Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 113
Filter
1.
Kybernetes ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070245

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this conceptual paper is to substantiate the idea that clusters will cope with the challenges of Industry 4.0, Industry 5.0 and remain one of the drivers for the development of the local economy. Design/methodology/approach For the preparation of this paper, the author reviewed the literature on Cluster 4.0, Industry 4.0, Industry 5.0, green and blue recovery, as well as the future of jobs and systems. Data, reports and surveys (UN, OECD, World Economic Forum, McKinsey Global Institute, D2L, etc.) were analysed in detail, in order to create a clear picture related to the research topic. The opinions expressed in the article are depicted graphically, and were developed by the author. Findings First, predictions on Industry 4.0 challenges are outlined, and the reasons as to why clusters are expected to succeed in the digital era are substantiated;second, the direction of development in the digital era is depicted in a two-dimensional plane;and third, the direction of development in digital era within the clusters is graphically presented as a system. Originality/value For this purpose, the author has developed a new approach to connect clusters and digitalisation with the self-designed graphical images.

2.
Global Journal of Social Sciences ; 19:49-51, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2055814

ABSTRACT

This article seeks to answer: would Africa be able to survive if the virus spreads further and strict measure as seen in Europe are enforced? It is clear from the aforementioned factors in this study that Africa is not ready for an outbreak like COVID-19. The only thing African governments can afford to do right now is vehemently prevent the virus from entering or spreading because the continent already has too many problems to deal with (such as: unhealthy ethnic and religious diversity, terrorism, high levels of corruption, an increasing number of youths with wrong priorities, a poor health sector, political and economic invasion, etc). African governments, institutions, and businesses should take note of how their peers in Europe, America, and Asia managed to alleviate the COVID-2019 crisis with essentially creative means of operation while still achieving the same outcomes, if not better ones. African organisations and businesses should be prepared to significantly strengthen health security by enhancing the continent's overall health and making sure that the land borders are secure if they feel at ease maintaining the status quo without the need for change. Otherwise, African nations ought to consider introducing novel approaches to education, employment, and commerce gradually. They can never predict what infectious diseases or terrorist assaults might one day spread over the continent.

3.
Gender and Development ; 30(1/2):217-246, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050957

ABSTRACT

India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), in the last 15 years, has evolved as the world's largest employer of the last resort. This social protection, specifically designed as a demand-driven automatic employment stabiliser to enable households to cope with livelihood shocks, offers 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to all rural households. The budget for this unique legislative entitlement in a developing country was nearly doubled from US$8 billion in 2019-20 to $15 billion in 2020-21 to partially offset the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns. After the first pandemic wave, NREGA provided employment to 76 million households - more than a third of all rural Indian families. Even though women have consistently worked more than half the NREGA person-days annually, in the midst of the pandemic women's share of employment declined by 2 per cent in 2020-21. However, this may have been a temporary decrease due to the unprecedented mass reverse exodus of urban migrants to their rural villages. Still, state-level analysis in this research highlights the persistent under-utilisation of NREGA by women in the poorer states of the Indo-Gangetic plain. On the other hand, the southern states have higher participation of women due to a combination of factors including better human development outcomes, higher wages, and sometimes better child-care facilities at worksites, which are necessary nationwide remedies. In particular, in the state of Kerala the novel integration of the government-initiated Kudumbashree community self-help women's groups with NREGA has led to the feminisation of the programme. This convergence provides important insights on the significance of women's participation in the decentralised management of NREGA to dilute both gender-intensive and gender-exclusive barriers, which could be fruitfully replicated nationwide.

4.
Development Southern Africa ; 39(5):722-737, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2050752

ABSTRACT

This article presents the results of the five waves of the National Income Dynamics Study - Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM) on food security between May 2020 and May 2021. Despite significant investments in social protection, food insecurity and household and child hunger remained stubbornly high. We conclude that given the protracted nature of the pandemic, slow economic recovery, household and child hunger have stabilised at higher levels than before the pandemic. The phasing out of emergency relief coupled with the constrained economic situation, are some of the reasons why levels of food insecurity and hunger are likely to remain high in the near future. Strict lockdown regulations also reduced employment and income from informal economic activities. Social support for vulnerable individuals and households remain an urgent priority. Continuing support targeted at households with children is particularly important given the dire consequences of enduring hunger for stunting, and on children's long-term development.

5.
Revista Paranaense de Desenvolvimento ; 140:71-88, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046696

ABSTRACT

Sectors strategic to the post Covid-19 economic recovery Parana are identified here by using an input-output matrix and economic indicators calculated from 2018 Parana-Rest of Brazil interregional system data. Intersectoral linkages indices portray food industry, civil construction, commerce and land transport as driving sectors of the state economy. Results concerning production, employment and income are higher for the textile and clothing, commerce, accommodation and food, education, health, and software development sectors, the latter being an important sector for the emergence of micro and small business. Incentive actions directed to strategic sectors in the economic recovery involve professional qualification, microcredit, business incubators, and extension activities focusing the dissemination of new communication and sales technologies.

6.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046117

ABSTRACT

In northwest Florida, advanced manufacturing (AM) jobs far outpace the middle-skilled technician workforce, though AM constitutes almost a quarter of the region's total employment. From 2018-2028, of the available 4.6 million manufacturing jobs, less than half are likely to be filled due to talent shortages. This widening “skills gap” is attributed to many factors that range from new technologies in the AM industry (e.g., artificial intelligence, robotics), a need for newer recruiting methods, branding, and incentives in AM educational programs. Some professionals have even indicated that manufacturing industries and AM educational programs should be aligned more to reflect the needs of the industry. Even in the wake of Covid-19, when there have been over 658,000 manufacturing jobs lost due to market conditions, many states still have jobs that go unfilled further suggesting that there are challenges in filling AM technician positions. In a time when technicians in AM are in high demand and the number of graduates are in low supply, it is critical to identify whether AM education is meeting the needs of new professionals in the workforce and what they believe can be improved in these programs. This is especially true in rural locales, where economies with manufacturing industries are much more reliant on them. In the context of a NSF Advanced Technological Education (ATE), through a multi-method approach, we sought to understand: 1) Which AM competencies skills did participants report as benefiting them in gaining employment? 2) Which competencies are needed on the job to be a successful AM technician? 3) What are the ways in which AM preparation can be improved to enhance employment outcomes? This study's results will expand the research base and curriculum content recommendations for regional AM education, as well as build regional capacity for AM program assessment and improvement by replicating, refining, and disseminating study approaches through further research, annual AM employer and educator meetings, and annual research skill-building academies in which stakeholders transfer research findings to practices and policies that empower rural NW Florida colleges. To date, research efforts have demonstrated that competency perceptions of faculty, employers, and new professionals have notable misalignments that have opportunities for AM program curriculum revision and enhancement. This paper summarizes five years of research output, emphasizing the impactful findings and dissemination products for ASEE community members, as well as opportunities for further research. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

7.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2045347

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the employment trajectories of engineering workers-both workers in occupations formally classified as engineering and workers in occupations not formally classified as engineering but where engineering knowledge is important-during the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that the employment rate of workers in engineering occupations fell by 6.6 percentage-points at the onset of the pandemic compared to a 13.1 percentage-point drop among workers in non-engineering jobs, and that workers in jobs where engineering knowledge is important were less likely to suffer employment loss during the pandemic, regardless of whether their occupation is formally classified as a STEM engineering occupation. This suggests that engineering knowledge is beneficial in reducing a worker's unemployment risk during recessions. We also find that industries with the highest share of engineers as workers tended to experience smaller percentage declines in employment during the pandemic compared to overall US employment, although employment in aerospace and motor vehicle manufacturing industries remained over 10% below pre-recession employment as of 2021Q4. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

8.
Louisiana Agriculture ; 65:2, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044964

ABSTRACT

This article presents an overview of the growth of the Louisiana nursery industry and the labour challenges the industry is facing. Labour issues in the nursery industry are not easily solved, considering the nature and seasonality of employment and competition from other industries. Despite the benefits associated with the H-2A guest worker program, particularly securing seasonal workers in times of need, which allows nurseries to cope with labour shortages, few Louisiana nurseries rely on the H-2A program. Moreover, prolonged impact of the COVID-19 pandemic also raises concerns on ways the industry needs may change and how it will affect securing labour.

9.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2044873

ABSTRACT

Stemming from requests from regional industrial employers primarily in the manufacturing field, an innovative, state-funded workforce development summer camp and related dual-enrollment course was developed at Austin Peay State University. The focus of the camp and course was to prepare students in their junior and senior years of secondary education for entry-level employment in regional manufacturing facilities. The five-week summer camp included an opportunity to gain OSHA-10 online training, basic theoretical and applied knowledge in engineering technology-related areas pertinent to entry-level manufacturing jobs, and the necessary soft skills needed to meet regional employers' demand. Ten students that were assessed from school districts surrounding the hosting institution participated in the first offering of the camp in the summer of 2021. Topics customized for the potential trained, operator-level employee included industrial safety;basic industrial electrical distribution and motor theory;basic mechanical drive theory;and basic industrial automation theory, including industrial robotics and programmable logic controller theory. All technical content theory was accompanied by a related lab that allowed for the application of the learned theory. Additionally, soft-skills training was provided via online vendors. Assessment of student progress was accomplished through a university-held dual-enrollment course in the form of exams and participation grades. The students enrolled in the course received both secondary and university level academic credit that could be transferred into the university's engineering technology associate's or bachelor's degree programs. While fulfilling the need of regional industrial employers, the summer camp and dual enrollment course provided a university-based learning experience that would better inform the student of future career path opportunities. Due to COVID-19 complications in recruiting targeted students, many of the 10 students participating in the camp did not intend to follow the manufacturing employee career pathway, although all 10 students passed the course with above-average grades. Funding for the camp, which includes scientific and safety demonstrations, is secured for the 2022 summer term, during which a more engineering-focused cohort of students will be an enrollment goal. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022

10.
Industrial Relations Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2042838

ABSTRACT

This study examines precariousness among cultural workers during an ongoing crisis. A survey of Norway's largest trade union for performing artists 1 year into the pandemic shows that precariousness before the pandemic was amplified during the crisis. Lack of economic buffer and social benefits rendered economic insecurity most burdensome for those with precarious work arrangements. For future crises, we suggest that the authorities need to develop better targeted economic compensations for labour with precarious work arrangements.

11.
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2041199

ABSTRACT

Worker scarcity in US agricultural field jobs has occurred often, particularly before COVID-19. Because US domestic workers typically forgo field jobs, their participation could potentially alleviate the scarcity. We implement an attribute-based discrete choice experiment administered before and during COVID-19 to evaluate US domestic workers' willingness to accept field jobs and valuation for non-pecuniary benefits. Domestic workers' average pre-pandemic reservation wage rate of $23.57 per hour was 68% larger than the 2019 national average field-worker wage of $13.99. Non-pecuniary benefits (insurance, housing, food allowance, and transportation) lower their reservation wage. Respondents' willingness to accept agricultural field work increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
IDS Working Paper Institute for Development Studies ; 572:1-50, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040536

ABSTRACT

This study explored how measures to curtail the spread of the coronavirus (Covid-19) in Vietnam affected the livelihoods and food and nutrition security of internal migrant workers. While Vietnam has made impressive progress towards food security in the past decades, marginalised groups of people such as ethnic minorities and migrants continue to face significant challenges. The project team investigated how the pandemic affected the precarity of these groups' income-generating opportunities and how the level of income generated affected the quality, as well as the quantity, of food consumed by migrant workers in Hanoi, the capital, and the Bac Ninh province, which hosts large industrial zones. Our research shows that income for migrant workers significantly reduced as a result of Covid-19-related lockdown measures. Almost half of the respondents were considered to be either moderately or severely food insecure. Financial support provided by the government hardly reached migrant workers because of the registration system required to receive unemployment benefits. To reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers, we conclude that: Short-term crisis responses need to focus on providing nutritious, healthy, and ample food to migrant workers;Policies that impose minimum standards of living need to be effectively enforced;The coverage of existing social safety nets by the government needs to be expanded;and A radical reform of labour law is needed to improve labour rights for migrant workers.

13.
Hungarian Geographical Bulletin ; 71(2):117-132, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040453

ABSTRACT

The primary function of national parks (NPs) is nature conservation, but for the majority of them, tourism also plays an important role. Tourism generates significant incomes, but the benefits are often unequally distributed in space, as are the disadvantages. The karst regions are generally less developed terrains in terms of traditional livelihoods, but due to their special morphology, tourism offers great opportunities. Nonetheless, mass tourism can also pose increased environmental risks. In this article, we examine the above questions on the example of Krka NP, especially from the perspective of tourists, as we conducted a questionnaire survey with visitors. The results confirmed that there is a high degree of spatial inequality both in the awareness of attractions and the distribution of tourist accommodation. This fact has already been recognised by the management of the NP, and serious steps have already been taken to reduce inequality, but their impact is not yet significant enough. Based on the survey, tourism in Krka NP is determined by same-day visits. Tourists who come here primarily consider waterfalls, lakes and rivers to be the most important values of the landscape, while cultural values are considered less significant and even less known. Local products are virtually unknown in the NP palette, so this could be a direction for development. Another point that could be developed is the awareness of visitors in the field of karstification. As the survey was conducted during COVID period, its impact on tourism was also briefly examined. This impact was manifested in the fact that the proportion of retirees and tourist buses was very small, whereas the majority of visitors (90%) arrived in the NP as independent travellers. For one third of foreigners, COVID played a role in choosing Croatia as a destination. As for domestic tourists, two thirds chose to find a destination in Croatia because of COVID.

14.
One Earth ; 5(9): 1042-1054, 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031613

ABSTRACT

To meet the Paris temperature targets and recover from the effects of the pandemic, many countries have launched economic recovery plans, including specific elements to promote clean energy technologies and green jobs. However, how to successfully manage investment portfolios of green recovery packages to optimize both climate mitigation and employment benefits remains unclear. Here, we use three energy-economic models, combined with a portfolio analysis approach, to find optimal low-carbon technology subsidy combinations in six major emitting regions: Canada, China, the European Union (EU), India, Japan, and the United States (US). We find that, although numerical estimates differ given different model structures, results consistently show that a >50% investment in solar photovoltaics is more likely to enable CO2 emissions reduction and green jobs, particularly in the EU and China. Our study illustrates the importance of strategically managing investment portfolios in recovery packages to enable optimal outcomes and foster a post-pandemic green economy.

15.
Alanya Academic Review ; 6(2):2333-2349, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026414

ABSTRACT

The fragility of global food supply chains, which signals food shortages and increases in food prices in recent years, has reached the highest level with the government's lockdown measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aims to highlight the disruptions in global food supply chains brought about by the ongoing COVID -19 pandemic and present the impact of these disruptions on food security. Supply-side and demand-side shocks that bring about deterioration of the flow in food supply chains and disruptions that threaten food security have made access to adequate and nutritious food an issue as significant as the pandemic. In the food supply chain, panic-oriented buying behaviors by consumers, job and income losses due to changes in labor markets and inflation have occurred as demand-side effects. Labor shortages, disruptions in transportation networks, restrictions imposed by countries, the opportunities of digital technology, and the spread of e-commerce have emerged as supply-side effects. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused negative effects on food security, jeopardizing availability, access, utilization, and stability with supply-side and demand-side shocks. In the conclusion part of the study, the resiliency of food systems, automation of food supply chains, the safety of employees and the importance of monitoring supply chain activities in online environments, the social security policies and practices of the state for vulnerable groups experiencing food insecurity, and food sovereignty were discussed.

16.
International Journal of Workplace Health Management ; 15(3):359-374, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2018492

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The prevalence and multi-system nature of post-COVID-19 symptoms warrants clearer understanding of their work ability implications within the working age population. An exploratory survey was undertaken to provide empirical evidence of the work-relevant experiences of workers recovering from COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach: A bespoke online survey based on a biopsychosocial framework ran between December 2020 and February 2021. It collected quantitative ratings of work ability and return-to-work status, qualitative responses about return-to-work experiences, obstacles and recommendations, along with views on employer benefits for making accommodations. A sample of 145 UK workers recovering from COVID-19 was recruited via social media, professional networks and industry contacts. Qualitative data was subject to thematic analysis. Participants were mainly from health/social care (50%) and educational settings (14%). Findings: Just over 90% indicated that they had experienced at least some post-COVID-19 symptoms, notably fatigue and cognitive effects. For 55%, symptoms lasted longer than six months. Only 15% had managed a full return-to-work. Of the 88 who provided workability ratings, just 13 and 18% respectively rated their physical and mental workability as good or very good. Difficulties in resuming work were attributed to symptom unpredictability, their interaction with job demands, managing symptoms and demands in parallel, unhelpful attitudes and expectations. Manager and peer support was reported as variable. Originality/value: Workplace health management characterised by flexible long-term collaborative return-to-work planning, supported by more COVID-centric absence policies and organisational cultures, appear pivotal for sustaining the return-to-work of the large segments of the global workforce affected by post-COVID-19 symptoms.

17.
Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio Economic Sciences ; 8(128):135-140, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012668

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken to examine the effect of COVID 19 Lockdown among day Old Chick Producers and Marketers in Ibadan South West Local Government Area (Poultry hub) of Oyo State, through the administration of questionnaire and interpersonal interview to retrieve relevant research information. The socio-economic appraiser of the stakeholders revealed that participants are predominantly male(65%), married(61.0%), most are educated (88.0%) and were Christians (40.0%) and Muslims (60.0%) based on their religious faith. Effect of Lockdown on production (100%), reduction in price, cost of ingredients with consequential reduction in level of employment. The result also reveals that the cost of ingredients, was seriously affected before (80.0%), during (65.0%) and after (98.0%) COVID-19 pandemic respectively. The result shows that the mean of the total variable cost is N28325.98, the mean of the gross margin is also positive (N322307.44), the net income is (N 272380.21) while the mean of the total fixed cost is (N400428.00). This implies that the level of profitability of poultry production in the study area is profitable. Based on the findings, it has been identified that some factors are hindering the development of poultry farms as regards large production, which will cater for the entire population of the people in the study area and the nation entirely. It therefore recommends that government should improve on the loan credit guarantee schemes available for the public and ensure the availability of well-tested, highly productive machines and reduce cost of feed.

18.
Journal of Tourismology ; 8(1):69-87, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002847

ABSTRACT

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, many sectors have begun to be affected. The tourism sector is one such sector and has been heavily affected by restrictions on international movement of. Affected by this situation, hotels have decided to close their doors or have adopted a limited-service approach. For this reason, tourism employees have become unable to see their way in an uncertain process and have encountered different practices such as hourly paid work, being sent on unpaid leave, and being given a short-term employment allowance. The reflections of this negative impact on the employees are a matter of curiosity. In this context, this study aims to reveal the relationship between job insecurity, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in five-star hotels during the COVID-19. To enable this, data were collected using a questionnaire. The study results support the conceptual model that includes the variables of job insecurity, organizational commitment, turnover intention and organizational response to COVID-19. Organizational Response to COVID-19 was found to have a negative and significant effect on job insecurity and also to have a positive and significant effect on organizational commitment. Job insecurity has a negative and significant effect on organizational commitment. Organizational commitment has a negative and significant effect on turnover intention and job insecurity was found to have a positive and significant effect on turnover intention.

19.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Excellence ; 16(1):894-905, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997412

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted all economic sectors, and the shocks have been felt strongly in the labour market. The objective of this paper is to identify the trends on the Romanian labour market, to approximate and evaluate the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on the sectors of activity and, implicitly, on the employees of these sectors. In order to carry out this analysis, relevant indicators are used for the evolution of the salary and the number of employees, for the period January 2016 - October 2021. After this section, the analysis is focused on the period 2020-2021, when the entire society faced the negative effects generated by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, the disproportionate impact of the crisis at the level of the labour force is highlighted, the employees working in the Manufacturing sector being the most severely affected, almost half of the jobs lost during the lockdown period being in this sector. Another sector that was strongly impacted by measures to prevent the spread of the virus is Accommodation and food service activities. However, in this case, the number of employees returned in 2021 to the value recorded in the pre-pandemic period.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979256

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic of economic significance in the world. Vaccination has been identified as one of the veritable means to address the problem. Few studies have focused on youths' vaccination intentions and the role of career aspiration fulfillment. This study therefore analyzed the effect engagement with dream jobs has on the willingness to get vaccinated for COVID-19. The data were from the 12th wave of the Nigeria COVID-19 National Longitudinal Phone Survey (NLPS) collected from 974 youths 15-25 years old. Instrumental Variable Probit regression was used for data analysis. The results showed that 86.57% and 80.34% of the rural and urban youths were willing to take the vaccines, respectively. Moreover, 31.18% and 25.94% of urban and rural youths, respectively, were engaged in their dream jobs. The Probit regression results showed that engagement with dream jobs was positively and significantly influenced (p < 0.01) by knowing someone who has a dream job, age and residence in the Southwest zone, while having a formal education reduced it. Instrumental Variable Probit regression results showed that willingness to take COVID-19 vaccine was positively influenced (p < 0.05) by having a dream job and intending to migrate to rural areas, while urban residence, age and residence in southern geopolitical zones decreased it. It was concluded that having a dream job promotes acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines among the youths, and there is a need for interventions to address hesitancy among urban youths and those in the southern geopolitical zones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Intention , Nigeria/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL