Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.780
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
International Journal of Indigenous Health ; 17(1):41-72, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955510

ABSTRACT

This paper introduces an integrative (or braided) approach to Indigenous youth mental health, designed in response to a synthesis of knowledge from three systematic literature reviews and four informant consultations with mental health providers in various disciplines. The braided approach includes core principles of Indigenous Healing models (IH), Child and Youth Care (CYC) approaches, and Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) practices. The purpose of this approach is to best serve the mental and spiritual health needs of Indigenous youth across Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings of this research project informed the design and implementation of an online Indigenous youth mental health program, which is discussed in relation to the research.

2.
Kinesiology ; 54(1):116-125, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955415

ABSTRACT

In order to maintain physical fitness during the COVID-19 quarantine, we designed a short-term intervention with one body-weight exercise – burpees. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand level of feasibility and potential benefits of our protocol to different variables in young adults during the COVID-19 quarantine. An online 4-week intervention was administered to 13 young adults (age 22.5±1.39 years, weight 71.8±10.1 kg). The main phase of each session consisted of burpees, a calisthenics body-weight exercises. The training was administered daily. Data regarding quality of life (QoL), body composition, posture, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiovascular health, and strength were collected before and after the intervention period. Participants’ QoL significantly increased after four weeks (p=.025). Also, participants’ strength improved, assessed by the push-up test (p=.017). Systolic blood pressure showed no difference between the pre-and post-measures, while a significant reduction was found in diastolic blood pressure. The HRV assessment showed increased mean RR (p=.005) and RMSSD (p=.014) and decreased mean HR (p=.004) (in the time-domain). For the frequency-domain variables, no significant difference was found. No significant changes were noted in body composition, posture, handgrip strength and countermovement squat jump height. Our preliminary results suggest that the 4-week daily online burpees intervention is a feasible method that could improve QoL, upper body strength and HRV in young adults. This non-time-consuming approach could be easily administered to promote healthy living and counteract physical inactivity during COVID-19 restrictions thanks to its feasibility, short duration, and low cost. © 2022, University of Zagreb - Faculty of Kinesiology. All rights reserved.

3.
Malaysian Journal of Science ; 41(2):30-46, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955299

ABSTRACT

Evidence before the COVID-19 outbreak indicated that healthcare workers' hand hygiene compliance had been low. Although hand hygiene compliance improved during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to plan a tailored and targeted hand hygiene promotion strategy to maintain these changes. Therefore, this review aimed to assess experimental theory-based studies on hand hygiene improvement to identify the best theory and constructs with higher effectiveness. The study design is a systematic review. The search strategy was developed, and Medline (PubMed), ProQuest, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane Trials, and Science Direct databases were searched up to May 26, 2020, without time restrictions. Review Manager 5.1 software was used to determine the risk of bias. Irrelevant articles, non-original articles, non-interventional studies, and those that lacked a theoretical framework were excluded. A total of eight articles were entered into the final analysis, including three randomized clinical trials and five quasi-experimental studies. In the selected studies, different theories were reported at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational levels. Moreover, some studies evaluated multifaceted interventions involving various levels of influence. Finally, we suggested an integrated multi-level approach to promote hand hygiene (IMAPH) with a comprehensive theoretical framework for designing the interventions. © 2022 Malaysian ing and Indexing System. All rights reserved.

4.
Journal of Emergency Management ; 20(9):39-47, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954534

ABSTRACT

The sudden and protracted emergency stemming from the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents potential exposures, or exacerbations, of psychological trauma to workforces. Organizationally significant traumatic stress warrants the trauma-informed attention of emergency managers wishing to protect the well-being of responders and prevent performance breakdowns. This study focuses on interventions that can be applied at the organizational level without the need for specially trained clinicians. We first provide a rapid review of design principles intended to provide safe, ethical, and efficacious interventions that utilize informational and social learning principles. Next, we present a conceptual framework, drawing from the disaster management and clinical trauma evidence base, targeted to build proactive workplace programs for trauma mitigation. Duty of care and shared responsibility are discussed as a way to balance obligations and burdens of operating in milieus characterized by psychological trauma. Assuming that clinically significant trauma is handled by established systems of mental healthcare, the five case studies in this study demonstrate how empirical findings support program elements to address subclinical trauma in emergency managers and responders across sectors. © 2022 Weston Medical Publishing. All rights reserved.

5.
South African Journal of Childhood Education (SAJCE) ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1954244

ABSTRACT

Background: Successful interventions targeting families can only occur through informed research findings. It is important that policymakers understand the unique household dynamics that low-income households face and the kinds of assistance they need to foster early learning and development at home. Aim: To investigate the extent of parental involvement in the early learning of preschoolers in Philippi and the role of the home environment in promoting or hindering early learning and development. Setting: This study was conducted in Philippi, one of the biggest poor urban settlements in the city of Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: The researcher visited 20 early childhood development (ECD) facilities and 40 caregivers in Philippi. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the ECD principals, practitioners and caregivers. Results: The analysis of the results of the study revealed that, for the most part, preschoolers in Philippi live in household environments that do not encourage or support early learning and development. Moreover, parental involvement in such preschoolers is limited by the parents’ unwillingness or inability to take up opportunities for involvement in the facility and to regularly engage in stimulation activities at home. Conclusion: Given their low-income, low-educational status and general lack, parents need a clearer framework on how to become involved and how to provide a conducive household learning environment to preschoolers.

6.
Cadernos de Terapia Ocupacional da UFSCar ; 30:1-11, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1951710

ABSTRACT

Conclusion: Auditory hypersensitivity was observed, especially related to irritability, which suggests a relationship with the limbic system and, therefore, may refer to misophonia. [...]it is important for the multidisciplinary team to pay attention to the occurrence and characteristics of hypersensitivity in this population, in order to maximize favorable conditions for rehabilitation. Specifically in relation to auditory sensory alterations, previous studies showed wide variability in prevalence, with results from 15% to 100% (Khalfa et al., 2004;Gomes et al., 2008;Bhatara et al., 2013;Danesh et al., 2015). [...]auditory hypersensitivity is configured as an abnormal perception of sound, which can impact different everyday situations, such as social and leisure activities (Aazh et al., 2016). [...]data is important to understand how this change occurs, as well as to provide parents and caregivers with intervention strategies and better quality of life. [...]having as references studies that showed changes in the limbic system, related to emotions, in children with ASD (Haznedar et al., 2000;Stigler et al., 2011), the hypothesis listed is that parents perceive behaviors of Misophonia-type auditory hypersensitivity, with irritability to specific sounds and consequent impact on daily life situations. Additionally, we hypothesized that, during the period of social isolation resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, such behaviors could be minimized, since children possibly stayed longer in controlled environments and had less exposure to outdoor environments. [...]considering that hearing is one of the sensory inputs of the human body, essential for the development of oral language, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence and type of auditory hypersensitivity in children with clinical signs of ASD through the report of the parents in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953034

ABSTRACT

The death of a loved one is a major stressor, and bereaved people are at a higher risk of negative health effects. This risk is higher during the COVID-19 pandemic, which raises the need for understanding existing bereavement support interventions. This scoping review aimed to map and summarize findings from the existing literature regarding bereavement support interventions (i.e., psychosocial and psychotherapeutic interventions) for family carers of people who died of COVID-19. The Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework was used. Five databases-Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science-were searched for articles available from the inception of COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020) to January 2022, following the PRISMA guidelines. Among the 990 studies identified, only seven met this study's inclusion criteria. The analysis comprised three key topics: types of support programmes and bereavement interventions; tools used to measure the outcomes; and evidence of the impacts of the interventions. All studies analysed included interdisciplinary interventions, commonly developed in clinical settings. Support for recently bereaved individuals can entail cognitive behavioural therapy strategies and other tools to educate, guide, support, and promote healthy integration of loss. To mitigate the effects of non-normative family bereavement, we recommend a systematic approach and coordination between organizational settings, including access to informal and professional support, in order to find hope while navigating the aftermath of COVID-19.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 862366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952797

ABSTRACT

Background: Mindfulness and self-care, practiced through a variety of methods like meditation and exercise, can improve overall sense of holistic well-being (i.e., flourishing). Increasing mindfulness and self-care may lead to increased flourishing and job satisfaction among the nation-wide Cooperative Extension system delivery personnel (agents) through a theory-based online program and an extended experiential program. Methods: Cooperative Extension agents from two states were invited to participate in MUSCLE via statewide listservs. Participants were invited to attend sessions and complete competency checks and between-session assignments each week. The study was conducted using Zoom. Pre- and post- program surveys included validated scales for flourishing and physical activity status. Due to high demand for mindfulness programing during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, experiential "Mindful Meet-up" 30-minute sessions were held on Zoom. Dissemination and implementation of the two differing interventions (i.e., MUSCLE and Mindful Meet-ups) were examined. Results: MUSCLE (more intensive program with assignments and competency checks) had lower reach, and did not show statistically increased flourishing or physical activity. Mindful Meet-ups had higher attendance and proportional reach during the beginning of the pandemic, but no practical measure of flourishing or physical activity behaviors. Unsolicited qualitative feedback was encouraging because the interventions were well-received and participants felt as though they were more mindful. Conclusions: While agents anecdotally reported personal improvements, capturing data on outcomes was challenging. Complementing outcome data with implementation and dissemination outcomes allowed for a richer picture to inform intervention decision-making (i.e., offering the same or new programming depending on participant needs).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Educators , Mindfulness , Humans , Mindfulness/methods , Pandemics , Self Care
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 842368, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952781

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a threat to individual and global health, thus, reducing the disease's spread is of significant importance. However, adherence to behavioral measures against the spread of COVID-19 is not universal, even within vulnerable populations who are at higher risk of exposure to the virus or severe COVID-19 infection. Therefore, this study investigates how risk-group membership relates to adherence to COVID-19 behavioral measures, whether perceived threat of COVID-19 is a mechanism explaining this relationship, and whether knowledge about COVID-19 moderates these effects. Methods: We conducted a web-based survey (N = 4,096) representative of the adult population in Germany with regard to gender, age (18 to 74), and province. Therein, we assessed risk group membership with two indicators (risk of exposure to COVID-19 and risk of severe COVID-19 infection), perceived COVID-19 threat with the Perceived Coronavirus Threat Questionnaire, knowledge about COVID-19 with a knowledge test; and adherence to six behavioral measures to protect against the spread of COVID-19 (e.g., keeping distance, using mouth-nose protection, and following contact restrictions). We used moderated mediation models to test whether perceived threat mediates the relationship between risk-group membership and adherence and whether knowledge about COVID-19 moderates this relationship. Results: We found that risk group members had more perceived COVID-19 threat and that knowledge about COVID-19 increased perceived threat. Moreover, risk group membership had a positive direct effect on adherence to most behavioral measures and risk group members with less knowledge about COVID-19 violated measures more frequently. Risk-group membership also had positive indirect effects on adherence via perceived COVID-19 threat. The moderated indirect effects of threat indicate that threat led to more adherence when knowledge was low, but lost relevance as knowledge increased. Conclusion: The results may help to evaluate disease-regulation measures and to combat the pandemic more effectively. For example, increasing COVID-19 knowledge in the general population could increase adherence to COVID-19 behavioral measures. However, policy makers should be mindful that this could also have negative mental health implications as knowledge increases perceived COVID-19 threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Group Processes , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Digit Health ; 4: 867366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952289

ABSTRACT

Separating children from families has deleterious effects on children's mental health and well-being, which is highly relevant for youth in juvenile detention and other out-of-home residential placements. Despite growth in the evidence of family-based interventions in mitigating adverse behavioral health outcomes for justice involved adolescents (JIA), gaps remain in intervention dissemination for JIA; this particularly true for those leveraging digital health technologies, a need that has intensified with the COVID-19 pandemic. Use of digital health technologies for JIAs is pressing to address structural barriers in maintaining JIA-family connections, but also to improve treatment access for detained JIAs. Court systems' capacity to support use of digital health tools, such as telehealth, appear promising. Data on the use of tele-conferencing in U.S. juvenile and family courts were collected from 456 juvenile justice professionals as part of a larger study on judicial decision making. Results suggest overwhelming adoption of video-conferencing for court hearings with only 40% of respondents reporting family court use prior to the onset of COVID-19, but majority (91%) now reporting its routine use. Youth participate from a range of settings, including detention, other residential placement, community-based behavioral health and in-home settings. The COVID-19 pandemic has created a shift in the uptake of video-conferencing platforms that could hold promise for future larger scale use across the juvenile justice system. Findings underscore feasibility and acceptability of technology requirements in key settings that should be leveraged for broad scale implementation of empirically supported family-based interventions to advance behavioral health equity for JIA.

12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(28): e215, 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) B epidemics occurred in South Korea in late 2021. We investigated epidemiological changes of PIV3 and RSV B infections in Korean children before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective study, we enrolled patients aged less than 19 years with PIV3 or RSV infection in four university hospitals from January 2018 to January 2022. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the subject's medical records and analyzed for each virus. RESULTS: A total of 652 children with PIV3 were identified including three epidemics: 216 in 2018, 260 in 2019, and 167 in 2021. Among 627 RSV B cases, 169 were identified in 2017/2018, 274 in 2019/2020, and 115 in 2021/2022. The peak circulation of PIV3 and RSV B epidemics were delayed by 6 and 2 months, respectively, in 2021, compared with those in the pre-COVID-19 period. The median age of PIV3 infections increased in 2021 (21.5 months in 2021 vs. 13.0-14.0 in 2018-2019; P < 0.001), whereas that of RSV B infections remained unchanged (3.6-4.0 months). During the COVID-19 pandemic, less frequent hospitalization rates were observed for both PIV3 and RSV B infections, but more children needed respiratory assistance for RSV B infection in 2021/2022 epidemic (32.5%) than before (14.7-19.4%, P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: We observed changes in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of PIV3 and RSV B infections in Korean children during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(7): e37699, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is an effective and safe way to improve maternal health in uncomplicated pregnancies. However, compliance with PA recommendations remains low among pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of offering structured supervised exercise training (EXE) or motivational counseling on PA (MOT) during pregnancy on moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) level. Additionally, complementary measures of PA using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) and gold standard doubly labeled water (DLW) technique were investigated. The hypotheses were that both EXE and MOT would increase MVPA in pregnancy compared with standard care (CON) and that EXE would be more effective than MOT. In addition, the association between MVPA and the number of sessions attended was explored. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial included 220 healthy, inactive pregnant women with a median gestational age of 12.9 (IQR 9.4-13.9) weeks. A total of 219 women were randomized to CON (45/219), EXE (87/219), or MOT (87/219). The primary outcome was MVPA (minutes per week) from randomization to the 29th gestational week obtained by a wrist-worn commercial activity tracker (Vivosport, Garmin International). PA was measured by the activity tracker throughout pregnancy, PPAQ, and DLW. The primary outcome analysis was performed as an analysis of covariance model adjusting for baseline PA. RESULTS: The average MVPA (minutes per week) from randomization to the 29th gestational week was 33 (95% CI 18 to 47) in CON, 50 (95% CI 39 to 60) in EXE, and 40 (95% CI 30 to 51) in MOT. When adjusted for baseline MVPA, participants in EXE performed 20 (95% CI 4 to 36) minutes per week more MVPA than participants in CON (P=.02). MOT was not more effective than CON; EXE and MOT also did not differ. MVPA was positively associated with the number of exercise sessions attended in EXE from randomization to delivery (P=.04). Attendance was higher for online (due to COVID-19 restrictions) compared with physical exercise training (P=.03). Adverse events and serious adverse events did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Offering EXE was more effective than CON to increase MVPA among pregnant women, whereas offering MOT was not. MVPA in the intervention groups did not reach the recommended level in pregnancy. Changing the intervention to online due to COVID-19 restrictions did not affect MVPA level but increased exercise participation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03679130; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03679130. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043671.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , COVID-19/prevention & control , Counseling , Exercise/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy
14.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 149, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many people suffered from emotional distress especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to alleviate emotional distress, more accessible psychological intervention programs, such as online intervention programs, are needed. The study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the potential mechanism of a 4-week, online, self-help mindfulness-based intervention to manage emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic between February 3 and May 20, 2020. METHODS: A total of 302 individuals with high emotional distress completed a self-help mindfulness course, which lasted 30-60 min per day for 28 consecutive days. Participants who registered in the program later were included in the analyses as the control group (n = 315). Levels of mindfulness, perceived stress, emotional distress, anxiety and depression were assessed at baseline(T1), week 1(T2), week 2(T3), week 3(T4) and week 4(T5). RESULTS: Significant Group by Time interaction effects were found on mindfulness, perceived stress, emotional distress, anxiety and depression (p < 0.001). Compared to the control group, the intervention group had a greater increase in changes of all outcome variables (p < 0.001). Random intercept cross-lagged analyses showed that compared with control group, mindfulness at T2 and T4 negatively predicted stress at T3 and T5, and mindfulness at T2 and T4 negatively predicted depression at T3 and T5 while depression at T3 predicted mindfulness at T4 in the mindfulness group. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a 4-week self-help online mindfulness intervention improved mindfulness and reduced stress, emotional distress, anxiety and depression symptoms. Compared to the control group, changes in mindfulness preceded changes in stress, and mindfulness and depression reciprocally influenced each other during the intervention. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000034539. Registered 9 July 2020-Retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=55721&htm=4 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet-Based Intervention , Mindfulness , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/psychology , Depression/therapy , Humans , Mindfulness/methods , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Stress, Psychological/therapy
15.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 97, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951353

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers often experience skin dryness and irritation from performing hand hygiene frequently. Low acceptability and tolerability of a formulation are barriers to hand hygiene compliance, though little research has been conducted on what specific types of formulation have higher acceptability than others. OBJECTIVE: To compare the acceptability and tolerability of an ethanol-based handrub gel with superfatting agents to the isopropanol-based formulations (a rub and a gel formulation) currently used by healthcare workers at the University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. METHODS: Forty-two participants were randomized to two sequences, testing the isopropanol-based formulation that they are using currently (Hopirub® or Hopigel®), and the ethanol-based formulation containing superfatting agents (Saniswiss Sanitizer Hands H1). Participants tested each of the formulations over 7-10 day work shifts, after which skin condition was assessed and feedback was collected. RESULTS: H1 scored significantly better than the control formulations for skin dryness (P = 0.0209), and participants felt less discomfort in their hands when using that formulation (P = 0.0448). H1 caused less skin dryness than Hopirub®/Hopigel® (P = 0.0210). Though overall preference was quite polarized, 21 participants preferred H1 intervention formulation and 17 preferred the Hopirub®/Hopigel® formulation that they normally used in their care activities. CONCLUSION: We observed a difference in acceptability and strongly polarized preferences among the participants' reactions to the formulations tested. These results indicate that giving healthcare workers a choice between different high-quality products is important to ensure maximum acceptability.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Hand Hygiene , 2-Propanol , Ethanol , Hand Disinfection/methods , Health Personnel , Humans
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(7), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1950200

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesManaging multiple medicines can be challenging for patients with multimorbidity, who are at high risk of adverse outcomes, for example, hospitalisation. Patient-held medication lists (PHMLs) can contribute to patient safety and potentially reduce medication errors. The aims of this study are to investigate attitudes towards and use of PHMLs among healthcare professionals (HCPs), patients and carers.DesignQualitative study based on 39 semistructured telephone interviews.SettingPrimary and secondary care settings in Ireland.ParticipantsTwenty-one HCPs and 18 people taking medicines and caregivers.MethodsTelephone interviews were conducted with HCPs, people taking multiple medicines (5+ medicines) and carers of people taking medicines who were purposively sampled via social media, patient groups and research collaborators. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed based on the Framework approach, with the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and Theoretical Domains Framework.ResultsThree core themes emerged: (1) attitudes to PHML, (2) function and preferred features of PHML and (3) barriers and facilitators to future use of PHML. All participating (patients/carers and HCP) groups considered PHML beneficial for patients and HCPs (eg, empowering for patients and improved adherence). While PHML were used in a variety of situations such as emergencies, concerns about their accuracy were shared across all groups. HCPs and patients differed on the level of detail that should be included in PHML. HCPs’ time constraints, patients’ multiple medicines and cognitive impairments were reported barriers. Key facilitators included access to digital/compact lists and promotion of lists by appropriate HCPs.ConclusionsOur findings provide insight into the factors that influence use of PHML. Lists were used in a variety of settings, but there were concerns about their accuracy. A range of list formats and encouragement from key HCPs could increase the use of PHML.

17.
J Transp Health ; 26: 101405, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945852

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Japanese government declared a state of emergency (SoE) to control the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, the requirements of these SoE were less stringent than those in other nations. It has not been assessed whether soft containment policies were sufficiently effective in the promotion of social distancing or the reduction of human contact. Methods: Mobility changes across different travel destinations, such as, (a) retail and recreation spaces; (b) supermarkets and pharmacies; (c) parks; (d) public transportation; (e) workplaces; and (f) residential areas, were analysed using the Google mobility index to assess social distancing behaviour in all Japanese prefectures between 15 February 2020 and 21 September 2021. The changes were evaluated through the utilisation of an interrupted time-series analysis after adjustment for seasonality and various prefecture-specific fixed-effects, and distinguishment of potential heterogeneity across multiple SoEs and the time that had passed after the declaration. Results: The mobility index for retail and recreation exhibited an immediate decline of 7.94 percent-points (95%CI: -8.77 to -7.12) after the declaration of the SoE, and a further decline after the initial period (beta: -1.27 95%CI: -1.43 to -1.11). However, it gradually increased by 0.03 percent-points (95%CI: 0.02-0.03). This trend was similar for mobility in other places. Among the four SoEs, the overall decline in human mobility outside the home was the least significant in the third and fourth SoE, which suggests that people were less compliant with social distancing measures during these periods. Conclusions: Although government responses to the pandemic may aid the controlling of human mobility outside the home, their effectiveness may decrease if these interventions are repeated and enforced for extended periods. A combination of these with other measures (i.e. risk-communication strategies) would enable even mild containment and closure policies to effectively curb the spread of the virus.

18.
Cardiol Clin ; 40(3): 345-353, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944428

ABSTRACT

The global health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has evolved rapidly to overburden health care organizations around the world and has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. Many countries have reported a substantial and rapid reduction in hospital admissions for acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention. The reasons for such abrupt changes in health care delivery are multifactorial and include lockdowns, reduction in outpatient services, reluctance to seek medical attention for fear of contracting the virus, and restrictive visitation policies adopted during the pandemic. This review discusses the impact of COVID-19 on important aspects of acute MI care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics
19.
J Comput High Educ ; : 1-22, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943239

ABSTRACT

As a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, medical education institutions were suddenly and unexpectedly faced with making significant changes in delivering their clinical assessments to comply with social distancing requirements and limited access to clinical education centres. Seeking a potential solution to these new circumstances, we designed, implemented and evaluated an online virtual OSCE, as a 'proof of concept' intervention study. Our qualitative research involved document analysis of the stages of decision-making and consultation in designing the intervention, and thematic analysis based on the perspectives and experiences of the key stakeholders (final year students, clinical examiners, simulated patients and faculty staff who acted as station assistants), gathered through surveys with Likert-scale questions and free text comments, and online discussion groups which were recorded and transcribed. From our analysis, we identified four themes: optimising assessment design for online delivery, ensuring clinical authenticity, recognising and addressing feelings and apprehensions, and anticipating challenges through incident planning and risk mitigation. Through the data gathered at each stage of the intervention, and the involvement of key stakeholders in the design and evaluation, our study highlights examples of effective practice for future applications of online technologies in assessment, provides guidance for designing and implementing online virtual assessment, and lays a foundation for comparative, longitudinal research on the significant and increasing roles played by technology in healthcare professional education and practice.

20.
Educating the Young Child ; 18:275-291, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1941407

ABSTRACT

In-person supports for parents of young children with developmental delay were closed in spring of 2020 in the United States due to the COVID-19 pandemic. When services were disrupted, our team of social workers and psychologists were working with families in the community as part of a research program promoting positive parenting, healthy family adjustment, and behavioral support to children with developmental delay. This chapter focuses on our shift from in-person, group-based parenting classes to the delivery of telehealth parenting classes for families with young children with special needs. In this chapter we outline 20 lessons learned from our experiences examining the impact of the pandemic on families’ lives and services provided to children with special needs. We discuss not only the decisions made but also the successes and failures experienced during the process of shifting our family-centered services from in-person to telehealth. This chapter outlines practical strategies for social workers and other mental health providers who offer early family-centered supports to caregivers whose young children have developmental delay and/or disabilities. Throughout the chapter, we offer concrete examples to inspire professionals during the pandemic and beyond. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL