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1.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24202, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856244

ABSTRACT

Bronchopleural fistulas (BPFs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Though most commonly seen after surgical interventions, they are increasingly reported as complications of COVID-19 infection. We present the case of an 86-year-old man with COVID-19 pneumonia and subsequent bronchopleural fistula (BPF) with persistent air leak. Endobronchial valves were placed in apical and posterior segments of the right upper lobe resulting in successful cessation of the air leak. The purpose of the case report and literature review is to help guide the management of persistent air leak.

2.
Respirology ; 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846281

ABSTRACT

The US Preventive Task Force (USPSTF) has updated screening criteria by expanding age range and reducing smoking history required for eligibility; the International Lung Screen Trial (ILST) data have shown that PLCOM2012 performs better for eligibility than USPSTF criteria. Screening adherence is low (4%-6% of potential eligible candidates in the United States) and depends upon multiple system and patient/candidate-related factors. Smoking cessation in lung cancer improves survival (past prospective trial data, updated meta-analysis data); smoking cessation is an essential component of lung cancer screening. Circulating biomarkers are emerging to optimize screening and early diagnosis. COVID-19 continues to affect lung cancer treatment and screening through delays and disruptions; specific operational challenges need to be met. Over 70% of suspected malignant lesions develop in the periphery of the lungs. Bronchoscopic navigational techniques have been steadily improving to allow greater accuracy with target lesion approximation and therefore diagnostic yield. Fibre-based imaging techniques provide real-time microscopic tumour visualization, with potential diagnostic benefits. With significant advances in peripheral lung cancer localization, bronchoscopically delivered ablative therapies are an emerging field in limited stage primary and oligometastatic disease. In advanced stage lung cancer, small-volume samples acquired through bronchoscopic techniques yield material of sufficient quantity and quality to support clinically relevant biomarker assessment.

3.
Lung India ; 39(2): 152-157, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726379

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented crisis, affecting every sphere of human life. A major challenge for health care workers (HCWs) is to care for patients with a highly contagious airborne disease, while making sure of their own safety. Interventional pulmonology (IP) procedures, like bronchoscopy, are particularly risky due to significant aerosol generation. Guidelines by several scientific bodies were framed on the precautions to be taken while performing IP procedures. We evaluated the IP procedures performed during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the precautions adopted proved adequate in preventing transmission amongst the HCWs involved in these procedures. Method: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent IP procedures between March 2020 and November 2020, at a tertiary cancer hospital. We also evaluated the proportion of HCWs, who were involved in these procedures, and were affected by COVID-19, through their health care records. Results: We performed a total of 506 IP procedures. Two of the 18 HCWs, working in that unit, suffered from COVID-19 and recovered after a mild illness. Three HCWs were isolated with suspected infection but proved to be negative. The procedures in our IP unit were uninterrupted for the entire duration of the study period. Conclusion: IP procedures can be safely performed even in the presence of a highly contagious viral pandemic with adequate precautions.

4.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211013215, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598539

ABSTRACT

Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is associated with high morbidity if left untreated. Although rare, the frequency of BPF in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming recognized in medical literature. We present a case of a 64-year-old male with BPF with persistent air leak due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia treated with Spiration Valve System endobronchial valve (EBV). An EBV was placed in the right middle lobe with successful cessation of air leak. In conclusion, the use of EBVs for BPF with persistent air leaks in SARS-CoV-2 patients who are poor surgical candidates is effective and safe.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/complications , Empyema, Pleural/surgery , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Surgical Instruments , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , Chest Tubes , Empyema, Pleural/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thoracostomy
5.
ATS Sch ; 2(2): 236-248, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365983

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic extends beyond the realms of patient care and healthcare resource use to include medical education; however, the repercussions of COVID-19 on the quality of training and trainee perceptions have yet to be explored. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of interventional pulmonology (IP) fellows' involvement in the care of COVID-19 and its impact on fellows' clinical education, procedure skills, and postgraduation employment search. Methods: An internet-based survey was validated and distributed among IP fellows in North American fellowship training programs. Results: Of 40 eligible fellows, 38 (95%) completed the survey. A majority of fellows (76%) reported involvement in the care of patients with COVID-19. Fellows training in the Northeast United States reported involvement in the care of a higher number of patients with COVID-19 than in other regions (median, 30 [interquartile range, 20-50] vs. 10 [5-13], respectively; P < 0.01). Fifty-two percent of fellows reported redeployment outside IP during COVID-19, mostly into intensive care units. IP procedure volume decreased by 21% during COVID-19 compared with pre-COVID-19 volume. This decrease was mainly accounted for by a reduction in bronchoscopies. A majority of fellows (82%) reported retainment of outpatient clinics during COVID-19 with the transition from face-to-face to telehealth-predominant format. Continuation of academic and research activities during COVID-19 was reported by 86% and 82% of fellows, respectively. After graduation, all fellows reported having secured employment positions. Conclusion: Although IP fellows were extensively involved in the care of patients with COVID-19, most IP programs retained educational activities through the COVID-19 outbreak. The impact of the decrease in procedure volume on trainee competency would be best addressed individually within each training program. These data may assist in focusing efforts regarding the education of medical trainees during the current and future healthcare crises.

6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234681

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations accompanying respiratory failure with insidious and rapidly progressive onset are often non-specific. Symptoms such as a cough, dyspnea, and fever are common to a large number of inflammatory, infectious, or neoplastic diseases. During the COVID-19 pandemic it is essential to limit the use of hospital services and inappropriate diagnostic techniques. A particular radiological pattern can orient the clinical and laboratory scenario and guide the diagnostic workup. A 58-year-old woman was admitted to our COVID-19 unit for suspected coronavirus infection. She was complaining of worsening dyspnea, tachycardia, and low grade fever. A chest X-ray showed diffuse, alveolar, and interstitial lung involvement with micronodules tending to coalescence. This radiographic pattern known as "galaxy sign", consistent with diffuse, coalescing nodular miliary pulmonary involvement, simulating a non-specific alveolar opacification of the lungs is typical of a few pneumological differential diagnoses, represented by sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, and metastatic lesions, and virtually excludes an interstitial viral pneumonitis. The use of endoscopic techniques can, in such cases, confirm the clinical suspicion for initiating appropriate targeted therapies.

7.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(4): 2495-2509, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224391

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, has become increasingly prevalent worldwide, reaching a pandemic stage in March 2020. The organization of health care services had to change because of this new disease, with the need to reallocate staff and materials, besides changing management protocols. A very important challenge is not to expose patients and health care workers to the risk of infection and not to waste personal protective equipment (PPE). In the field of interventional pulmonology, various aspects related to COVID-19 must be taken into great consideration. Although bronchoscopy is not a first-line test for patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, it has a role in selected cases and it can be useful for differential diagnosis. However, bronchoscopy is an aerosol-generating procedure, that's why its unjustified use could contribute to propagate the virus. For this reason, the utility of each procedure must be carefully evaluated, the patient has to be properly investigated before the procedure, which has to be performed with specific precautions, including adequate PPE. In this review, we summarize the knowledge and the principal statements about endoscopic activity in COVID-19 period, in both diagnosis of COVID-19 and management of patients. How to safely perform both bronchoscopic and pleural-related procedures (thoracoscopy, pleural biopsy and drainage of pleural effusions) is described with the aim to help the staff to decide when and how performing a procedure. We also highlight how interventional pulmonology could help in matter of complications related to COVID-19.

8.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(6): 773-779, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165209

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bronchoscopy and related procedures have unambiguously been affected during the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS COV-2). Ordinary bronchoscopy practices and lung cancer services might have changed over this pandemic and for the years to come.Areas covered: This manuscript summarizes the utility of bronchoscopy in COVID-19 patients, and the impact of the pandemic in lung cancer diagnostic services, in view of possible viral spread during these We conducted a literature review of articles published in PubMed/Medline from inception to November 5th, 2020 using relevant terms.Expert opinion: Without doubt this pandemic has changed the way bronchoscopy and related procedures are being performed. Mandatory universal personal protective equipment, pre-bronchoscopy PCR tests, dedicated protective barriers and disposable bronchoscopes might be the safest and simpler way to perform even the most complicated procedures.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Bronchoscopes/microbiology , Bronchoscopes/standards , Bronchoscopes/virology , Bronchoscopy/instrumentation , Bronchoscopy/methods , Bronchoscopy/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , History, 21st Century , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Medical Oncology/instrumentation , Medical Oncology/methods , Medical Oncology/standards , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Pulmonology ; 26(6): 386-397, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694065

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel SARS-CoV-2 pathogen. Its capacity for human-to-human transmission through respiratory droplets, coupled with a high-level of population mobility, has resulted in a rapid dissemination worldwide. Healthcare workers have been particularly exposed to the risk of infection and represent a significant proportion of COVID-19 cases in the worst affected regions of Europe. Like other open airway procedures or aerosol-generating procedures, bronchoscopy poses a significant risk of spreading contaminated droplets, and medical workers must adapt the procedures to ensure safety of both patients and staff. Several recommendation documents were published at the beginning of the pandemic, but as the situation evolves, our thoughts should not only focus on the present, but should also reflect on how we are going to deal with the presence of the virus in the community until there is a vaccine or specific treatment available. It is in this sense that this document aims to guide interventional pulmonology throughout this period, providing a set of recommendations on how to perform bronchoscopy or pleural procedures safely and efficiently.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Bronchoscopy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pulmonary Medicine/methods , Aerosols , COVID-19 , Consensus , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies
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