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1.
Service Industries Journal ; : 24, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1882873

ABSTRACT

This study determines the impact of technostress creators on employee wellbeing dimensions and employee engagement. This study also examines the moderating role of mindfulness and optimism to use technology between technostress creator and employee wellbeing. A longitudinal research design was adopted to collect the data from 286 government employees involved in public dealing during two waves of COVID-19 in Pakistan. The data were assessed using structural equation modeling and Hayes' method to test mediation and moderation. The study findings shed important light on the role of personal resources in reducing stress over a time period. The results conclude that technostress creators negatively influence employee wellbeing dimensions and employee engagement in both waves. Also, personal resources, i.e. mindfulness and optimism to use technology, dampen the negative association of technostress creators on employee wellbeing. One of the significant limitations of this research is collecting the data from employees working in public offices only, whereas this study fills an essential gap by exploring the role of technostressors using a longitudinal study design.

2.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-7, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873705

ABSTRACT

The Caring for Bliss Scale (CBS) is a new measure that assesses an individuals' capacity to cultivate inner joy and happiness. Developed in the United States, its generalizability remains unknown in non-Western contexts. This research explored the scale's cross-national invariance among college students in the Philippines (n = 546) and the United States (n = 643). A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis using maximum likelihood estimation showed that the unidimensional model of caring for bliss exhibited configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance across the Filipino and the U.S. samples. This scale also had good internal consistency estimates in both settings. In both contexts, caring for bliss was positively correlated with well-being and negatively correlated with different negative quality of life indicators (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). This study offered preliminary evidence regarding the cross-national applicability of the CBS in different cultural settings during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 75: 102951, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859779

ABSTRACT

Currently, many institutions and academics are working to establish strategies of economic recovery with the aim of mitigating the short- and long-term impacts of the COVID-19 crisis. The main aim of this study is to analyze how this crisis has impacted Spanish SMEs, considering their operating, financial, and investment activities. We also analyze the initiatives or public policies that SME managers consider necessary in order to face the effects of COVID-19. To do this, an empirical study has been carried out based on information from 612 Spanish SMEs, estimating a PLS research model and multigroup analysis that considers the activity sector as a moderating variable. The results are useful to companies and different economic and social agents, providing information to facilitate decision-making to overcome pandemic crisis mainly in the economic and strategic spheres.

4.
Front Psychol ; 13: 888678, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855433

ABSTRACT

The widespread cancelation of cultural events during the early 2020 stages of the COVID-19 pandemic led professional performing musicians across the world to experience an increasing economic fragility that threatened their health and wellbeing. Within this "new normal," developing countries have been at a higher risk due to their vulnerable health systems and cultural policies. Even in such difficult times, the music profession requires musicians to keep up their practicing routines, even if they have no professional commitments. This is because high level technical and expressive skills are crucial to sustaining a music career at a high performance level. However, it could be expected that not all musicians might have had the same engagement with music practice during lockdowns. In this study, we studied the experiences of 309 professional classical musicians based in European and Latin American countries with different levels of performing experience to examine their passionate (or lack thereof) engagement with music practice. Through the mixed methods combination of multigroup invariance and narrative analyses, we identified distinct profiles of musicians who displayed more harmonious or more obsessive passion orientations before and at the peak of the pandemic. We observed that musicians with higher levels of harmonious passion in particular were more capable of sustaining their practice at the peak of the pandemic and that these musicians were mostly located in Latin America-a paradox, considering that cultural politics supporting the careers of professional performing musicians and entrepreneurial education in Latin America are lacking to a great extent, especially in comparison with the European context. We explain this in terms of the "forced" self-management embraced by musicians in Latin American countries who want to engage with music practice both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic even if the music profession does not generate enough revenue for them.

5.
Psicol Reflex Crit ; 35(1): 12, 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846878

ABSTRACT

The Spanish version of the 5-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5) is a brief measure of the general tendency to be attentive and aware of experiences in the present moment during daily life. The MAAS-5 has been used in different countries; however, an assessment of its cross-cultural measurement invariance (MI) has not been conducted. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the MAAS-5 in university students from two countries: Peru and Mexico. A total of 1144 university students from Peru (N = 822) and Mexico (N = 322) responded online to the Spanish version of the 5-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5). A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Measurement invariance tests the hypothesis that the model behind a set of scores is comparable between groups. The results showed that the unidimensional structure of the MAAS-5 is the same between Peruvian and Mexican university students. Therefore, it is suggested that university students from both countries conceptualize the mindfulness in a similar way. As a result, the MAAS-5 can be used to compare differences between countries. No significant differences were observed in the MAAS-5 score between Peruvian and Mexican university students. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the psychometric properties of the MAAS-5 by presenting MI results in two Latin American countries. Implications of the findings are discussed, which will facilitate a more solid and reliable use of the MAAS-5 in future cross-cultural studies.

6.
International Journal of Information and Learning Technology ; : 18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1816402

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this study is to reveal both the adaptations of information computer technology (ICT) teachers teaching the information technologies and software (ITS) course online during the pandemic and the factors that affect this adaptation process. Teachers' endeavours to conduct their courses online, the support they take during their endeavours, and their relationships with such basic components as the environment, content and students during this adaptation process will be revealed within the framework of unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). Design/methodology/approach In this study, a sequential transformative mixed model was used in which firstly quantitative and then qualitative data were collected and analysed. The sample of this study consists of 307 ICT teachers employed and serving at public and private school in 2020-21. A proper sampling technique is used in the study. In this study, a sequential transformative mixed model was used in which firstly quantitative and then qualitative data were collected and analysed ( Creswell, 2009). The sample of this study consists of 307 ICT teachers employed and serving at public and private school in 2020-21. A proper sampling technique is used in the study. Findings The ICT teachers' adaptations to the online courses have developed positively over the sub-dimensions of UTAUT, which are performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SE), facilitating conditions (FC) and behavioural intention (BI). The ICT teachers' adaptations to the online instruction process have a significant effect on PE, FC and BI on the basis of gender, and on PE and EE on the basis of course content quality. In the process whereby the ICT teachers carry out the ITS course online, the sub-dimensions of PE, SE and FC are significantly predictive of the BI. Research limitations/implications UTAUT has been taken as a guiding framework in explaining and discussing the adaptations. Similarly, in other studies focussing on adaptation, this model could be employed in planning the research process. In addition, this study has followed a method in which qualitative data are mostly used to explain the quantitative data. Further studies may adopt a process whereby qualitative data are largely used to describe the way ITS course is conducted in online environments and this process may be used to develop a model. Practical implications Examining the students' BIs in online courses overlaps with the sub-dimension of PE in this study, which stresses that PE, EE and motivation are significantly and directly effective on the students' intentions of using the online courses, while there is a difference between these two studies in terms of the dimension of EE. The factors such learning outcome, curriculum, attendance to the course, use of materials and tools, interaction and technological substructure appear to be affected by this dimension, so they could be taken as important in that they reveal the importance of the study. Originality/value This study may provide clues for the online instruction practices that it reveals teachers' adaptations to online learning environments at secondary schools. On the other hand, software, hardware, coding and robotics take place in the subjects like product designing, developing and programming that are within the content of ITS course for secondary schools. Even though there is a curriculum prepared for these subjects, a lot of different instruction techniques can be used for the teaching of these subjects. This can allow some inferences about the environments and methods suitable for the online instruction of the related subjects.

7.
J Pers Med ; 12(5)2022 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809989

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has provoked the development of negative emotions in almost all societies since it first broke out in late 2019. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) is widely used to capture emotions, thoughts, and behaviors evoked by traumatic events, including COVID-19 as a collective and persistent traumatic event. However, there is less agreement on the structure of the IES-R, signifying a need for further investigation. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the IES-R among individuals in Saudi quarantine settings, psychiatric patients, and the general public during the COVID-19 outbreak. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the items of the IES-R present five factors with eigenvalues > 1. Examination of several competing models through confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a best fit for a six-factor structure, which comprises avoidance, intrusion, numbing, hyperarousal, sleep problems, and irritability/dysphoria. Multigroup analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of this model across groups of gender, age, and marital status. The IES-R significantly correlated with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-8, perceived health status, and perceived vulnerability to COVID-19, denoting good criterion validity. HTMT ratios of all the subscales were below 0.85, denoting good discriminant validity. The values of coefficient alpha in the three samples ranged between 0.90 and 0.93. In path analysis, correlated intrusion and hyperarousal had direct positive effects on avoidance, numbing, sleep, and irritability. Numbing and irritability mediated the indirect effects of intrusion and hyperarousal on sleep and avoidance. This result signifies that cognitive activation is the main factor driving the dynamics underlying the behavioral, emotional, and sleep symptoms of collective COVID-19 trauma. The findings support the robust validity of the Arabic IES-R, indicating it as a sound measure that can be applied to a wide range of traumatic experiences.

8.
Addict Behav ; 132: 107342, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803340

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The American Psychiatric Association (APA) proposed 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) as a tentative disorder (APA framework) in 2013 and in 2019 the World Health Organization (WHO) has fully recognized 'Gaming Disorder' (GD) as a mental health disorder (WHO framework). These two frameworks have not yet been jointly investigated in the context of esports. The present study aims to investigate the feasibility of the APA and WHO frameworks for disordered gaming among professional and non-professional gamers and to ascertain the suitability of existing psychometric tools for use in esports. METHODS: A sample of 5,734 gamers (Mage = 21.47 years, SD = 6.69 years; 6.94% female) recruited through an online survey prior to the COVID-19 pandemic that included an age and gender matched group of professional (n = 2,867) and non-professional gamers (n = 2,867) was investigated. Pairwise comparisons, measurement invariance (MI), and latent mean difference tests were conducted to distinguish the two groups of gamers. RESULTS: Overall, professional gamers showed greater time spent gaming and prevalence of disordered gaming than non-professional gamers. Additionally, MI was supported and both disordered gaming levels and latent means were significantly higher among professional gamers when compared to non-professional gamers across both APA and WHO frameworks. CONCLUSIONS: Esports is cross-sectionally associated with greater disordered gaming vulnerability through increased time spent gaming and disordered gaming prevalence rates. Furthermore, the APA and WHO frameworks are viable in the context of esports gaming with existing assessment tools being effective in the assessment of disordered gaming in esports. The results and implications are further discussed in light of the extant literature.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Video Games , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Male , Pandemics , Video Games/psychology , Young Adult
9.
Econometric Theory ; : 34, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799618

ABSTRACT

It is well known that the conventional cumulative sum (CUSUM) test suffers from low power and large detection delay. In order to improve the power of the test, we propose two alternative statistics. The backward CUSUM detector considers the recursive residuals in reverse chronological order, whereas the stacked backward CUSUM detector sequentially cumulates a triangular array of backwardly cumulated residuals. A multivariate invariance principle for partial sums of recursive residuals is given, and the limiting distributions of the test statistics are derived under local alternatives. In the retrospective context, the local power of the tests is shown to be substantially higher than that of the conventional CUSUM test if a break occurs in the middle or at the end of the sample. When applied to monitoring schemes, the detection delay of the stacked backward CUSUM is found to be much shorter than that of the conventional monitoring CUSUM procedure. Furthermore, we propose an estimator of the break date based on the backward CUSUM detector and show that in monitoring exercises this estimator tends to outperform the usual maximum likelihood estimator. Finally, an application of the methodology to COVID-19 data is presented.

10.
Polit. Psychol. ; : 17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1794583

ABSTRACT

This research examines the relationship between populist thinking and global crisis-solving motivations concerning climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data from five European countries (Switzerland, France, Finland, Greece, and Italy), we test a model where crisis-related science skepticism-understood as the defense of commonsense knowledge against scientific expertise-mediates the association between populist thinking and crisis-mitigation attitudes. The results show considerable convergence across national contexts. Relative deprivation predicts endorsement of two core components of populism's thin ideology, people sovereignty and antielitism. These subdimensions of populism are linked to science skepticism, although variably across contexts. Science skepticism then leads to a lower sense of personal responsibility for climate change mitigation and to negative attitudes towards a governmental measure to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings further show that under specific conditions, the populist request for greater democratic participation may mobilize individuals to get involved in crisis mitigation. Overall, our results highlight the role of politicized common sense in motivating and justifying opposition to measures and policies based on scientific expertise. We conclude that science skepticism, rather than populism per se, explains cynical and dismissive attitudes towards global crises.

11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 819052, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785438

ABSTRACT

Aims: Our study aimed to develop a two-factor self-administered orthogonal questionnaire to assess the experience of perceived physical inactivity, to test its psychometric properties, to confirm its relationships with fear of COVID-19, and finally, with perceived stress during the pandemic. Methods: A total of 481 Tunisian subjects collected in several cities, aged from 16 to 67 years with a mean age = 32.48 ± 9.46, and of both sexes participate in our study with (male: 51.8%) and (female: 48.2%), divided according to the level of study into three categories. All subjects voluntarily answered the PIPES questionnaire, the IPAQ scale, the COVID-19 fear scale and the PSS-10 test. Results: The results of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported the robustness of the tool measure. In addition, examination of configurational, metric, scalar, and strict invariance supported the equivalence of the structure by gender and educational level. Concurrent validity was established by the positive association of a negative perception of physical inactivity with scores measured by the IPAQ scale and a negative association with scores of COVID-19 fear and perceived stress. Whereas, a positive perception of physical inactivity from the COVID-19 scale was negatively associated with the IPAQ and positively associated with fear of COVID-19 and perceived stress. Conclusion: The PIPES-10 scale can be used to measure the perception of physical inactivity in different situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Alkanesulfonic Acids , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Piperazines , Psychometrics , Sedentary Behavior , Young Adult
12.
J Anxiety Disord ; 87: 102554, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No studies have examined whether levels of COVID stress vary across anxiety-related disorders. Likewise, no studies have assessed structural invariance of the COVID Stress Scales (CSS) across clinical diagnoses. We sought to address these issues in the present study. Given the dynamic nature of pandemics, we also assessed whether COVID stress changed from the first to third wave in those with clinical diagnoses and those with no mental health conditions. METHOD: Data were collected during COVID-19 from two independent samples of adults assessed about a year apart (early-mid in 2020, N = 6854; and early-mid 2021, N = 5812) recruited from Canada and the United States through an online survey. Participants provided demographic information, indicated the presence of current (i.e., past-year) anxiety-related or mood disorder, and completed the CSS. RESULTS: The five CSS were reliable (internally consistent), and the five-factor structure was stable across samples. Scores tended to be highest in people with anxiety-related or mood disorders, particularly panic disorder. As expected, scores fluctuated over time, being higher during the early phases of the pandemic when threat was greatest and lower during the later phases, when vaccines were deployed and the COVID-19 threat was reduced. CONCLUSION: The findings add to the growing number of studies supporting the psychometric properties of the CSS. The results encourage further investigations into the utility of the scales, such as their ability to detect treatment-related changes in COVID-19-related distress. The scales also show promise for studies of future pandemics or outbreaks because the CSS can be modified, with minor wording changes, to assess distress associated with all kinds of disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression , Humans , Psychometrics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , United States
13.
Data Brief ; 42: 108103, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757266

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to plague the world. Hence, there is been an effort to mitigate this virus and its effects with several means including vaccination which is one of the most effective ways of controlling the virus. However, efforts at getting people to vaccinate have met several challenges. To help with understanding the reasons underlying an individual's willingness to take COVID-19 vaccine or not, a scale called Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) was developed. To expand its usability worldwide (as it has currently been limited to only China and Taiwan), data were collected in other countries (regions) too. Therefore, this MoVac-COVID19S data is from five countries (that is, India, Ghana, Afghanistan, Taiwan, and mainland China) which cut across five regions. A total of 6053 participants across the stated countries completed the survey between January and March 2021 using a cross-sectional survey design. The different sections of the survey solicited sociodemographic information (e.g., country, age, gender, educational level, and profession) and the MoVac-COVID19S data from the participants. The data collected from this survey were analyzed using descriptive statistics, which were carried out using the IBM SPSS version 22.0.

14.
Sustainability ; 14(5):2765, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1742660

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to validate the Life Skills Ability Scale through internal consistency and construct validity in the context of higher education in Mexico. In study 1, the reliability and factor structure of the scale were evaluated with a sample of 525 higher education students (Mage = 19.94 years, SD = 3.85). In study 2, the factor invariance of the instrument was analyzed based on sample gender, which consisted of 707 higher education students (Mage = 20.03 years, SD = 4.19). The results showed adequate reliability and construct validity with a second order model and an eight-factor structure (teamwork, goal-setting, time management, emotional skills, communication, social skills, leadership, problem-solving, and decision-making). Likewise, there was measure equivalence between men and women. In conclusion, the Spanish version of the Life Skills Ability Scale in a Mexican context is a reliable and valid instrument that allows the assessment of life skills in higher education students.

15.
Frontiers in Education ; 7:22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1736754

ABSTRACT

School closures associated with the COVID-19 pandemic very quickly led to many studies on distance education. Currently, there are only studies available that explored the importance of different features of distance education for student learning during school lockdowns in 2020 relying on a single perspective-student, parent, or teacher data. Thus, we present results from a multiple informant study in which we compared prediction models based on the different perspectives of relevant actors in the school system. Against the background of the context, input, process, and output model, we explored the impact of a broad range of features of distance education on central student learning outcomes using data from students (N = 315), parents (N = 518), and teachers (N = 499) in German and Austrian secondary schools. Although findings from relative weight analysis portray a relatively similar pattern of relevant predictors for students' learning outcomes (i.e., self-rated achievement, learning effort, and intrinsic motivation) across the three respondent groups, some predictors largely differ between the groups. While students' ability to self-organize emerged as the most significant predictor across all three informant groups, predictors, such as the lack of parental support during school closure, turned out to be relevant only from parents' perspective. We discuss the implications of these findings for future educational practice and research.

16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731998

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with the social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age = 17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16-18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, although strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries.

17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 154, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) are self-report measures of major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. The primary aim of this study was to test for differential item functioning (DIF) on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 items based on age, sex (males and females), and country. METHOD: Data from nationally representative surveys in UK, Ireland, Spain, and Italy (combined N = 6,054) were used to fit confirmatory factor analytic and multiple-indictor multiple-causes models. RESULTS: Spain and Italy had higher latent variable means than the UK and Ireland for both anxiety and depression, but there was no evidence for differential items functioning. CONCLUSIONS: The PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores were found to be unidimensional, reliable, and largely free of DIF in data from four large nationally representative samples of the general population in the UK, Ireland, Italy and Spain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Anxiety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719010

ABSTRACT

This study examined the psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) as an ultra-brief screener of depression and anxiety in the Philippines during the COVID-19 outbreak. Data from 4,524 non-clinical community respondents aged 18-73 years old was collected online between March and July 2020. We evaluated the screener's factor structure, measurement invariance, and criterion-related validity using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), multigroup CFA, and structural equation modeling (SEM), respectively. We also evaluated the accuracy of the PHQ-4 cut-off scores by comparing the them with the screeners' full scales (i.e., PHQ-9 and GAD-7). Using the cutoff scores of the screeners, we also estimated the prevalence rates of depression and anxiety. The PHQ-4 has good internal reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.82). The CFA results show that the two-factor model has an excellent model fit that is superior to the one-factor model. The two-factor model held through increasingly constrained multigroup CFA models across gender, age, and geographical location groups, demonstrating measurement invariance. The SEM model supported the PHQ-4's theoretical association to stress, negative affect, and positive affect, supporting the screener's criterion-related validity. In estimating prevalence rates, among those screened by the PHQ-4 cut-off scores for depression (n = 1,905, 42.11%) and anxiety (n = 1,853, 40.96%), 81.78% and 94.06% were consequently screened by the PHQ-9 and GAD-7, respectively. This study supports the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the PHQ-4 as an ultra-brief screener of depression and anxiety in a large community sample in Southeast Asia. The inclusion of ultra-brief screeners in COVID-19-related studies and other human disasters, especially among non-clinical samples in low- and middle-income countries, is relevant for the sustainable evaluation and monitoring of the severity mental health symptoms leading to timely and effective mental health service provision.

19.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(2): e28252, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Wide Web has become an essential source of health information. Nevertheless, the amount and quality of information provided may lead to information overload. Therefore, people need certain skills to search for, identify, and evaluate information from the internet. In the context of health information, these competencies are summarized as the construct of eHealth literacy. Previous research has highlighted the relevance of eHealth literacy in terms of health-related outcomes. However, the existing instrument assessing eHealth literacy in the German language reveals methodological limitations regarding test development and validation. The development and validation of a revised scale for this important construct is highly relevant. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was the development and validation of a revised German eHealth literacy scale. In particular, this study aimed to focus on high methodological and psychometric standards to provide a valid and reliable instrument for measuring eHealth literacy in the German language. METHODS: Two internationally validated instruments were merged to cover a wide scope of the construct of eHealth literacy and create a revised eHealth literacy scale. Translation into the German language followed scientific guidelines and recommendations to ensure content validity. Data from German-speaking people (n=470) were collected in a convenience sample from October to November 2020. Validation was performed by factor analyses. Further, correlations were performed to examine convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity. Additionally, analyses of measurement invariance of gender, age, and educational level were conducted. RESULTS: Analyses revealed a 2-factorial model of eHealth literacy. By item-reduction, the 2 factors information seeking and information appraisal were measured with 8 items reaching acceptable-to-good model fits (comparative fit index [CFI]: 0.942, Tucker Lewis index [TLI]: 0.915, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]: 0.127, and standardized root mean square residual [SRMR]: 0.055). Convergent validity was comprehensively confirmed by significant correlations of information seeking and information appraisal with health literacy, internet confidence, and internet anxiety. Discriminant and criterion validity were examined by correlation analyses with various scales and could partly be confirmed. Scalar level of measurement invariance for gender (CFI: 0.932, TLI: 0.923, RMSEA: 0.122, and SRMR: 0.068) and educational level (CFI: 0.937, TLI: 0.934, RMSEA: 0.112, and SRMR: 0.063) were confirmed. Measurement invariance of age was rejected. CONCLUSIONS: Following scientific guidelines for translation and test validation, we developed a revised German eHealth Literacy Scale (GR-eHEALS). Our factor analyses confirmed an acceptable-to-good model fit. Construct validation in terms of convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity could mainly be confirmed. Our findings provide evidence for measurement invariance of the instrument regarding gender and educational level. The newly revised GR-eHEALS questionnaire represents a valid instrument to measure the important health-related construct eHealth literacy.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Telemedicine , Electronics , Humans , Language , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708292

ABSTRACT

The Coping Humor Scale (CHS) is a seven-item tool widely used to assess the use of humor in coping with stressful situations. The beneficial effect of humor in buffering the impact of negative experiences has been investigated in several contexts and populations; for this reason, the CHS has been used in many languages, but its solid validation in Italian is still missing. Our study aimed at building a robust instrument to measure coping humor strategies among Italian health care workers, a category which has been particularly exposed to stressful situations in the last two years. The CHS translated into Italian was administered to a sample of 735 health care workers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis were performed. As a result, a six-item Robust Italian Coping Humor Scale (RI-CHS) was validated and ready to use for future studies on Italian health care workers' samples. This study gives evidence that our six-item solution works as a ruler (i.e., an instrument that meets the conditions of fundamental measurement in the context of the human sciences) to measure the degree to which Italian health care workers rely on humor to cope with stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Language , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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