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Brain Hemorrhages ; 2(2):97-100, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245258


The 17th National Annual Conference on Neurological Infectious Diseases and Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytology of the Chinese Medical Association Neurology Branch was successfully held in Wuhan, Hubei, China. During the conference, many well-known neurology experts in China conducted in-depth and detailed discussions on the research progress of infectious diseases of the nervous system and cerebrospinal fluid cytology, which benefited the participants a lot.Copyright © 2021

Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S41, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243304


Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many facets of healthcare including patients delaying medical care for potentially life-threatening conditions. This study sought to compare specific key outcomes related to ischemic stroke that occurred before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed mortality rates, morbidity rates, and the administration of thrombolytics in patients with ischemic stroke admitted to emergency departments (ED) in the Stroke Belt, a region of the United States with historically worse stroke outcomes. Method(s): Cerner Real-World Data was used to identify patients residing in the Stroke Belt (Southeastern United States) who were admitted to the ED with ICD-10 codes indicating acute ischemic stroke. We determined in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates, morbidity rates (physical disability tracked 1-year post-ischemic stroke), and administration of thrombolytics for acute ischemic stroke patients before the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2019-February 2020) and during the pandemic (March 2020-February 2021). Result(s): In the defined period prior to COVID-19, 2,338 patients presented to the ED with ischemic strokes (49.5% male;mean age 64.8, SD:15.23;69.6% white). During COVID-19, 2,052 ischemic stroke patients presented to the ED (50.9% male;mean age 65.8, SD:15.04;71.5% white). Our analyses show a significant decrease in thrombolytic administration during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic (12.2% and 14.5%, respectively;p<0.05). There was no significant difference in rates of in-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, or morbidity following ischemic strokes. Conclusion(s): The findings of our study suggest a reduction in ischemic stroke related ED encounters during the COVID-19 period, but no differences were observed in mortality and morbidity rates in ischemic stroke compared to before the pandemic. Future studies are required to determine if these trends were true in other regions of the United States, as well as to investigate other potential covariates linked to outcomes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.Copyright © 2023

JACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy ; 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243096


Thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) are point-of-care viscoelastic tests of whole blood that provide real-time analyses of coagulation. TEG and ROTEM are often used to guide blood product administration in the trauma and surgical settings. These tests are increasingly being explored for their use in other disease states encountered in critically ill patients and in the management of antithrombotic medications. As the medication experts, pharmacists should be familiar with how to interpret and apply viscoelastic tests to disease state and medication management. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a primer for pharmacists on viscoelastic tests and their interpretation and to explore non-trauma indications for viscoelastic testing in critical care. Literature evaluating the use of TEG and ROTEM for patients with acute and chronic liver disease, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, coronavirus disease 2019, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are described. Current applications of viscoelastic tests by pharmacists and potential future roles of critical care pharmacists in expanding the use of viscoelastic tests are summarized.Copyright © 2023 The Authors. JACCP: Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand ; 104(4):S19-S25, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241294


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19] has become a global pandemic. Preventive policy during this outbreak possibly leads to a negative influence on the highly time-sensitive diseases such as acute ischemic stroke (AIS]. Objective(s): The present study was to determine the impact of the pandemic on rate of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA] administration for AIS in Thailand. Material(s) and Method(s): A cross-sectional descriptive study. The magnitude of COVID-19 pandemic in each province of Thailand was reviewed from the website of the Ministry of Public Health. The number of patients with AIS who received rtPA was taken from the National Health Security Office, from 1st October 2019 to 21st August 2021. The authors demonstrate the correlation between the pandemic severity and the rate of rtPA administration for patients with AIS. Result(s): During the COVID-19 pandemic, there were 37 provinces (48%] in year 2020 and SO provinces (64.9%] in year 2021 had a reduction in rate of rtPA administration, 40 provinces (51.9%] in year 2020 and 27 provinces (35%] in year 2021 had increase in rate of rtPA administration. Over a period of two years, 25 provinces (32.5%] had only decreased rate (mean=1.12% and 1.63% in year 2020 and 2021 respectively], 15 provinces (19.5%) had only increased rate (mean=1.71% and 1.17% in year 2020 and 2021 respectively], and 37 provinces (48%] had diverse in rate of rtPA administration among both years. Conclusion(s): The present study demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic does not cause a significant impact on the rate of rtPA administration for AIS in Thailand.Copyright © 2023 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand.

Health Sciences Review ; 7 (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20239538


Objectives: To systematically review longitudinal studies to determine the prevalence and time-course of fatigue after stroke (post-stroke fatigue, PSF). Material(s) and Method(s): A study protocol was registered on PROSPERO. Five databases (PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PSYCHINFO and CINAHL) were searched (10th to 13th June 2022). Citations were imported into Covidence software, s screened by one author, full texts of potentially eligible studies retrieved, and one author applied inclusion criteria (longitudinal cohort studies of patients with acute stroke). Quality assessment of included studies was performed using the Joanna Briggs institute tool for observational studies. A meta-analysis was performed for the prevalence of PSF at different time-points after stroke onset, and changes over time. Subgroup analyses were performed by type of stroke and study location. Result(s): A total of 13,991 records were returned from the searches. Nine studies were eligible and were included. Five studies were of strong and four of moderate quality. Of the studies suitable for meta-analysis, the prevalence of PSF was 42% (95% CI - 39-44%) at six months after ischaemic stroke;and 34% (95% CI - 28-40%) at one year in stroke survivors excluding subarachnoid haemorrhage. Subgroups analyses found no differences in PSF prevalence between Asian countries and others. Of those with PSF at first assessment, 66% (95% CI - 61-71%) remained fatigued at follow-up;of those without PSF initially, 15% (95% CI - 11-20%) developed PSF at follow-up. Conclusion(s): PSF is common and around two-thirds with fatigue remain fatigued. This justifies the development of new interventions for PSF treatment.Copyright © 2023 The Author(s)

Nevrologiya, Neiropsikhiatriya, Psikhosomatika ; 15(2):34-40, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238023


Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a form of cerebrovascular disorders that is difficult to recognize, it is potentially a life threatening condition and requires timely anticoagulant therapy. In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a steady increase in CVT (4.2% vs. 0.5-1%). At the same time, mortality in patients with CVT on the background of COVID-19 significantly exceeds the mortality in patients with CVT without COVID-19 (45.5% vs. 15%). Objective(s): to study the clinical course of CVT, to determine the diagnostic value of radiological methods and the significance of genetic risk factors for thrombosis in the development of CVT in young and middle-aged patients against the background of COVID-19. Material and methods. Seven patients were examined: six women (five of them of reproductive age) and one man, aged 26 to 57 years (mean age 37 years). The main clinical and neurological manifestations of CVT, the results of laboratory examination, neuroimaging, and the data of molecular genetic analysis of risk factors for thrombosis were analyzed. Results. The course of COVID-19 was severe in one case, and moderate in the rest of cases. The interval between the onset of COVID-19 symptoms and the development of CVT ranged from 7 to 25 days. In three cases CVT had an acute course and was accompanied by the development of a stroke (in two cases, hemorrhagic stroke was noted, in one case, multifocal ischemic stroke), in other cases, a subacute course of CVT was noted. Genetic risk factors for thrombosis were identified in all patients. Conclusion. The diagnosis of CVT in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic is particularly difficult, since the most common symptom of CVT - headache (90%) - can be regarded as a manifestation of COVID-19. At the same time, timely diagnosis of CVT and immediate initiation of anticoagulant therapy are associated with a relatively favorable prognosis.Copyright © 2023 Ima-Press Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand ; 104(4):S46-S50, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20233580


Background: Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In COVID-19 pandemic, stroke remains to be a medical emergency. To treat patients with acute ischemic stroke [AIS], early intravenous thrombolysis is highly time sensitive. This research investigated the impact of regionally imposed social and healthcare restrictions of COVID-19 on the time metrics in the management of AIS patients admitted at the stroke unit center in Srinagarind Hospital. Objective(s): Comparison of door to needle time for intravenous thrombolysis for AIS patients before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Material(s) and Method(s): The present study is a retrospective analysis of patients with AIS who received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator [tPA] from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2020 in Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen. The patients admitted before and after the COVID-19 outbreak [January 13, 2020, as officially announced by the World Health Organization] were screened to collect sociodemographic data, medical history information, and symptom onset status from clinical medical records and to compared door-to-needle time (DNT) for intravenous thrombolysis before and after the outbreak. Result(s): A total of 239 patients were included, of which 113 were enrolled before and 126 after the COVID-19 outbreak. According to the findings, DNT is 35.3 minutes before the pandemic and 35.8 minutes after the epidemic. Conclusion(s): COVID-19 has remarkable impacts on the management of AIS. However, DNT for before and after COVID-19 outbreak is nearly identical. It was established that administering intravenous thrombolysis to patients in the emergency room rather than the stroke unit allowed for speedier access. Therefore, a policy which provides quick AIS treatments in COVID-19 situations should be implemented.Copyright © 2023 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand.

Ideggyogy Sz ; 76(5-6): 197-204, 2023 May 30.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235610


Background and purpose:

 Thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy have been proven effective in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Due to the narrow time window, the number of patients suitable for these treatments is low. The main limitation is the pre-hospital stage, few people call an ambulance in time. The delay may be caused by the population’s insufficient health knowledge, but also by the loneliness and isolation of the population most prone to stroke. Among the latter, there are many grandparents who spend considerable time with their grandchildren. This gave rise to the idea of educating even younger children about the symptoms of a stroke, enabling them to call an ambulance if necessary. To this end, we adapted the Angels Initiative project previously tested in Greece. The Hungarian pilot study Budapest District XII. took place in district kindergartens. The Angels’ original role-playing program could not be implemented due to the COVID epidemic, so the necessity called for a new, Hungarian version: the online “Stroke Ovi” program. We introduced this in several stages, and in the third we also carried out an impact study.

. Methods:

 We adapted the Angels Initiative’s international program and its Hungarian translation to our program. We prepared the original, live role-playing form, with a parent meeting in the selected “test kindergarten”. Due to the uncertainly lingering impact of the COVID epidemic, we reevaluated our plan, using the Hungarian storybook and take-home workbook created in the meantime, we developed our own online version in several kindergartens in Budapest. We held 10 and then 25 minute sessions a week for 5 weeks. In the third educational cycle, which always targets new groups, we already examined the impact of the program by taking pre- and post-tests, in which not only the children but also their parents participated. In addition to neurologists and kindergarten teachers, we also included psychologists and speech therapists in our work, because we believed that in a social environment that includes parents and children, results can only be achieved through multidisciplinary cooperation.

. Results:

 In the third cycle of the program, tests were taken before (pre-test) and after (post-test) among children and their parents. We only took into account those answers where we received an evaluable answer in the survey before and after the program. Our most important results: 1. there was no negative change in any question, so it was not the case that the total score of any question in the pre-test was higher than in the post-test. 2. The children learned that not only adults can call the ambulance. 3. Before the program, all children were already aware that if “someone is very ill”, the ambulance should be called. 4. Among the questions about stroke symptoms, it is important that hemiparesis, facial paresis and speech/language disorder are clear symptoms for children. Based on the parental questionnaires, the knowledge of the adults can be judged to be very good. The same number of correct answers were received during the pre-test and the post-test, on the basis of which we could not calculate a transfer effect. However, it is important that the parents considered the program useful, motivating and important for the children, so cooperation can be expected in the future.

. Conclusion:

The Hungarian “Stroke Ovi” program has so far proven to be clearly effective. This was proven by the impact assessments even if, instead of the original role-playing game, we implemented it “only” online due to the COVID epidemic. This constraint also forced and created a new “Hungarian version”. Despite the small number of samples caused by the circumstances, we consider this positive effect to be measurable. However, as the main result and evidence, we evaluated the children’s reaction, which took shape in spontaneous drawings and displayed professional values in addition to positive emotional reactions, such as the drawing of ambulances, the recurring representation of the 112 number. With the involvement of the media, we think online education is also a good option in the series of stroke campaigns, but we think the original role-playing form is really effective. At the same time, we can see that the application of the new method requires great caution due to the education of developing children. For this reason, results can only be achieved through social and multidisciplinary cooperation involving neurologists, psychologists, kindergarten teachers, and parents.


COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Child , Adult , Humans , Pilot Projects , Students/psychology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/prevention & control
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 23(6): 301-325, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240872


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Uncommon causes of stroke merit specific attention; when clinicians have less common etiologies of stoke in mind, the diagnosis may come more easily. This is key, as optimal management will in many cases differs significantly from "standard" care. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the best medical therapy in the treatment of cervical artery dissection (CeAD) have demonstrated low rates of ischemia with both antiplatelet and vitamin K antagonism. RCT evidence supports the use of anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonism in "high-risk" patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLAS), and there is new evidence supporting the utilization of direct oral anticoagulation in malignancy-associated thrombosis. Migraine with aura has been more conclusively linked not only with increased risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, but also with cardiovascular mortality. Recent literature has surprisingly not provided support the utilization of L-arginine in the treatment of patients with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS); however, there is evidence at this time that support use of enzyme replacement in patients with Fabry disease. Additional triggers for reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) have been identified, such as capsaicin. Imaging of cerebral blood vessel walls utilizing contrast-enhanced MRA is an emerging modality that may ultimately prove to be very useful in the evaluation of patients with uncommon causes of stroke. A plethora of associations between cerebrovascular disease and COVID-19 have been described. Where pertinent, authors provide additional tips and guidance. Less commonly encountered conditions with updates in diagnosis, and management along with clinical tips are reviewed.

COVID-19 , Migraine Disorders , Stroke , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/complications , Migraine Disorders/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Fibrinolytic Agents , Vitamin K
Pediatr Neurosurg ; 58(1): 53-57, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240012


INTRODUCTION: Most people who are infected with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are asymptomatic or present with mild upper respiratory symptoms. This is especially true in the pediatric population; however, rarely, a massive cytokine storm can develop, causing multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID (MIS-C). Furthermore, children may also suffer from acute ischemic strokes secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a 2-year-old male who was admitted to the hospital with MIS-C and evidence of a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. On postadmission day 2, the patient was in cardiogenic shock, had acute kidney injury, liver dysfunction, and metabolic acidosis. He had concurrent altered mental status, and his computed tomography scan showed ischemic infarcts in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery and superior cerebellar artery bilaterally. Magnetic resonance angiography confirmed occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery and right superior cerebellar artery. He underwent an emergent decompressive craniectomy due to rapid deterioration and cerebral edema. After the procedure, he continued to improve and was discharged with moderate disability that improved during outpatient rehab. CONCLUSION: Though rare in children, SARS-CoV-2 can lead to AIS, especially in the presence of underlying risk factors such as MIS-C and hypercoagulopathy. AIS can be associated with severe mortality and morbidity; however, even in this severe case of AIS, the patient was successfully treated with a decompressive craniectomy.

COVID-19 , Decompressive Craniectomy , Male , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/complications , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/surgery
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232184


Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) patients may experience an acute ischemic stroke; however, risk factors, in-hospital deaths, and outcomes have not been thoroughly investigated. This study investigates the risk factors, comorbidities, and outcomes in patients with SARS-VoV-2 infection and acute ischemic stroke compared to patients without these conditions. The present retrospective study was conducted in the King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre (KAIMRC), Ministry of National Guard, Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from April 2020 to February 2022. This study investigates the risk variables among the individuals who were diagnosed with either SARS-CoV-2 with stroke or patients with stroke alone. A total of 42,688 COVID-19 patients were registered, 187 cases of strokes were listed in COVID-19 patients, however, 5395 cases with stroke without SARS-CoV-2 infection. The results revealed that factors including age, hypertension, deep vein thrombosis, and ischemic heart disease are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The results also displayed an elevated frequency of in-hospital deaths in COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke. The results also showed that SARS-CoV-2 together predicts the probability of stroke and death in the study sample. The study findings conclude that ischemic strokes were infrequent in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and usually occur in the presence of other risk factors. The risk factors of ischemic strokes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 are old age, male gender, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, DVT, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, the results showed a higher frequency of in-hospital deaths in COVID-19 patients with stroke compared to COVID-19 patients without stroke.

COVID-19 , Hypertension , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Ischemia , Stroke , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Risk Factors , Hypertension/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/complications
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 161, 2023 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322628


INTRODUCTION: Digital twins, a form of artificial intelligence, are virtual representations of the physical world. In the past 20 years, digital twins have been utilized to track wind turbines' operations, monitor spacecraft's status, and even create a model of the Earth for climate research. While digital twins hold much promise for the neurocritical care unit, the question remains on how to best establish the rules that govern these models. This model will expand on our group's existing digital twin model for the treatment of sepsis. METHODS: The authors of this project collaborated to create a Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) and an initial series of 20 DELPHI statements, each with six accompanying sub-statements that captured the pathophysiology surrounding the management of acute ischemic strokes in the practice of Neurocritical Care (NCC). Agreement from a panel of 18 experts in the field of NCC was collected through a 7-point Likert scale with consensus defined a-priori by ≥ 80% selection of a 6 ("agree") or 7 ("strongly agree"). The endpoint of the study was defined as the completion of three separate rounds of DELPHI consensus. DELPHI statements that had met consensus would not be included in subsequent rounds of DELPHI consensus. The authors refined DELPHI statements that did not reach consensus with the guidance of de-identified expert comments for subsequent rounds of DELPHI. All DELPHI statements that reached consensus by the end of three rounds of DELPHI consensus would go on to be used to inform the construction of the digital twin model. RESULTS: After the completion of three rounds of DELPHI, 93 (77.5%) statements reached consensus, 11 (9.2%) statements were excluded, and 16 (13.3%) statements did not reach a consensus of the original 120 DELPHI statements. CONCLUSION: This descriptive study demonstrates the use of the DELPHI process to generate consensus among experts and establish a set of rules for the development of a digital twin model for use in the neurologic ICU. Compared to associative models of AI, which develop rules based on finding associations in datasets, digital twin AI created by the DELPHI process are easily interpretable models based on a current understanding of underlying physiology.

Artificial Intelligence , Stroke , Humans , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Intensive Care Units , Critical Care , Stroke/therapy
Neurologia Argentina ; 2023.
Article in English, Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2318904


Introduction: COVID-19 seems to induce ischemic stroke by several potential mechanisms including promoting hypercoagulability, and worse functional outcomes have been reported in patients with stroke and the infection with SARS-CoV-2. Objective(s): Determine the association between functional outcome and COVID-19 in patients with stroke. Patients and Methods: We performed a case control study comparing patients admitted to a neurological reference center in Peru with a diagnosis of stroke before (controls) and after (cases) the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. There were 31 cases diagnosed with COVID-19 and 62 controls without COVID-19. Bivariate analysis and conditional fixed-effects Poisson regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between the functional outcome of the stroke and COVID-19. Result(s): Cases had higher baseline serum glucose (133.5, IQR: 117.5-174 versus 117, IQR: 101-130, p = 0.033) than controls, higher neutrophil counts (7.91, IQR: 5.93-9.57 versus 5.96, IQR: 4.41-7.79, p = 0.008), lower lymphocyte counts (1.48, IQR: 1.04-1.8 versus 1.83, IQR: 1.26-2.32, p = 0.025), higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios (5.44, IQR: 4.0-8.1 versus 3.29, IQR: 2.25-6.02, p = 0.011), higher NIH stroke scale/score (NIHSS) (14, IQR: 9-18 versus 7 IQR: 5-11, p = 0.000), and higher modified Rankin scores at discharge (4, IQR: 4-5 versus 2, IQR: 1-4), p = 0.001). Seven (21.88%) participants died in the group of cases versus 1 (1.56%) in the controls (p = 0.014). The odds ratio of having a bad functional outcome at discharge was 1.344 (CI: 1.079-4.039;p = 0.029), adjusted by NIHSS at admission. Conclusion(s): Our findings suggest that ischemic strokes associated with COVID-19 are more severe, have worse functional outcome and higher mortality than non-COVID-19 ischemic strokes.Copyright © 2023 Sociedad Neurologica Argentina

International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research ; 11(2):11-15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2316729


Aim: To study the characterization of the CT Brain in COVID 19. Material(s) and Method(s): Patients of COVID 19 who had neurological signs either before they were admitted or while they were in the hospital had a CT brain plain once during their time in the hospital. CT Brain plain presentations were shown to correspond with CNS symptoms, progression throughout the patients' hospital stays, and outcomes. Several tests, such as RT-PCR for COVID 19, CT Brain plain, complete blood count, liver function tests, renal function tests with electrolytes, and others were performed. Result(s): In the current investigation, there were a total of 50 patients, 46 (92%) of whom were male, while just 4 (8%), on the other hand, were female. The patients' ages ranged anywhere from 35 to 82 years old, with a mean of 65.85+/-8.69 years. NLR was 14.98+/-2.69 (range 1.31-47.5), mean LDH 992.17+/-25.69 (range 221-5125), and Hs-CRP was 171.22+/-22.69 (range 2.9-321.5). Mean haemoglobin of the patients was 11.12+/-1.85 (range 4-15 g/dl), total leukocyte count was 16580.63+/-5896.45, mean platelet count was 2.11+/-1.02 / lacs (0. 27 patients, or 54%, were discovered to have had an ischemic stroke, whereas 5 patients, or 10%, were found to have had a hemorrhagic stroke. The CT brain results were found to be abnormal in 30 individuals (or 60%), whereas in 20 patients (or 40%), they were determined to be normal. 11 (22%) of the patients required the assistance of a ventilator, 6 (12%), of the patients used a BiPAP, 2 (4%), of the patients used a Hudson mask, and 10 (20%) of the patients had NRM. Conclusion(s): In conclusion, we were surprised to find that the proportion of patients with severe COVID-19 infection who had abnormal brain CT scans was rather significant. Ischemic stroke was the most common kind of stroke that occurred in conjunction with aberrant CT results. We believe that the connection between aberrant brain CT and the fate of patients warrants further validation in a wider patient population.Copyright ©2022Int. J. Life Sci. Biotechnol. Pharma. Res.

Critical Care Conference: 42nd International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine Brussels Belgium ; 27(Supplement 1), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2316327


Introduction: Anakinra treatment is approved for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia in hospitalized adults in need of oxygen and at risk for progression into severe respiratory failure (SRF) defined as circulating concentrations of the biomarker suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) >= 6 ng/mL by the EMA and has been authorized for emergency use by FDA under an EUA [1]. This is based on the results of the randomized SAVE-MORE trial where suPAR >= 6 ng/ mL was used to select patients at risk for SRF [2]. The suPAR test is not commercially available in the USA and an alternative method of patient selection was needed. Method(s): In collaboration with the US FDA, an alternative method to select patients most likely to have suPAR >= 6 ng/mL based on commonly measured patient characteristics was developed. Patients with at least 3 of the following criteria are considered likely to have suPAR >= 6 ng/ ml: age >= 75 years, severe pneumonia by WHO criteria, current/previous smoking status, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score >= 3, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >= 7, hemoglobin <= 10.5 g/dl, history of ischemic stroke, blood urea >= 50 mg/dl and/or history of renal disease. Result(s): The positive predictive value of this new score was 95.4% in SAVE-MORE population. However, a lower sensitivity meant a small proportion of patients with suPAR >= 6 ng/ml will not be identified by the new score. The adjusted hazard ratio for survival at 60 days for patients meeting this score and who receive anakinra is 0.45 (Fig. 1). Conclusion(s): The developed score predicts accurately patients with suPAR levels >= 6 ng/mL and may be used as an alternative to guide anakinra treatment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Based on these subgroup results, patients in SAVE-MORE who met the new score appeared to show beneficial efficacy results with treatment of anakinra consistent with the overall studied population.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine (Turkey) ; 40(1):197-198, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2312274
Biochem Genet ; 2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320925


As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) is becoming more infectious and less virulent, symptoms beyond the lungs of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are a growing concern. Studies have found that the severity of COVID-19 patients is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (IS); however, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, bioinformatics approaches were utilized to explore potential pathogenic mechanisms and predict potential drugs that may be useful in the treatment of COVID-19 and IS. The GSE152418 and GSE122709 datasets were downloaded from the GEO website to obtain the common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the two datasets for further functional enrichment, pathway analysis, and drug candidate prediction. A total of 80 common DEGs were identified in COVID-19 and IS datasets for GO and KEGG analysis. Next, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and hub genes were identified. Further, transcription factor-gene interactions and DEGs-miRNAs coregulatory network were investigated to explore their regulatory roles in disease. Finally, protein-drug interactions with common DEGs were analyzed to predict potential drugs. We successfully identified the top 10 hub genes that could serve as novel targeted therapies for COVID-19 and screened out some potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 and IS.

Int J Stroke ; 18(4): 383-391, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317287


Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a prothrombotic autoimmune disease with heterogeneous clinicopathological manifestations and is a well-established cause of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA), particularly in younger patients. There is growing recognition of a wider spectrum of APS-associated cerebrovascular lesions, including white matter hyperintensities, cortical atrophy, and infarcts, which may have clinically important neurocognitive sequalae. Diagnosis of APS-associated AIS/TIA requires expert review of clinical and laboratory information. Management poses challenges, given the potential for substantial morbidity and recurrent thrombosis, additional risk conferred by conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and limited evidence base regarding optimal antithrombotic therapy for secondary prevention. In this review, we summarize key features of APS-associated cerebrovascular disorders, with focus on clinical and laboratory aspects of diagnostic evaluation. The current status of prognostic markers is considered. We review the evidence base for antithrombotic treatment in APS-associated stroke and discuss uncertainties, including the optimal intensity of anticoagulation and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants. Clinical practice recommendations are provided, covering antithrombotic treatment, supportive management, and options for anticoagulant-refractory cases, and we highlight the benefits of adopting a considered, multidisciplinary team approach.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/diagnosis , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/drug therapy , Stroke/drug therapy , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Ischemic Attack, Transient/complications , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Journal of Neuroanaesthesiology and Critical Care ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2309446


This case report describes a young patient with no comorbidities, who presented with two systemic thrombotic events within 24 hours of admission. She presented with a right middle cerebral artery territory infarct and developed an inferior wall myocardial infarction soon after. The hypotension was refractory to inotropes and required emergency intra-aortic balloon pump insertion. She was evaluated for prothrombotic states and other causes of stroke in young. However, the workup for the same was negative. Coronavirus disease-2019 immunoglobulin G antibody titer and inflammatory markers were found to be extremely elevated, which suggested recent severe infection. This case report throws light on the multidisciplinary management of thrombotic events, most probably secondary to coronavirus infection.

Neurología Argentina ; 2023.
Article in Spanish | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2310782


Resumen Introducción El COVID-19 puede desencadenar un infarto cerebral por varios mecanismos potenciales, entre ellas, la hipercoagulabilidad. Se han reportado peores resultados funcionales en pacientes con infarto cerebral y COVID-19. Objetivo Determinar la asociación entre resultado funcional y COVID-19 en pacientes con infarto cerebral isquémico. Pacientes y métodos Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles comparando a pacientes ingresados a un centro de referencia neurológico en Perú con diagnóstico de infarto cerebral, antes (controles) y después (casos) del inicio de la pandemia por COVID-19. Hubo 31 casos diagnosticados con COVID-19 y 62 controles. Se utilizaron análisis bivariado y análisis de regresión de Poisson de efectos fijos condicionales. Resultados Los casos tenían glucemia basal más alta (133,5, RIQ: 117,5-174 vs 117, RIQ: 101-130, p=0,033) que los controles, recuentos de neutrófilos más altos (7,91, RIQ: 5,93-9,57 vs. 5,96, RIQ: 4,41-7,79, p=0,008), menor recuento de linfocitos (1,48, RIQ: 1,04-1,8 frente a 1,83, RIQ: 1,26-2,32, p=0,025), mayor relación neutrófilos/linfocitos (5,44, RIQ: 4,0-8,1 frente a 3,29, RIQ: 2,25-6,02, p=0,011), mayor NIH scale/score (NIHSS) (14, RIQ: 9-18 vs. 7, RIQ: 5-11, p=0,000) y mayores puntuaciones de Rankin modificadas al alta (4, RIQ: 4-5 vs. 2, RIQ: 1-4) p=0,001). Siete (21,88%) participantes fallecieron en el grupo de casos vs. 1 (1,56%) en los controles (p=0,014). La odds ratio de un mal resultado funcional al alta fue de 1,344 (IC: 1,079-4,039;p=0,029), ajustada por NIHSS al ingreso. Conclusiones Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que los infartos cerebrales asociados a COVID-19 son más graves, tienen un peor resultado funcional y una mayor mortalidad que los infartos cerebrales no relacionados a COVID-19. Introduction COVID-19 seems to induce ischemic stroke by several potential mechanisms including promoting hypercoagulability, and worse functional outcomes have been reported in patients with stroke and the infection with SARS-CoV-2. Objective Determine the association between functional outcome and COVID-19 in patients with stroke. Patients and methods We performed a case control study comparing patients admitted to a neurological reference center in Peru with a diagnosis of stroke before (controls) and after (cases) the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. There were 31 cases diagnosed with COVID-19 and 62 controls without COVID-19. Bivariate analysis and conditional fixed-effects Poisson regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between the functional outcome of the stroke and COVID-19. Results Cases had higher baseline serum glucose (133.5, IQR: 117.5-174 versus 117, IQR: 101-130, p=0.033) than controls, higher neutrophil counts (7.91, IQR: 5.93-9.57 versus 5.96, IQR: 4.41-7.79, p=0.008), lower lymphocyte counts (1.48, IQR: 1.04-1.8 versus 1.83, IQR: 1.26-2.32, p=0.025), higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios (5.44, IQR: 4.0-8.1 versus 3.29, IQR: 2.25-6.02, p=0.011), higher NIH stroke scale/score (NIHSS) (14, IQR: 9-18 versus 7 IQR: 5-11, p=0.000), and higher modified Rankin scores at discharge (4, IQR: 4-5 versus 2, IQR: 1-4), p=0.001). Seven (21.88%) participants died in the group of cases versus 1 (1.56%) in the controls (p=0.014). The odds ratio of having a bad functional outcome at discharge was 1.344 (CI: 1.079-4.039;p=0.029), adjusted by NIHSS at admission. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ischemic strokes associated with COVID-19 are more severe, have worse functional outcome and higher mortality than non-COVID-19 ischemic strokes.