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1.
Chemosphere ; : 136913, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082958

ABSTRACT

The CO2 emission is enhancing drastically because of the continuous emission from industries and transport sector. Although the CO2 emission had decreased in the first half of 2020 by 8.8% due to COVID-19 restrictions however, it is again on the rise and it might exceed the estimated level in 2030. The current methods used for CO2 separation have serious operational and environmental constraints. To overcome these problems we have devised a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) incorporated with the blend of bimetallic metal-organic framework (MOF) of copper and magnesium ions (CuxMgx) and Trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride [P66614] [Cl] ionic liquid (IL). CuxMgx MOF were synthesized and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). CuxMgx MOF with [P66614] [Cl] IL were immobilized on a flat sheet of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. Single gas permeation tests of membranes loaded with 0.2/0.8 wt/wt% MOF/IL solution showed the highest CO2 permeability of 2937 Barrer and CO2/N2 selectivity of 33.26. The performance of SILM was also investigated with different water loadings of (30 wt % and 50 wt %) in addition to MOF/IL solution and at different feed pressure varying from 0.5 to 2 bars. Membranes showed enhancement in CO2 permeability to 3738 and 4628 Barrer whereas CO2/N2 selectivity decreased to 23.53 and 21.8 with membranes loaded with 30 and 50 wt % water, respectively, at a feed pressure of 2 bar. The gas permeation results show that the incorporation of CuxMgx MOF with IL in polymeric membrane enhances the CO2/N2 separation under humid conditions but slightly decreases CO2/N2 selectivity with an increase in feed pressure. The supported ionic liquids membrane synthesized in this research is highly viable for industrial flue gases because of the incorporation of phosphorous-based ILs that have high thermal stability.

2.
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering ; 39, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068485

ABSTRACT

Significant focus has been placed on improving Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) due to the emergence of the large-scale severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus epidemic in the air conditioning system of buildings. There is also a need for an adequate air ventilation system that balances energy needs with air quality. This led to the discovery of liquid desiccants which have the ability to enhance air quality and lower primary energy usage as an alternative to the standard air dehumidification technology. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the dehumidi-fication and regeneration processes in a Fin and tube liquid desiccant system. This involved flowing air horizontally while the ionic liquid flowed through the cooling or heating coil verti-cally downward to create a cross-flow fin and tube configuration. In the testing process, we ob-tained measurements of relative humidity and dry bulb temperature inlet and outlet from ducting by varying the input parameters. Moreover, the differential humidity ratio of the inlet and output process for the dehumidification and regeneration was observed to be essential for the dehu-midifier performance indices. The experimental result showed that the system absorbed a hu-midity ratio of 5.5 g/kg during the dehumidification process and released 10.7 g/kg during regeneration.

3.
Journal of Water Process Engineering ; 43:102278, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1370255

ABSTRACT

Although electrospun-based membranes may be engineered as efficient platforms for the capture of biomolecules in aqueous environments, the capability of such membranes to selectively capture viruses and proteins is often limited due to poor and constrained surface affinity for molecular bonding. In order to generate more efficient electrospun-based membranes, fine-tuning Van der Waals and ionic interactions is required to control chemical affinities with such contaminants and support advanced remediation solutions. Here, diallydimethylammonium chloride and poly(acrylonitrile) electrospun nanofibres were developed to enhance the adsorption of specific contaminant molecules compared to equivalently shaped pristine poly(acrylonitrile) nanofibre membranes. The results showed that the incorporation of the ionic liquid improved contact with water by forming super-hydrophilic nanofibres with narrow diameters and smaller pore size distributions, while also significantly changing the surface charge of the material and shifting the isoelectric point of the surface from 3 to 4.4. The specific surface area of the membranes was also increased by up to 4 times upon ionic liquid loading, which was found to support efficient coronavirus capture and filtration efficiency. This new strategy represents a promising way to control surface properties of virus filtration membranes towards efficient and targeted remediation solutions.

4.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(6): e5365, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739127

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a potential antiviral medication that has been recently licensed for Covid-19 treatment. In this work, a gadolinium-based magnetic ionic liquid was prepared and used as an extractant in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of favipiravir in human plasma. The high enriching ability of DLLME allowed the determination of favipiravir in real samples using HPLC/UV with sufficient sensitivity. The effects of several variables on extraction efficiency were investigated, including type of extractant, amount of extractant, type of disperser and disperser volume. The maximum enrichment was attained using 50 mg of the Gd-magnetic ionic liquid (MIL) and 150 µl of tetrahydrofuran. The Gd-based MIL could form a supramolecular assembly in the presence of tetrahydrofuran, which enhanced the extraction efficiency of favipiravir. The developed method was validated according to US Food and Drug Administration bioanalytical method validation guidelines. The coefficient of determination was 0.9999, for a linear concentration range of 25 to 1.0 × 105  ng/ml. The percentage recovery (accuracy) varied from 99.83 to 104.2%, with RSD values (precision) ranging from 4.07 to 11.84%. The total extraction time was about 12 min and the HPLC analysis time was 5 min. The method was simple, selective and sensitive for the determination of favipiravir in real human plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ionic Liquids , Liquid Phase Microextraction , Amides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Furans , Gadolinium , Humans , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods , Magnetic Phenomena , Pyrazines
5.
Energy (Oxf) ; 244: 122709, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520890

ABSTRACT

The spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 affects the health of people and the economy worldwide. As air transmits the virus, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings, enclosed spaces and public transport play a significant role in limiting the transmission of airborne pathogens at the expenses of increased energy consumption and possibly reduced thermal comfort. On the other hand, liquid desiccant technology could be adopted as an air scrubber to increase indoor air quality and inactivate pathogens through temperature and humidity control, making them less favourable to the growth, proliferation and infectivity of microorganisms. The objectives of this study are to review the role of HVAC in airborne viral transmission, estimate its energy penalty associated with the adoption of HVAC for transmission reduction and understand the potential of liquid desiccant technology. Factors affecting the inactivation of pathogens by liquid desiccant solutions and possible modifications to increase their heat and mass transfer and sanitising characteristics are also described, followed by an economic evaluation. It is concluded that the liquid desiccant technology could be beneficial in buildings (requiring humidity control or moisture removal in particular when viruses are likely to present) or in high-footfall enclosed spaces (during virus outbreaks).

6.
Nano Sel ; 3(1): 227-232, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381944

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a waterproof anti-SARS-CoV-2 protective film prepared by spray-coating of an aqueous colloidal dispersion of poly(ionic liquid)/copper (PIL/Cu) composite nanoparticles onto a substrate. The PIL dispersion was prepared by suspension polymerization of 3-dodecyl-1-vinylimdiazolium bromide in water at 70°C. The copper acetate salt was added into the PIL nanoparticle dispersion and in situ reduced into copper nanoparticles anchoring onto the PIL nanoparticles. Despite being waterborne, the PIL in bulk is intrinsically insoluble in water and the formed coating is stable in water. The formed surface coating by PIL/copper composite nanoparticles was able to deactivate SARS-CoV-2 virions by 90.0% in 30 minutes and thus may effectively prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 through surface contact. This method may provide waterborne dispersions for a broad range of antivirus protective surface coatings for both outdoor and indoor applications.

7.
Mol Pharm ; 18(8): 3108-3115, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305357

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread across the world, and no specific antiviral drugs have yet been approved to combat this disease. Favipiravir (FAV) is an antiviral drug that is currently in clinical trials for use against COVID-19. However, the delivery of FAV is challenging because of its limited solubility, and its formulation is difficult with common organic solvents and water. To address these issues, four FAV ionic liquids (FAV-ILs) were synthesized as potent antiviral prodrugs and were fully characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The aqueous solubility and in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of the FAV-ILs were also evaluated. The FAV-ILs exhibited improved aqueous solubility by 78 to 125 orders of magnitude when compared with that of free FAV. Upon oral dosing in mice, the absolute bioavailability of the ß-alanine ethyl ester FAV formulation was increased 1.9-fold compared with that of the control FAV formulation. The peak blood concentration, elimination half-life, and mean absorption time of FAV were also increased by 1.5-, 2.0-, and 1.5-fold, respectively, compared with the control. Furthermore, the FAV in the FAV-ILs exhibited significantly different biodistribution compared with the control FAV formulation. Interestingly, drug accumulation in the lungs and liver was improved 1.5-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively, compared with the control FAV formulation. These results indicate that the use of ILs exhibits potential as a simple, scalable strategy to improve the solubility and oral absorption of hydrophobic drugs, such as FAV.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Ionic Liquids/chemistry , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Amides/chemical synthesis , Amides/chemistry , Amides/pharmacokinetics , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pyrazines/chemical synthesis , Pyrazines/chemistry , Pyrazines/pharmacokinetics , Solubility , Tissue Distribution
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304661

ABSTRACT

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) belong to a well-known class of cationic biocides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They are used as essential components in surfactants, personal hygiene products, cosmetics, softeners, dyes, biological dyes, antiseptics, and disinfectants. Simple but varied in their structure, QACs are divided into several subclasses: Mono-, bis-, multi-, and poly-derivatives. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to the advancement of this class of biocides. Thus, more than 700 articles on QACs were published only in 2020, according to the modern literature. The structural variability and diverse biological activity of ionic liquids (ILs) make them highly prospective for developing new types of biocides. QACs and ILs bear a common key element in the molecular structure-quaternary positively charged nitrogen atoms within a cyclic or acyclic structural framework. The state-of-the-art research level and paramount demand in modern society recall the rapid development of a new generation of tunable antimicrobials. This review focuses on the main QACs exhibiting antimicrobial and antifungal properties, commercial products based on QACs, and the latest discoveries in QACs and ILs connected with biocide development.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ionic Liquids/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship
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