusion and air trapping and in longstanding disease there can be honeycombing and traction bronchiectasis2. Mainstay treatment is antigen avoidance and corticosteroids. Identification and complete avoidance of the antigen is the mainstay of treatment. Antigen avoidance is critically stressed as repeated exposures can result in HP progression and avoidance of the antigen is associated with improved lung function1. Corticosteroid initiation in progressive patients resulted in a reversal with an improvement of lung function3. Corticosteroids are often used in non-fibrotic HP however its efficacy remains unclear as long term prognosis has never been studied1. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should recognize that prolonged time indoors, that have been exacerbated during the COVID19 pandemic, can increase the time patients are exposed to home antigens thus a prompt diagnosis and strict avoidance of the antigen is required to prevent irreversible damage. Reference #1: Maria Laura Alberti, "Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges". Frontiers in Medicine, Front. Med., 23 September 2021 ;https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.718299 Reference #2: Zompatori M, Calabrò E, Chetta A, Chiari G, Marangio E, Olivieri D. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? Diagnostic role of high resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT). Radiol Med. 2003 Sep;106(3):135-46. English, Italian. PMID: 14612834 Reference #3: De Sadeleer LJ, Hermans F, De Dycker E, Yserbyt J, Verschakelen JA, Verbeken EK, Verleden GM, Wuyts WA. Effects of Corticosteroid Treatment and Antigen Avoidance in a Large Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Cohort: A Single-Centre Cohort Study. J Clin Med. 2018 Dec 21;8(1):14. doi: 10.3390/jcm8010014. PMID: 30577667;PMCID: PMC6352061. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Aryeh Bernstein No relevant relationships by Thai Donenfeld No relevant relationships by Lourdes Marie F aminiano

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A1866, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060877

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Drug-Induced and Associated Critical Care Cases Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Interstitial pneumonitis (ILD) is inflammation of lung interstitium leading to scarring and pulmonary fibrosis. Various etiologies include idiopathic, connective tissue disorders, sarcoidosis and drug induced1. Many chemotherapy agents have been implicated in drug related ILD such as bleomycin, taxanes. However, newer chemotherapeutic drugs such as molecular agents such as anti-VEGF, anti-EGFR (panitumumab) could be causative of drug induced ILD. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old female with stage IV sigmoid colon cancer treated with surgery, adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy and Panitumumab. She presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath and hypoxia after known COVID-19 exposure. Initial imaging with chest radiography showed bilateral ground glass opacities. A chest CT pulmonary embolism protocol was negative for pulmonary embolism but showed bilateral ground glass opacities (GGOs) and some interstitial thickening (L>R) not typical of COVID-19 infection. She was treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone, however her oxygen requirements continued to rapidly escalate. A repeat CT chest without contrast showed bilateral asymmetric interstitial thickening and GGOs. Given persistence of CT chest abnormalities, workup for interstitial lung disease was initiated. The results include ANA titer 1:80, otherwise negative ANCA profile, rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP, Scl-70, Sjogren antibodies. Given clinical history and imaging findings, diagnosis of ILD was suspected, and she was started on solumedrol 1 mg/kg. Her oxygen requirements decreased significantly over the next 2 days, and she was discharged home on oral steroid taper and pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis. DISCUSSION: Panitumumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody against EGFR. Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2006 for advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer exhibiting wild-type KRAS mutation.2 ILD is rarely reported with panitumumab monotherapy, but higher incidence when used as a combination treatment such as with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. A Japanese post-marketing surveillance study from 2010-2015 showed an ILD incidence of 1.3% but mortality rates of 51.3%.2 EGFR is expressed on basal cells and non-cilia cells of the bronchioles and type II cells of the alveolus. EGFR mediated mechanisms are important in tissue repair.3 Therefore inhibition of this pathway has been postulated to play a role in development of ILD. Another mechanism was decreased surfactant production by type II cells in pre-clinical study.4,5 ILD secondary to Panitumumab can occur at any point during therapy and up to 1 year after administration of drug.6 The role of infectious processes, in this case, COVID-19 pneumonia, could synergistically worsen ILD presentation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence of ILD is low, the mortality rate is high, therefore early recognition and treatment is associated with improved clinical outcomes. Reference #1: Mudawi D, Heyes K, Hastings R, Rivera-Ortega P, Chaudhuri N. An update on interstitial lung disease. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). Jul 2 2021;82(7):1-14. Reference #2: Osawa M, Kudoh S, Sakai F, et al. Clinical features and risk factors of panitumumab-induced interstitial lung disease: a postmarketing all-case surveillance study. Int J Clin Oncol. Dec 2015;20(6):1063-1071. Reference #3: The FASEB Journal - 2000 - Puddicombe - Involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor in epithelial repair in asthma.pdf. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Navitha Ramesh No relevant relationships by Uba Udeh

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A1858, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060875

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Manifestations of Systemic Disease Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a form of interstitial lung disease with a distinct histopathological pattern where bronchioles and alveoli become inflamed. It is associated with many clinical conditions including infections and connective tissue disease. OP has also been seen in patients with hematologic malignancies, however, primary pulmonary presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is uncommon. We present a rare case of OP as an initial presentation of CLL. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62 year-old male with a sixty pack year smoking history and COVID-19 infection one month ago presents with complaints of worsening dyspnea, headaches, productive cough, and congestion of 10 days duration. Patient is unvaccinated and did not require hospitalization for his COVID-19 infection. His vital signs on admission were significant for tachypnea with respiratory rate of 35 and hypoxia with oxygen saturation of 84% on room air. He initially required oxygen supplementation via non-rebreather mask to maintain oxygen saturation >88%. A chest tomography (CT) scan was completed and revealed bilateral dense consolidations with ground-glass opacities and air bronchograms consistent with OP. The scan was also significant for bulky mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The patient denied any personal or family history of autoimmune disease, occupational exposures, and recent travel. Evaluation for infection and for underlying connective tissue disease was unremarkable. He was started on broad spectrum antibiotics and high dose steroids. Due to fluctuating lymphocytosis, bulky lymphadenopathy, and negative infectious workup despite clinical improvement, he underwent a bronchoscopy with endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration of lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical (IHC) stains of these samples were compatible with CLL. Additionally, peripheral blood flow cytometry was also diagnostic of CLL. Oncology was consulted for further evaluation and treatment of CLL. The patient's respiratory symptoms improved and oxygen requirements decreased with steroid treatment and he was discharged home. DISCUSSION: OP occurring in patients with hematologic malignancies has multiple etiologies. Most case reports describe patients with previous exposure to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or bone marrow transplant. However, our patient had no such exposure history and no prior diagnosis of a hematologic malignancy. Infectious and autoimmune etiology were considered, but serologic evaluation was unremarkable. Flow cytometric analysis of lymph node tissue along with lymphocytic bronchoalveolar lavage was consistent with initial diagnosis of CLL. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low incidence, hematologic malignancy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients who present with organizing pneumonia. Prednisone therapy for 6-12 month duration has been shown to reduce respiratory symptoms and may improve survival. Reference #1: Craig E. Daniels, Jeffrey L. Myers, James P. Utz, Svetomir N. Markovic, Jay H. Ryu. Organizing pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies: A steroid-responsive lesion. Respiratory Medicine, 101 (1) (2007), pp. 162-168. Reference #2: M. Mokhtari, P.B. Bach, P.A. Tietjen, D.E. Stover. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia in cancer: a case series. Respiratory Medicine, 96 (4) (2002), pp. 280-286. DISCLOSURES: no disclosure on file for Guillermo Garrido;No relevant relationships by Anita Gopalakrishnan No relevant relationships by Rameez Rao No relevant relationships by Mohammad Salimian

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A1856-A1857, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060874

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 3 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Biological disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are commonly used to treat interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD). These patients often develop concurrent COVID-19 disease and existing data is scarce to guide treatment. We describe a case with a rare anti-Pl-7 Anti-Synthetase Syndrome (ASS) receiving Rituximab treatment for ILD who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to COVID-19 disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old female presented with worsening shortness of breath, loss of taste and smell, cough and headaches for 1 week. She had pre-existing severe chronic ILD secondary to ASS on Rituximab therapy. She tested positive on SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing, CT chest showed bilateral lung honeycombing, reticulations, traction bronchiectasis along with ground glass opacities consistent with active inflammatory interstitial process superimposed on ILD. She was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. She was initially started on high-dose Dexamethasone, Remdesivir and supplemental oxygen via high flow nasal cannula and supportive care for ARDS, however level of care was escalated due to worsening respiratory distress. Rituximab was discontinued due to active COVID-19 infection, the decision was made to start Baricitinib at 4 mg daily. She received treatment for 14 days, that led to a significant improvement in her respiratory status. DISCUSSION: ASS is a rare autoimmune condition involving multiple organs, with ILD being the major cause of morbidity. bDMARDS, especially Rituximab, have shown promising results in management of severe and refractory ILD in ASS. However, the role of bDMARDs as protective or risk factor for developing severe COVID-19 disease in these patients is unclear. ARDS in COVID-19 disease involves a vigorous inflammatory response and cytokine production leading to diffuse alveolar damage. Literature supports that use of corticosteroids, IL-1 and IL-6 receptor blockers and Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitors for severe COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with decreased morbidity. Baricitinib is a JAK1 and JAK2 with anti-cytokine and anti-viral properties and has been associated with reduction in morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19 as demonstrated in our case. Generally, use of bDMARDs does not contribute to worse outcomes in COVID-19 disease in patients receiving these agents for rheumatological conditions. However, use of Rituximab and high dose glucocorticoids have been associated with worse outcomes, while Baricitinib may have a protective effect. Therefore, holding Rituximab in those with active COVID-19 infection is recommended. CONCLUSIONS: Management of COVID-19 in patients with CTD is a challenge due to the novel nature of the disease and scarcity of available data. The association of use of bDMARDs in rheumatological disease with outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection is yet to be elucidated. Reference #1: Barbosa AN, Silvinato A, Bacha H, Floriano I, Tanni S, Bernardo W. Use of disease-modifying drugs (tocilizumab, tofacitinib, and baricitinib-a biological or synthetic target specific) in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2022;68(1):3-8. Reference #2: Santos CS, Férnandez XC, Moriano Morales C, Álvarez ED, Álvarez Castro C, López Robles A, Pérez Sandoval T. Biological agents for rheumatic diseases in the outbreak of COVID-19: friend or foe? RMD Open. 2021 Jan;7(1):e001439. doi: 10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001439. PMID: 33455920;PMCID: PMC7813407. Reference #3: Galarza-Delgado DÁ, Serna-Peña G, Compeán-Villegas JE, Cardenas-de la Garza JA, Pineda-Sic RA, Colunga-Pedraza IJ, Vega-Morales D, Pérez-Barbosa L, Skinner-Taylor CM, Flores-Alvarado DE. Characteristics and evolution of 38 patients with rheumatic diseases and COVID-19 under DMARD therapy. Clin Rheumatol. 2021 Mar;40(3):1197-1199. doi: 10.1007/s10067-020-05510-9. Epub 2020 Nov 24. PMID: 33231774;PM

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A1846-A1847, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060872

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Systemic Disease Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis(GPA) is an autoimmune small vessel vasculitis that is included in the group of anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody(ANCA)- associated small vessel vasculitides (AAVs). GPA is a systemic disease, however acronym ELK is used to describe the most common involvement of Ear, nose, throat, Lungs, and Kidneys. We report a case of GPA, highlighting its presentation. CASE PRESENTATION: 59-year old female presented with vaginal bleeding, malaise, blurry vision, non productive cough and shortness of breath few days after receiving COVID-19 vaccine. Physical exam was remarkable for bilateral conjunctival injection with right sided ptosis and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Laboratory findings were significant for acute kidney injury and anemia. Computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed bilateral bronchovascular nodules and masses with interlobular septal thickening and enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration of left inguinal lymph node was negative for malignancy. Bronchoscopy with bronchial brush revealed alveolar hemorrhage with capillaritis;bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) showed hemosiderin laden macrophages. Tissue biopsy was negative for malignancy. Testing for pulmonary renal syndrome was positive for C-ANCA and proteinase-3 (PR-3) antibodies. Anti-GBM antibody and anti-MPO antibody was negative. Plasmapheresis (PLEX) and pulse dose steroids were initiated however the patient was unable to tolerate the treatment. Her clinical condition continued to decline requiring multiple pressors, broad spectrum antibiotics and continuous renal replacement therapy. She was transitioned to comfort care per family's wishes and passed away. DISCUSSION: GPA is a rare necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of small to medium sized vessels that can affect any organ but mainly involves the upper and lower respiratory tract. Necrotizing glomerulonephritis is common. Pulmonary involvement can include consolidation, tracheal or subglottic stenosis, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pleural effusion and interstitial lung disease. Lymphadenopathy, as seen in our patient is a rare presentation. Tissue biopsy is crucial for the diagnosis. Association with PR-3 ANCA is seen in more than 80% of GPA patients. Cases of AAVs after administration of COVID vaccine have been reported in the literature, although it is difficult to demonstrate causal relationship. Treatment of GPA with immunosuppression, usually corticosteroids, rituximab or cyclophosphamide, is recommended. The role of PLEX continues to evolve with emerging data, but use of this therapy is reasonable for patients with severe kidney injury and DAH secondary to active vasculitis refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis of GPA is challenging as it can mimic metastatic lung malignancy. It should be considered in a broad range of differentials when evaluating patients presenting with pulmonary nodules. Reference #1: Greco A, Marinelli C, Fusconi M, Macri GF, Gallo A, De Virgilio A, Zambetti G, de Vincentiis M. Clinic manifestations in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2016 Jun;29(2):151-9. doi: 10.1177/0394632015617063. Epub 2015 Dec 18. PMID: 26684637;PMCID: PMC5806708. Reference #2: Kitching, A. R., Anders, H. J., Basu, N., Brouwer, E., Gordon, J., Jayne, D. R., Kullman, J., Lyons, P. A., Merkel, P. A., Savage, C., Specks, U., & Kain, R. (2020). ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nature reviews. Disease primers, 6(1), 71. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0204-y Reference #3: Szymanowska-Narloch, A., Gawryluk, D., Błasińska-Przerwa, K., & Siemińska, A. (2019). Atypical manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis: the diagnostic challenge for pulmonologists. Advances in respiratory medicine, 87(6), 244–253. https://doi.org/10.5603/ARM.2019.0062 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sean Davidson No relevant relationships by Eric Flenaugh No relevant relationships by Marilyn Foreman No relevant relationships by KOMAL KAUR No relevant relationships by Gabriela Oprea-Ilies

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