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1.
Frontiers in Pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822391

ABSTRACT

Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) has been recently recognized as one of the infrequent kidney involvement phenotypes among adult patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Although SARS-CoV-2 associated intrinsic kidney disease has been scarcely reported in children, only one case of AIN temporally associated with the infection has been described in the pediatric population so far. We presented a case of a 12-year old boy who presented with fatigue, anorexia, and polydipsia following an RT-PCR that confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection seven weeks prior to admission. Initial workup revealed increased serum creatinine (235 μmol/L), glucosuria, low-molecular-weight proteinuria, mild leukocyturia, and microhematuria with hyaline and granular casts on microscopy. Antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 S protein receptor-binding domain confirmed prior infection with high titers. Kidney biopsy showed diffuse active interstitial nephritis with negative immunofluorescence and positive immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 in the inflammatory cells within the interstitium. Electron microscopy revealed several SARS-CoV-2-like particles. Kidney function continued to deteriorate despite several days of supportive therapy only (peak serum creatinine 272 μmol/L);thus, treatment with methylprednisolone pulse-dose therapy was initiated and was followed by oral prednisolone with gradual tapering. Kidney function completely recovered after 3 weeks post-discharge and remained normal after 11 weeks of follow-up (last estimated glomerular filtration rate 106 ml/min/1.73 m2) with only residual microhematuria. Our case adds to the emerging evidence of SARS-CoV-2 as a potential etiological agent of AIN in children and also suggests that interstitial kidney injury may result from secondary inflammatory damage. Epidemiological history, serologic testing, and SARS-CoV-2 detection in biopsy should be considered in the work-up of children with AIN of unknown etiology.

2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774281

ABSTRACT

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) expanded the emergency use authorization for the BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) for children aged 12-15 years on 10 May 2021. To date, less than a year has passed since vaccination against COVID-19 has been used in children and adolescents, and the overall effects and safety of these vaccines are still being assessed. The BNT162b2 vaccine originally had a favorable profile in 12-17-year-old recipients compared with older ages, and no serious adverse events had previously been reported. Despite various adverse events, the benefit of reducing the infection rate or the frequency of severe COVID-19 has been evaluated to outweigh the harm caused by COVID-19 vaccination. Additionally, several cases of sudden development of new-onset or relapsing glomerular diseases, including acute kidney injury (AKI), have been reported in adults following the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Herein, we present two cases of adolescents who developed AKI following the second administration of the BNT162b2. These are the first pediatric cases of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis temporarily linked to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

3.
Am J Nephrol ; : 1-6, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770078

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To date, almost 7 billion doses of the different types of vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 have been administered worldwide. Although the severity of new cases of SARS-CoV-2 has progressively decreased, and the pressure on national health systems has declined, the development of de novo glomerular injuries has been suggested. METHODS: This study aimed to examine the patients who were hospitalized in our Unit between April and November 2021 and underwent renal biopsy for new-onset urinary abnormalities (UA) and/or renal impairment within 3 months of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. RESULTS: We identified 17 patients who developed UA and/or renal insufficiency within 3 months of vaccination. Minimal change disease was the most common disease in our cohort (5 patients, 29.4%) followed by acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN; 3 patients, 17.6%), membranous nephropathy (3 patients, 17.6%), and rapidly progressive IgA nephropathy (2 patients, 11.8%). The other 4 patients had a diagnosis of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (1 patient), systemic lupus erythematosus (1 patient), ANCA-associated vasculitis (1 patient), and tip-variant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (1 patient), respectively. Eight out of the 17 patients (47.1%) developed acute kidney injury. Two patients with acute TIN had to start hemodialysis that was discontinued after 1 and 2 months, respectively, due to the recovery of renal function. All patients underwent treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants. DISCUSSION: Although it is not possible to conclusively determine whether there is a causal relationship between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and new-onset nephropathies, based on the appearance of UA and/or renal insufficiency shortly after vaccination, we hypothesize that the immune response to the COVID-19 vaccine may be a trigger of nephropathies. Therefore, our results highlight the need for pharmacovigilance. However, this report should not lead to vaccine hesitation during this pandemic as the benefits of vaccination strongly outweigh the potential risks.

5.
Kidney International Reports ; 7(2):S4, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1706841

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important reversible cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Its prevalence is about 6-8% in histologically proven AKI.Early diagnosis of drug-induced AKI is vital because the discontinuation of the causal treatment facilitates recovery of the renal function. Methods: We report a case of captopril-induced AIN. Results: We report the case of a 82-year-old woman with a history of untreated hypertension. She was admittedin our department for AKI. Two days before admission, Captopril was initiated for high blood pressure (BP) as well as vitamin therapy for suspicion of a sars covid 19 infection, which was ruled out by a negative pcr covid test and a normal thoracic scan. The initial physical examination showed asthenia and a BP of 160/90 mmHg. Urinary labstix was negative. The biological analysis showed AKI: creatinine rose from 80 to 230 and then to 530 µmol/l, anemia at 7 g/dl and moderate hyper eosinophilia at 700 elements/ml. A renal biopsy was not performed because of the presence of cysts, and the diagnosis of interstitial nephritis was suspected. The drug-induced origin was confirmed after having eliminated infectious and tumoral origin. The pharmacovigilance investigation incriminated captopril. Captopril was stopped and the patient was put on corticosteroids 0.5 mg/kg/d. The evolution was favorable with an improvement of the renal function (creatinine at 120 µmol/l one month later). Conclusions: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can cause an increase in serum creatinine or potassium levels in patients with renal failure, renal artery stenosis, heart failure, or hypovolemia, but are rarely reported to be involved as an etiology of AIN. We report one of the rare cases of captopril-induced AIN. No conflict of interest

6.
Nephrol Ther ; 2021 Dec 08.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649775

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are being administered worldwide. Most side effects are mild and self-limiting with few reported cases of severe reactions. We report a case of leukocytoclastic vasculitis with acute kidney failure following aninactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, unique for its dramatic visual presentation and its rapid response to treatment. This is the case of a 58years-old man presenting with fever, arthralgias and vascular purpura on his limbs associated with acute kidney failure requiring hemodialysis nine days after anti-COVID-19 vaccination. Skin biopsy revealed a leukocytoclastic vasculitis and a renal biopsy showed an acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. The vascular purpura resolved 7days after initiating treatment with prednisone but the patient remains in chronic renal failure. The analysis and investigation of the complications and adverse events induced by anti-COVID-19 vaccines could increase our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis.

7.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(12): 2608-2611, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598870

ABSTRACT

A 67-year-old female with Type 2 diabetes mellitus developed nephrotic syndrome within 1 week of receiving the first dose of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 CoronaVac vaccine. A kidney biopsy was consistent with minimal change nephrotic syndrome and treatment was symptomatic with antiproteinuric therapy and improvement in proteinuria. Oedema returned within 1 week of the second dose of CoronaVac. On this occasion, acute kidney injury and massive proteinuria were noted. In kidney biopsy, glomeruli were normal, but tubulointerstitial inflammation consistent with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis was noted. Pulse followed by oral steroids was followed by recovery of kidney function. Proteinuria decreased after initiation of cyclosporine A.

8.
Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis ; 14: 421-426, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The development of vaccines to prevent COVID-19 breakouts came with highly positive results but some unexpected side effects. Rare side effects have been seen with the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV 2 vaccine. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 45-year-old female patient who developed an acute kidney injury needing urgent hemodialysis one week after the second administration of the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV 2 vaccine. She developed a macular rash on her lower limbs and palms as well. A kidney biopsy was performed 10 days after vaccine inoculation, diagnosing acute interstitial nephritis and acute tubular necrosis with cellular casts. The patient was treated with three corticosteroid pulses followed by daily prednisolone. We witnessed clinical improvement 4 days after the initial corticosteroid treatment with progressive recovery of kidney function and hemodialysis withdrawal. After 2 weeks, the patient had recovered her kidney function. Immunophenotyping was performed, diagnosing a hypersensitivity to the vaccine and the polyethylene glycol excipient. CONCLUSION: Patients may develop acute reactions to vaccines. In this case, symptoms seem to correlate significantly with its inoculation and, although this case had a favourable outcome, these side effects must be made aware for clinicians and patients.

9.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526737

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
11.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269953

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
12.
Blood Purif ; 51(3): 288-291, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262430

ABSTRACT

Management of COVID-19 infection is the trend topic in the scientific community and case identification is a key step to contain the pandemic. While pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome represent the typical severe manifestations of the disease, atypical presentations pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for physicians, especially when diagnostic tests are repeatedly negative. Clinical picture of COVID-19 patients is often complicated by bacterial infections or thrombotic events. Here, we present and discuss a case report identified in our center as example of a challenging diagnosis and 2 uncommon complications: severe hyponatremia and acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy, caused by parenchymal damage and with a possible direct involvement of the virus.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hyponatremia , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Hyponatremia/etiology , Hyponatremia/therapy
13.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 335-339, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078673

ABSTRACT

The introduction of Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib has made a significant progress in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies. Due to the reduction of cytokine release, it is effective in chronic graft-versus-host disease, and its use has also been suggested in autoimmune diseases and in prevention of COVID-19-associated lung damage. Despite this effect on the immune response, we report a severe hypersensitivity reaction in a 76-year-old male patient diagnosed with prolymphocytic leukemia. Four weeks after the ibrutinib start, non-oliguric acute kidney injury with proteinuria and microscopic hematuria developed and that was accompanied by lower limb purpuras and paresthesia. Renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis. Employing 1 mg/kg methylprednisolone administration, serum creatinine decreased from 365 µmol/L to 125 µmol/L at 11 days and the proteinuria-hematuria as well as the purpura, paresthesia resolved. Three months later at stabile eGFR of 56 ml/min/1.73 m2 methylprednisolone was withdrawn and a rituximab-venetoclax treatment was initiated without side effects. We conclude that despite the beneficial effect on cytokines response in Th1 direction, ibrutinib can cause acute interstitial nephritis. Early detection, discontinuation of ibrutinib, glucocorticoid administration may help to better preserve renal function, thereby lowering the risk of potential subsequent kidney injury.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Nephritis, Interstitial/chemically induced , Piperidines/adverse effects , Proteinuria/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Adenine/adverse effects , Aged , Cytokines/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Leukemia, Prolymphocytic/drug therapy , Male , Nephritis, Interstitial/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Proteinuria/drug therapy
14.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 19, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is common and is a significant predictor of morbidity and mortality, especially when dialysis is required. Case reports and autopsy series have revealed that most patients with COVID-19 - associated acute kidney injury have evidence of acute tubular injury and necrosis - not unexpected in critically ill patients. Others have been found to have collapsing glomerulopathy, thrombotic microangiopathy and diverse underlying kidney diseases. A primary kidney pathology related to COVID-19 has not yet emerged. Thus far direct infection of the kidney, or its impact on clinical disease remains controversial. The management of AKI is currently supportive. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented here was positive for SARS-CoV-2, had severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure. Within days of admission to the intensive care unit he developed oliguric acute kidney failure requiring dialysis. Acute kidney injury developed in the setting of hemodynamic instability, sepsis and a maculopapular rash. Over the ensuing days the patient also developed transfusion-requiring severe hemolysis which was Coombs negative. Schistocytes were present on the peripheral smear. Given the broad differential diagnoses for acute kidney injury, a kidney biopsy was performed and revealed granulomatous tubulo-interstitial nephritis with some acute tubular injury. Based on the biopsy findings, a decision was taken to adjust medications and initiate corticosteroids for presumed medication-induced interstitial nephritis, hemolysis and maculo-papular rash. The kidney function and hemolysis improved over the subsequent days and the patient was discharged to a rehabilitation facility, no-longer required dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Acute kidney injury in patients with severe COVID-19 may have multiple causes. We present the first case of granulomatous interstitial nephritis in a patient with COVID-19. Drug-reactions may be more frequent than currently recognized in COVID-19 and are potentially reversible. The kidney biopsy findings in this case led to a change in therapy, which was associated with subsequent patient improvement. Kidney biopsy may therefore have significant value in pulling together a clinical diagnosis, and may impact outcome if a treatable cause is identified.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Nephritis, Interstitial/etiology , Granuloma/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
15.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 19, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is common and is a significant predictor of morbidity and mortality, especially when dialysis is required. Case reports and autopsy series have revealed that most patients with COVID-19 - associated acute kidney injury have evidence of acute tubular injury and necrosis - not unexpected in critically ill patients. Others have been found to have collapsing glomerulopathy, thrombotic microangiopathy and diverse underlying kidney diseases. A primary kidney pathology related to COVID-19 has not yet emerged. Thus far direct infection of the kidney, or its impact on clinical disease remains controversial. The management of AKI is currently supportive. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented here was positive for SARS-CoV-2, had severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure. Within days of admission to the intensive care unit he developed oliguric acute kidney failure requiring dialysis. Acute kidney injury developed in the setting of hemodynamic instability, sepsis and a maculopapular rash. Over the ensuing days the patient also developed transfusion-requiring severe hemolysis which was Coombs negative. Schistocytes were present on the peripheral smear. Given the broad differential diagnoses for acute kidney injury, a kidney biopsy was performed and revealed granulomatous tubulo-interstitial nephritis with some acute tubular injury. Based on the biopsy findings, a decision was taken to adjust medications and initiate corticosteroids for presumed medication-induced interstitial nephritis, hemolysis and maculo-papular rash. The kidney function and hemolysis improved over the subsequent days and the patient was discharged to a rehabilitation facility, no-longer required dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Acute kidney injury in patients with severe COVID-19 may have multiple causes. We present the first case of granulomatous interstitial nephritis in a patient with COVID-19. Drug-reactions may be more frequent than currently recognized in COVID-19 and are potentially reversible. The kidney biopsy findings in this case led to a change in therapy, which was associated with subsequent patient improvement. Kidney biopsy may therefore have significant value in pulling together a clinical diagnosis, and may impact outcome if a treatable cause is identified.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Nephritis, Interstitial/etiology , Granuloma/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
16.
Clin Kidney J ; 13(3): 354-361, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) frequency, severity and characterization in critically ill patients has not been reported. METHODS: Single-centre cohort performed from 3 March 2020 to 14 April 2020 in four intensive care units in Bordeaux University Hospital, France. All patients with COVID-19 and pulmonary severity criteria were included. AKI was defined using Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. A systematic urinary analysis was performed. The incidence, severity, clinical presentation, biological characterization (transient versus persistent AKI; proteinuria, haematuria and glycosuria) and short-term outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were included, with basal serum creatinine (SCr) of 69 ± 21 µmol/L. At admission, AKI was present in 8/71 (11%) patients. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] follow-up was 17 (12-23) days. AKI developed in a total of 57/71 (80%) patients, with 35% Stage 1, 35% Stage 2 and 30% Stage 3 AKI; 10/57 (18%) required renal replacement therapy (RRT). Transient AKI was present in only 4/55 (7%) patients and persistent AKI was observed in 51/55 (93%). Patients with persistent AKI developed a median (IQR) urine protein/creatinine of 82 (54-140) (mg/mmol) with an albuminuria/proteinuria ratio of 0.23 ± 20, indicating predominant tubulointerstitial injury. Only two (4%) patients had glycosuria. At Day 7 after onset of AKI, six (11%) patients remained dependent on RRT, nine (16%) had SCr >200 µmol/L and four (7%) had died. Day 7 and Day 14 renal recovery occurred in 28% and 52%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Severe COVID-19-associated AKI is frequent, persistent, severe and characterized by an almost exclusive tubulointerstitial injury without glycosuria.

17.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(9): 731-735, 2020 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-432052

ABSTRACT

Renal Monomorphology in COVID-19 with Acute Renal Insufficiency Abstract. A 78-year-old ventilator-dependent COVID-19 patient developed severe renal failure with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and nephrotic proteinuria. Sonography showed echo-dense and enlarged kidneys with high resistance indices (>0.8). Echocontrast sonography showed a delayed renal perfusion. In the further course of the disease renal function recovered, kidney size decreased and the renal perfusion normalized. An acute COVID-19-associated interstitial nephritis is postulated.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Kidney , Nephritis, Interstitial , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
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