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1.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071661

ABSTRACT

Overweight and obesity are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and represent risk factors for various diseases, including COVID-19. However, most published studies on COVID-19 defined obesity by the body mass index (BMI), which does not encounter adipose tissue distribution, thus neglecting immunometabolic high-risk patterns. Therefore, we comprehensively analyzed baseline anthropometry (BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WtHR), visceral (VAT), epicardial (EAT), subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue masses and liver fat, inflammation markers (CRP, ferritin, interleukin-6), and immunonutritional scores (CRP-to-albumin ratio (CAR), modified Glasgow prognostic score, neutrophile-to-lymphocyte ratio, prognostic nutritional index)) in 58 consecutive COVID-19 patients of the early pandemic phase with regard to the necessity of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Here, metabolically high-risk adipose tissues represented by increased VAT, liver fat, and WtHR strongly correlated with higher levels of inflammation, pathologic immunonutritional scores, and the need for IMV. In contrast, the prognostic value of BMI was inferior and absent with regard to SAT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified an optimized IMV risk prediction model employing liver fat, WtHR, and CAR. In summary, we suggest an immunometabolically risk-adjusted model to predict COVID-19-induced respiratory failure better than BMI-based stratification, which warrants prospective validation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Body Mass Index , Interleukin-6 , Obesity/complications , Obesity/pathology , Inflammation/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Albumins , Ferritins , Risk Assessment , Intra-Abdominal Fat/pathology , Risk Factors
2.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 70, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive inspiratory effort could translate into self-inflicted lung injury, thus worsening clinical outcomes of spontaneously breathing patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Although esophageal manometry is a reliable method to estimate the magnitude of inspiratory effort, procedural issues significantly limit its use in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study is to describe the correlation between esophageal pressure swings (ΔPes) and nasal (ΔPnos) as a potential measure of inspiratory effort in spontaneously breathing patients with de novo ARF. METHODS: From January 1, 2021, to September 1, 2021, 61 consecutive patients with ARF (83.6% related to COVID-19) admitted to the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of the University Hospital of Modena (Italy) and candidate to escalation of non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) were enrolled. Clinical features and tidal changes in esophageal and nasal pressure were recorded on admission and 24 h after starting NRS. Correlation between ΔPes and ΔPnos served as primary outcome. The effect of ΔPnos measurements on respiratory rate and ΔPes was also assessed. RESULTS: ΔPes and ΔPnos were strongly correlated at admission (R2 = 0.88, p < 0.001) and 24 h apart (R2 = 0.94, p < 0.001). The nasal plug insertion and the mouth closure required for ΔPnos measurement did not result in significant change of respiratory rate and ΔPes. The correlation between measures at 24 h remained significant even after splitting the study population according to the type of NRS (high-flow nasal cannulas [R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001] or non-invasive ventilation [R2 = 0.95, p < 0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patients with ARF, nasal pressure swings did not alter respiratory mechanics in the short term and were highly correlated with esophageal pressure swings during spontaneous tidal breathing. ΔPnos might warrant further investigation as a measure of inspiratory effort in patients with ARF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03826797 . Registered October 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
3.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 377-384, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although obesity have been generally shown to be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in COVID-19 infection, some studies demonstrate a paradoxical protective effect ("obesity paradox"). This study examines the influence of obesity categories on clinical outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients admitted to an intensive care unit with acute hypoxic respiratory failure requiring either non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This is a single centre, retrospective study of consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit between 03/2020 to 03/2021. Patients were grouped according to the NICE Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Admission variables including age, sex, comorbidities, and ICU severity indices (APACHE-II, SOFA and PaO2/FiO2) were collected. Data were compared between BMI groups for outcomes such as need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), renal replacement therapy (RRT) and 28-day and overall hospital mortality. RESULTS: 340 patients were identified and of those 333 patients had their BMI documented. Just over half of patients (53%) had obesity. Those with extreme obesity (obesity groups II and III) were younger with fewer comorbidities, but were more hypoxaemic at presentation, than the healthy BMI group. Although non-significant, obesity groups II and III paradoxically showed a lower in-hospital mortality than the healthy weight group. However, adjusted (age, sex, APACHE-II and CCI) competing risk regression analysis showed three-times higher mortality in obese category I (sub-distribution hazard ratio = 3.32 (95% CI 1.30-8.46), p = 0.01) and a trend to higher mortality across all obesity groups compared to the healthy weight group. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, those with obesity were at higher risk of mortality after adjustment for confounders. We did not identify an "obesity paradox" in this cohort. The obesity paradox may be explained by confounding factors such as younger age, fewer comorbidities, and less severe organ failures. The impact of obesity on indicators of morbidity including likelihood of requirement for organ support measures was not conclusively demonstrated and requires further scrutiny.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Obesity/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
4.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 252, 2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038845

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary microbial diversity may be influenced by biotic or abiotic conditions (e.g., disease, smoking, invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), etc.). Specially, invasive MV may trigger structural and physiological changes in both tissue and microbiota of lung, due to gastric and oral microaspiration, altered body posture, high O2 inhalation-induced O2 toxicity in hypoxemic patients, impaired airway clearance and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), which in turn reduce the diversity of the pulmonary microbiota and may ultimately lead to poor prognosis. Furthermore, changes in (local) O2 concentration can reduce the diversity of the pulmonary microbiota by affecting the local immune microenvironment of lung. In conclusion, systematic literature studies have found that invasive MV reduces pulmonary microbiota diversity, and future rational regulation of pulmonary microbiota diversity by existing or novel clinical tools (e.g., lung probiotics, drugs) may improve the prognosis of invasive MV treatment and lead to more effective treatment of lung diseases with precision.


Subject(s)
Lung , Microbiota , Respiration, Artificial , Humans , Lung/microbiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/epidemiology
5.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 276, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Up to 30% of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 require advanced respiratory support, including high-flow nasal cannulas (HFNC), non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV), or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for failing non-invasive respiratory support in patients treated with severe COVID-19 during the first two years of the pandemic in high-income countries (HICs) and low middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: This is a multinational, multicentre, prospective cohort study embedded in the ISARIC-WHO COVID-19 Clinical Characterisation Protocol. Patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who required hospital admission were recruited prospectively. Patients treated with HFNC, NIV, or IMV within the first 24 h of hospital admission were included in this study. Descriptive statistics, random forest, and logistic regression analyses were used to describe clinical characteristics and compare clinical outcomes among patients treated with the different types of advanced respiratory support. RESULTS: A total of 66,565 patients were included in this study. Overall, 82.6% of patients were treated in HIC, and 40.6% were admitted to the hospital during the first pandemic wave. During the first 24 h after hospital admission, patients in HICs were more frequently treated with HFNC (48.0%), followed by NIV (38.6%) and IMV (13.4%). In contrast, patients admitted in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) were less frequently treated with HFNC (16.1%) and the majority received IMV (59.1%). The failure rate of non-invasive respiratory support (i.e. HFNC or NIV) was 15.5%, of which 71.2% were from HIC and 28.8% from LMIC. The variables most strongly associated with non-invasive ventilation failure, defined as progression to IMV, were high leukocyte counts at hospital admission (OR [95%CI]; 5.86 [4.83-7.10]), treatment in an LMIC (OR [95%CI]; 2.04 [1.97-2.11]), and tachypnoea at hospital admission (OR [95%CI]; 1.16 [1.14-1.18]). Patients who failed HFNC/NIV had a higher 28-day fatality ratio (OR [95%CI]; 1.27 [1.25-1.30]). CONCLUSIONS: In the present international cohort, the most frequently used advanced respiratory support was the HFNC. However, IMV was used more often in LMIC. Higher leucocyte count, tachypnoea, and treatment in LMIC were risk factors for HFNC/NIV failure. HFNC/NIV failure was related to worse clinical outcomes, such as 28-day mortality. Trial registration This is a prospective observational study; therefore, no health care interventions were applied to participants, and trial registration is not applicable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachypnea
6.
Heliyon ; 8(9): e10525, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007724

ABSTRACT

Background: Several risk factors have been used to predict severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values have not been included. Methods: A retrospective analysis of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized between March 2 and September 1, 2020, in an academic hospital in Riyadh that serves as a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) referral center was conducted. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and endotracheal (ET) samples were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by RT-PCR, and viral load (VL) was determined based on the Ct values of E genes. The Ct values were distributed into four groups, with group Ct1 (≤19) indicating the highest VL and Ct4 (≥31) indicating the lowest VL. Univariate logistic regression was used to analyze age, gender, and comorbidities in relation to Ct groups for a primary endpoint of either invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or mortality. Significant variables were further analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: The analysis included 728 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (38% female; median age = 53 years; 41.3% diabetic; 39.4% hypertensive). Overall, 13.6% of these patients required IMV, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 15.5%. The IMV rate was higher in the Ct1 and Ct2 groups (15.2% and 15.5%, respectively) than in the Ct4 group (6.4%; p = 0.01). The mortality rate was also higher in the Ct1 and Ct2 groups (19.4% and 18.9%, respectively) than in the Ct4 group (8.9%; p = 0.02). The univariate analysis showed that lower Ct values and increasing age were associated with an increased risk of IMV (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.04; P < 0.0001) and mortality (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.06; P < 0.0001). The multivariate analysis showed that Ct1 was associated with the highest risk of mortality (OR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.16, 5.52; P = 0.016), while Ct2 was associated with the highest risk of IMV (OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.47, 6.53; P = 0.003). Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Ct values of hospitalized COVID-19 patients can be used as predictors of IMV and mortality, and this effect increases when combined with age. Clinicians could use these predictors to triage older patients for risk stratification and allocate IMV.

7.
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis ; 71(3):290-295, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997929

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 has become a global public health challenge. Owing to a lack of knowledge about the virus, a significant number of potential targets for using a particular drug have been proposed. Colchicine is an old drug that has been widely used in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Aim The aim was to compare the effect of colchicine added to the standard of care treatment versus the standard of care treatment alone in hospitalized COVID-19 cases. Patients and methods This retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients who were admitted to Ain Shams University Field Hospital. Patients were divided to two equal groups: group A received colchicine plus the standard of care treatment, and group B received the standard of care treatment. Results Group A showed significant reduction in the duration of the constitutional symptoms and hospital stay. Group A showed significant reduction in ICU admission and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, the mortality rate was significantly lower in group A. Conclusion Colchicine is a well-tolerated add-on treatment that significantly improved the constitutional symptoms, reduced the days of hospital stay, reduced the rate of ICU admission, reduced the need for mechanical ventilation, and also significantly improved the mortality rate. (C) 2022 The Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis 2090-9950

8.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 304, 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been widely used in critically ill patients after extubation. However, NIV failure is associated with poor outcomes. This study aimed to determine early predictors of NIV failure and to construct an accurate machine-learning model to identify patients at risks of NIV failure after extubation in intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: Patients who underwent NIV after extubation in the eICU Collaborative Research Database (eICU-CRD) were included. NIV failure was defined as need for invasive ventilatory support (reintubation or tracheotomy) or death after NIV initiation. A total of 93 clinical and laboratory variables were assessed, and the recursive feature elimination algorithm was used to select key features. Hyperparameter optimization was conducted with an automated machine-learning toolkit called Neural Network Intelligence. A machine-learning model called Categorical Boosting (CatBoost) was developed and compared with nine other models. The model was then prospectively validated among patients enrolled in the Cardiac Surgical ICU of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. RESULTS: Of 929 patients included in the eICU-CRD cohort, 248 (26.7%) had NIV failure. The time from extubation to NIV, age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, heart rate, respiratory rate, mean blood pressure (MBP), saturation of pulse oxygen (SpO2), temperature, glucose, pH, pressure of oxygen in blood (PaO2), urine output, input volume, ventilation duration, and mean airway pressure were selected. After hyperparameter optimization, our model showed the greatest accuracy in predicting NIV failure (AUROC: 0.872 [95% CI 0.82-0.92]) among all predictive methods in an internal validation. In the prospective validation cohort, our model was also superior (AUROC: 0.846 [95% CI 0.80-0.89]). The sensitivity and specificity in the prediction group is 89% and 75%, while in the validation group they are 90% and 70%. MV duration and respiratory rate were the most important features. Additionally, we developed a web-based tool to help clinicians use our model. CONCLUSIONS: This study developed and prospectively validated the CatBoost model, which can be used to identify patients who are at risk of NIV failure. Thus, those patients might benefit from early triage and more intensive monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03704324. Registered 1 September 2018, https://register. CLINICALTRIALS: gov .


Subject(s)
Machine Learning , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Airway Extubation , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen , Reproducibility of Results , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
9.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(8): 945-952, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978158

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify early indicators for invasive mechanical ventilation utilization among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated COVID-19 patients who were admitted to hospital from 20 September 2020, to 8 August 2021. Multivariable logistic regression and machine learning (ML) methods were employed to assess variable significance. RESULTS: Among 1,613 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 365 patients (22.6%) received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Factors associated with IMV included older age >65 years (OR,1.46; 95%CI, 1.13-1.89), current smoking status (OR, 1.71; 95%CI, 1.22-2.41), critical disease at admission (OR, 1.97; 95%CI, 1.28-3.03), and chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.07; 95%CI, 1.37-3.13). Laboratory abnormalities that were associated with increased risk for IMV included high leukocyte count (OR, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.68-2.87), low albumin (OR, 1.76; 95%CI, 1.33-2.34) and high AST (OR, 1.71; 95%CI, 1.31-2.22). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that there are several factors associated with the increased need for IMV among COVID-19 patients. These findings will help in early identification of patients at high risk for IMV and reallocation of hospital resources toward patients who need them the most to improve their outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Albumins , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences ; 76(3):338-345, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963315

ABSTRACT

This retrospective single-centre study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital (Rīga, Latvia) between 1 October 2020 and 30 April 2021. The aim was to assess the baseline clinical characteristics and their association with outcome for critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to the ICU and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, length-of-stay and mortality data were collected from medical records. In total, 66 critically ill patients admitted to the ICU were enrolled in this study. 77% were male, and the median age was 65.5 [57.0–70.8] years. Comorbidi-ties included obesity (67.2%), cardiovascular disease (63.6%) and type II diabetes (38.1%). Prone positioning was performed in most cases (68.2%) and one-third (34.8%) of patients required renal replacement therapy during their stay in the ICU. The median time to intubation after hospitalisation was eight [3.3–10.0] days. The median length-of-stay in the ICU was 12 [6.0–18.5] days and the overall mortality among all invasively ventilated patients in the ICU was 86%. In survivors, the duration of time between the onset of symptoms and hospitalisation, and time between the onset of symptoms and intubation, were found to be shorter than in non-survivors.

11.
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews ; 18(2):121-133, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963205

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has still been expressed as a mysterious viral infection with dramatic pulmonary consequences. Objectives: This article aims to study the radiological pulmonary consequences of respiratory covid-19 infection at 6 months and their relevance to the clinical stage, laboratory markers, and management modalities. Methods: This study was implemented on two hundred and fifty (250) confirmed positive cases for COVID-19 infections. One hundred and ninety-seven cases (197) who completed the study displayed residual radiological lung shadowing (RRLS) on follow-up computed tomography (CT) of the chest. They were categorized by Simple clinical classification of COVID-19 into groups A, B and C. Results: GGO, as well as reticulations, were statistically significantly higher in group A than the other two groups;however, bronchiectasis changes, parenchymal scarring, nodules as well as pleural tractions were statistically significantly higher in group C than the other two groups. Conclusion: Respiratory covid-19 infection might be linked to residual radiological lung shadowing. Ground glass opacities GGO, reticulations pervaded in mild involvement with lower inflammatory markers level, unlike, severe changes that expressed scarring, nodules and bronchiectasis changes accompanied by increased levels of inflammatory markers. © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

12.
Cureus ; 14(7): e26911, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964586

ABSTRACT

Background This study looks at the validity of the sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA) in detecting mortality in patients with Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Also, it is looking to determine the optimal SOFA score that will discriminate between mortality and survival. Methods It is a retrospective chart review of the patients admitted to Henry Ford Hospital from March 2020 to December 2020 with COVID-19 pneumonia who developed severe respiratory distress. We collected the following information; patient demographics (age, sex, body mass index), co-morbidities (history of diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, or cancer), SOFA scores (the ratio of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, mean arterial pressure, serum creatinine level, bilirubin level, and platelet count) as well as inpatient mortality. Results There were 320 patients; out of these, 111 were intubated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for SOFA at the moment of inclusion in the study had an area under the curve of 0.883. The optimal point for discrimination between mortality and survival is SOFA of 5. A SOFA score of less than two is associated with 100% survival, while a score of more than 11 is associated with 100% mortality. Conclusions SOFA score in COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory distress strongly correlates with the initial SOFA score. It is a valuable tool for predicting mortality in COVID-19 patients.

13.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 40, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association of tracheostomy timing and clinical outcomes in ventilated COVID-19 patients remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of early tracheostomy compared to late tracheostomy on COVID-19 patients' outcomes. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Scopus database, along with medRxiv, bioRxiv, and Research Square, from December 1, 2019, to August 24, 2021. Early tracheostomy was defined as a tracheostomy conducted 14 days or less after initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Late tracheostomy was any time thereafter. Duration of IMV, duration of ICU stay, and overall mortality were the primary outcomes of the meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios (OR) or the mean differences (MD) with 95%CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Fourteen studies with a cumulative 2371 tracheostomized COVID-19 patients were included in this review. Early tracheostomy was associated with significant reductions in duration of IMV (2098 patients; MD - 9.08 days, 95% CI - 10.91 to - 7.26 days, p < 0.01) and duration of ICU stay (1224 patients; MD - 9.41 days, 95% CI - 12.36 to - 6.46 days, p < 0.01). Mortality was reported for 2343 patients and was comparable between groups (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.79-1.51, p = 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that, compared with late tracheostomy, early tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients was associated with shorter duration of IMV and ICU stay without modifying the mortality rate. These findings may have important implications to improve ICU availability during the COVID-19 pandemic. Trial registration The protocol was registered at INPLASY (INPLASY202180088).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/surgery , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Journal of Emergency Practice and Trauma ; 8(2):148-151, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955534

ABSTRACT

Objective: Since April 2021, there has been significant increase in number of COVID-19 cases in India. As the caseload increased, so did the complications like pneumomediastinum (PM) and subcutaneous emphysema (SE). Case Presentation: We present clinical course of 4 patients as case series of COVID-19 pneumonia who developed PM and SE during their management. Two cases with the need of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) recovered and two cases that needed invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) ultimately expired. Conclusion: This case series highlights the importance of positive pressure ventilation via NIV and IMV as a predisposing factor for PM and SE as well as the need of strict vigilance by clinicians managing COVID-19 patients in IMV. © 2022 The Author(s).

15.
J Clin Med ; 11(11)2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953591

ABSTRACT

Mallampati score has been identified and accepted worldwide as an independent predictor of difficult intubation and obstructive sleep apnea. We aimed to determine whether Mallampati score assessed on the first patient medical assessment allowed us to stratify the risk of worsening of conditions in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. A total of 493 consecutive patients admitted between 13 November 2021 and 2 January 2022 to the temporary hospital in Pyrzowice were included in the analysis. The clinical data, chest CT scan, and major, clinically relevant laboratory parameters were assessed by patient-treating physicians, whereas the Mallampati score was assessed on admission by investigators blinded to further treatment. The primary endpoints were necessity of active oxygen therapy (AOT) during hospitalization and 60-day all-cause mortality. Of 493 patients included in the analysis, 69 (14.0%) were in Mallampati I, 57 (11.6%) were in Mallampati II, 78 (15.8%) were in Mallampati III, and 288 (58.9%) were in Mallampati IV. There were no differences in the baseline characteristics between the groups, except the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (p = 0.046). Patients with Mallampati IV were at the highest risk of AOT during the hospitalization (33.0%) and the highest risk of death due to any cause at 60 days (35.0%), which significantly differed from other scores (p = 0.005 and p = 0.03, respectively). Mallampati IV was identified as an independent predictor of need for AOT (OR 3.089, 95% confidence interval 1.65-5.77, p < 0.001) but not of all-cause mortality at 60 days. In conclusion, Mallampati IV was identified as an independent predictor of AOT during hospitalization. Mallampati score can serve as a prehospital tool allowing to identify patients at higher need for AOT.

16.
Clinicoecon Outcomes Res ; 14: 231-247, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951748

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To estimate the clinical and economic benefits of lenzilumab plus standard of care (SOC) compared with SOC alone in the treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from the National Health Service (NHS) England perspective. Methods: A cost calculator was developed to estimate the clinical benefits and costs of adding lenzilumab to SOC in newly hospitalized COVID-19 patients over 28 days. The LIVE-AIR trial results informed the clinical inputs: failure to achieve survival without ventilation (SWOV), mortality, time to recovery, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) use. Base case costs included drug acquisition and administration for lenzilumab and remdesivir and hospital resource costs based on the level of care required. Clinical and economic benefits per weekly cohort of newly hospitalized patients were also estimated. Results: In all populations examined, specified clinical outcomes were improved with lenzilumab plus SOC over SOC treatment alone. In a base case population aged <85 years with C-reactive protein (CRP) <150 mg/L, with or without remdesivir, adding lenzilumab to SOC was estimated to result in per-patient cost savings of £1162. In a weekly cohort of 4754 newly hospitalized patients, addition of lenzilumab to SOC could result in 599 IMV uses avoided, 352 additional lives saved, and over £5.5 million in cost savings. Scenario results for per-patient cost savings included: 1) aged <85 years, CRP <150 mg/L, and receiving remdesivir (£3127); 2) Black patients with CRP <150 mg/L (£9977); and 3) Black patients from the full population (£2369). Conversely, in the full mITT population, results estimated additional cost of £4005 per patient. Conclusion: Findings support clinical benefits for SWOV, mortality, time to recovery, time in ICU, time on IMV, and ventilator use, and an economic benefit from the NHS England perspective when adding lenzilumab to SOC for hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

17.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943027

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the experience of tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients in a Southern Europe tertiary hospital. Retrospective observational study in tracheostomized patients from April 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021. Data related to tracheostomy were evaluated in patients with and without COVID-19, including infections in healthcare professionals involved in patient care. Forty-two tracheostomies were performed in COVID-19 patients aged 68.4 ± 11.1 years, predominantly men (71%) and caucasians (81%). They had at least 1 comorbidity (93%), on average 3. The most frequent were heart disease (71%), age > 65 years (67%) diabetes (40%) and obesity (33%). The greater number of comorbidities was associated with the lesser probability of the patient's recovery (p = .001). Age (p = .047) and renal failure (p = .013) were associated with higher mortality. Patients were tracheostomized by prolonged endo-tracheal intubation (50%), pneumonia (33%) and extubation failure (10%). Ventilation time before the tracheostomy (22.9 ± 6.5 days) was higher than ventilation time after the tracheostomy (7.1 ± 15.1 days) (p < 0.001). No differences were found in ventilation time (p = 0.094) and tracheostomy time (p = 0.514) in the different indications. There were 3 minor complications (7.1%), 25 discharges (60%) and 11 deaths (26%). During the same period 49 tracheostomies were performed in patients without COVID-19, with a homogeneous gender and age distribution, 31% without comorbidities, with an average of 1 comorbidity per patient and higher mortality (43%). Tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients proved to be a safe procedure for both patients and healthcare professionals and improves the clinical outcome of patients with severe infection. The 21-day procedure timing seems adequate. Comorbidities played an essential role in patient´s recovery. Age and renal failure are associated with a worse vital prognosis.

18.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 80: 104201, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936027

ABSTRACT

Critically ill COVID-19 patients have to undergo positive pressure ventilation, a non-physiological and invasive intervention that can be lifesaving in severe ARDS. Similar to any other intervention, it has its pros and cons. Despite following Lung Protective Ventilation (LPV), some of the complications are frequently reported in these critically ill patients and significantly impact overall mortality. The complications related to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in critically ill COVID-19 patients can be broadly divided into pulmonary and non-pulmonary. Among pulmonary complications, the most frequent is ventilator-associated pneumonia. Others are barotrauma, including subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, bullous lesions, cardiopulmonary effects of right ventricular dysfunction, and pulmonary complications mimicking cardiac failure, including pulmonary edema. Tracheal complications, including full-thickness tracheal lesions (FTTLs) and tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs) are serious but rare complications. Non-Pulmonary complications include neurological, nephrological, ocular, and oral complications.

19.
Endocrine ; 77(2): 213-220, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942985

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical outcome and disease severity affected by several factors; deterioration of glycemic control is one of them. Therefore, achieving optimum blood glucose parameters is hypothesized for better consequences of COVID-19. However, varying data supporting this hypothesis is available in literature. The intention of this study was to investigate the role of glycemic management on the prognosis of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with varying degrees of severity. METHODS: From April 2020 to January 2021, we carried this retrospective cohort in a clinical care facility in Pakistan. RESULTS: Mortality was lowest in patients with HbA1c of less than 7% (53 mmol/mol) (p < 0.001). Similarly, mortality was found lowest in patients with fasting blood glucose less than 126 mg/dl and random blood glucose less than 160 mg/dl (p < 0.001 in each). In contrast, need for admission in critical care was found highest in patients with HbA1c between 7 and 10% (53-86 mmol/mol) (p 0.002). However, participants with blood glucose levels during fasting greater than 200 mg/dl and random blood glucose levels greater than 250 mg/dl were found to have a greater need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Cox regression hazard showed no difference in risk of death and invasive mechanical ventilation based on previous glycemic control. CONCLUSION: Effective diabetic management is correlated with a considerably lower risk of mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Glycemic Control , Humans , Retrospective Studies
20.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(12): 3128-3133, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919972

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Renal failure (RF) is a risk factor for mortality among hospitalized patients. However, its role in COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality is inconclusive. The aim of the study was to determine whether RF is a significant predictor of clinical outcomes in COVID-19 hospitalized patients based on a retrospective, nationwide, cohort study. METHODS: The study sample consisted of patients hospitalized in Israel for COVID-19 in two periods. A random sample of these admissions was selected, and experienced nurses extracted the data from the electronic files. The group with RF on admission was compared to the group of patients without RF. The association of RF with 30-day mortality was investigated using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: During the two periods, 19,308 and 2994 patients were admitted, from which a random sample of 4688 patients was extracted. The 30-day mortality rate for patients with RF was 30% (95% confidence interval (CI): 27-33%) compared to 8% (95% CI: 7-9%) among patients without RF. The estimated OR for 30-day mortality among RF versus other patients was 4.3 (95% CI: 3.7-5.1) and after adjustment for confounders was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.8-2.6). Furthermore, RF patients received treatment by vasopressors and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) more frequently than those without RF (vasopressors: 17% versus 6%, OR = 2.8, p<0.0001; IMV: 17% versus 7%, OR = 2.6, p<0.0001). DISCUSSION: RF is an independent risk factor for mortality, IMV, and the need for vasopressors among patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection. Therefore, this condition requires special attention when considering preventive tools, monitoring, and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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