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2.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104150

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the current COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians require a manageable set of decisive parameters that can be used to (i) rapidly identify SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, (ii) identify patients with a high risk of a fatal outcome on hospital admission, and (iii) recognize longitudinal warning signs of a possible fatal outcome. METHODS: This comparative study was performed in 515 patients in the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Specialty Voivodeship Hospital in Zgierz, Poland. The study groups comprised 314 patients with COVID-like symptoms who tested negative and 201 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection; of the latter, 72 patients with COVID-19 died and 129 were released from hospital. Data on which we trained several machine learning (ML) models included clinical findings on admission and during hospitalization, symptoms, epidemiological risk, and reported comorbidities and medications. RESULTS: We identified a set of eight on-admission parameters: white blood cells, antibody-synthesizing lymphocytes, ratios of basophils/lymphocytes, platelets/neutrophils, and monocytes/lymphocytes, procalcitonin, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. The medical decision tree built using these parameters differentiated between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients with up to 90-100% accuracy. Patients with COVID-19 who on hospital admission were older, had higher procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and troponin I levels together with lower hemoglobin and platelets/neutrophils ratio were found to be at highest risk of death from COVID-19. Furthermore, we identified longitudinal patterns in C-reactive protein, white blood cells, and D dimer that predicted the disease outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides sets of easily obtainable parameters that allow one to assess the status of a patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the risk of a fatal disease outcome on hospital admission and during the course of the disease.

3.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2404, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103712

ABSTRACT

The multi-country outbreak of monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection, while the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is still an ongoing issue, has caused a new challenge. The re-emergence of MPXV and the rising incidence in non-endemic countries is turning into an upcoming threat to global health. Hence, rapid identification of the virus with appropriate methodology with the lowest false results plays a critical role in estimating the global extent of the crisis and providing preventive measures. This review summarised the main applicable strategies for primary detection and confirmation of MPXV and highlighted available data in biosafety, requirements, standard operating procedures, specimen collection, transportation and storage of clinical samples, and waste disposal of the viral agent. Also, various assays including molecular techniques, immunoassays, histopathological methods, electron microscopy, genomic sequencing, and cell culture have been illustrated. Moreover, we reflected on current knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

4.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; 38(5):1523-1535, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2101735

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 crisis transformed students' campus lives into a new normal. With telemeeting applications, the regular face-to-face lectures are being converted into online lectures. However, the conventional online/offline simulation and remote laboratory cannot provide a real experience of laboratory apparatus and investigations, including cooperative learning. Therefore, the telepresence laboratory is established and utilized for the 2103-360 Mechanical Engineering evaluation and Laboratory II class, which was fabricated for third-year undergraduate mechanical engineering students. To satisfy seven outcomes, students must examine the accuracy, repeatability, and resolution of an IGUS Drylin linear motion system in this lab. The lab, with a telepresence laboratory, is conducted 10 times in a semester where there are two groups of 4-5 students participating in Lab A at a time. Based on the students' findings of the analysis, it can be concluded that the telepresence laboratory can provide all learning outcomes to students. Also, regarding the investigation, more than 86% of students agreed that the lab assisted them in defining issues, designing experiments, conducting experiments, analyzing, concluding, and reporting skills. More than 77% of students agreed that they learned about the equipment from the lab. Also, 89% of students are satisfied with the lab, and 91% of students would recommend other students to take the telepresence laboratory. In conclusion, the telepresence laboratory can be employed in place of the regular face-to-face lab. It succeeds in promoting collaborative learning, where students discuss and work together to complete a task. The investigations are designed with a real-time web interface. Students can utilize their mobile devices to access and control the equipment. This practice complies with the new normal.

5.
Journal of Advances in Medical and Biomedical Research ; 30(143):519-535, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2100908

ABSTRACT

Background & Objective: COVID-19 has enforced high burden on health systems universally. To better allocate limited health equipment, we aimed to investigate the prognostic impacts of laboratory parameters. Material(s) and Method(s): All SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted to Imam-Reza University Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, during three COVID19 peak periods in Iran (March to April 2020, July to August, and October to November 2020) were enrolled the study. Demographic and laboratory data were extracted and compared between survivors and non-survivors. Regression analyses and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve) were used to identify risk factors and assess the ability of laboratory tests in predicting in-hospital mortality. Result(s): A total of 2156 COVID19 patients were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 60.20 (+/-18.8) years. Most patients were male (57%). Multiple regression analysis identified older age (OR=1.01), male sex (OR=2.34), lymphopenia (OR=2.12), LDH >500U/L (OR=2.17), hypernatremia (OR=9.7), urea >45mg/dL (OR=3.6), and BS >200mg/dl (OR=1.93) as significant risk factors for in-hospital death. Using ROC curve analysis, D-dimer (>1000ng/ml) as well as CK-Mb (>28U/L) both with sensitivities and specificities of more than 80% and PPV of about 90% were able to identify patients with higher possibility of in-hospital death. Conclusion(s): Male sex, older age, lymphopenia, hypernatremia, increased Urea, increased LDH, and hyperglycemia may serve as potential risk factors for inhospital death. D-dimer and CK-MB may be used in identifying patients with high probability of in-hospital death. These tests may be used in clinical decision-making in order to improve outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Copyright © 2022, Zahra Khoshnegah.

6.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100702

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections can be related to vast spectrum of co-existent bacterial and fungal infections. A 49-year-old diabetic male was admitted with a history of fever, cough and breathlessness since 5 days. He developed persistent headache with right sided purulent nasal discharge. Relevant histo-pathological, biochemical, microbiological and imaging studies were performed which proved it to be a dual infection of Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis. We present one such case in a COVID-19 patient to highlight its unusual clinical features along with the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

7.
International Journal of Pediatrics-Mashhad ; 10(10):16854-16868, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100691

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus, a common infectious disease in the 21st century, has not been studied enough in children. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and outcomes of children with Covid-19 admitted to Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan during 2020-2022.Method: In this retrospective cohort study, the medical records of children with covid-19 referred to Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan between February 2020 and March 2022 were reviewed. The information extracted from the patient's medical records included demographic variables, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and the outcome of covid-19. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 16, using descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (chi-square test and ANOVA).Result: The findings of 271 children (159 boys;52% of the age group <= 5 years) showed that fever (57.6%), cough (39.9%), nausea-vomiting (31.7%), and diarrhea were the most common clinical symptoms. Also, the majority of patients were in the abnormal range in terms of Monocyte (89.3%), PTT (84.7%), Lymphocyte (83.6%), Neutrophil (80.4%), and LDH (74.5%). Pulmonary involvement was present in 12.5% of children. Finally, four children (1.5%) died. Conclusion: Severity of lung involvement and the outcome of the covid-19 disease (admission to the ICU and death) among children were at a low level, and in fact, it shows the better condition of children than adults in relation to this disease.

8.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This proof of concept study was aimed to validate the hypothesis that the time of positivization of SARS-CoV-2 self-performed rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may reflect the actual viral load in the specimen. METHODS: A SARS-CoV-2 positive sample with high viral load was diluted and concomitantly assayed with molecular assay (Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2) and RDT (COVID-VIRO ALL IN RDT). The (mean cycle threshold; Ct) values and RDT positivization times of these dilutions were plotted and interpolated by calculating the best fit. The parameters of this equation were then used for converting the positivization times into RDT-estimated SARS-CoV-2 Ct values in routine patient samples. RESULTS: The best fit between measured and RDT-estimated Ct values could be achieved with a 2-degree polynomial curve. The RDT-estimated Ct values exhibited high correlation (r=0.996) and excellent Deming fit (y=1.01 × x - 0.18) with measured Ct values. In 30 consecutive patients with positive RDT test, the correlation between RDT positivization time and measured Ct value was r=0.522 (p=0.003). The correlation of RDT-estimated and measured Ct values slightly improved to 0.577 (Deming fit: y=0.44 × x + 11.08), displaying a negligible bias (1.0; 95% CI, -0.2 to 2.2; p=0.105). Concordance of RDT-estimated and measured Ct values at the <20 cut-off was 80%, with 0.84 sensitivity and 0.73 specificity. CONCLUSIONS: This proof of concept study demonstrates the potential feasibility of using RDTs for garnering information on viral load in patients with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0147722, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097934

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in Mexico in February 2020. Even though health authorities did not perceive then the value of viral detection tests, we anticipated the demand for them. We set up to develop an expeditious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) molecular diagnostic service through the implementation of standardized protocols for biospecimen sampling, transportation, biobanking, preanalytical validation, and nucleic acids (NA) testing (NAT). Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs collected in a special transportation medium were the biospecimens from which NAs were purified either manually or automatically. Viral RNA genome presence was determined using commercial SARS-CoV-2 detection kits (based on reverse transcription coupled with real-time PCR [RT-PCR]). Improvements in laboratory processing speed and reliability resulted from semi-automatizing laboratory processes and adopting a quality control/quality assurance system (QC/QA), respectively. NAs that were purified, either manually or automatically, were validated by preanalytical spectrophotometric characterization. Automated purification was less prone to contamination and reduced the processing time. The following six RT-PCR kits were evaluated for their convenience, specificity, sensitivity, time consumption, and required materials (in order, starting with the kit with the best results): RIDA gene and Viasure (tied), Vircell, LightMix, 1copy, and Logix Smart. Redesigning the laboratories' working areas, equipment, fluxes of personnel and material, and personnel skills, and overemphasizing biosafety safeguards were major challenges encountered in the middle of the sanitary crisis. Adopting a QC/QA system, utilizing automatization processes, and working closely with health authorities were key factors in our success. IMPORTANCE Rearranging our diagnostic laboratories to improve the fight against a new unexpected, unpredictable, and sudden public health threat demanded that we move quickly to redesign not only the laboratory processes but also the distribution of space, personnel activities, and fluxes of material coming in and out. We also had to work closely with governmental health authorities to gain their trust in our technical competence. Gaining the confidence of the clients, i.e., mainly individuals, the human resource departments of factories and corporations sending employees for testing, and medical institutions, and implementing as much automatization as possible of processes, in which only officially approved reagents (for extraction and analysis of NA) were used to generate opportune trustable testing results, were key factors. Our laboratories have gathered a considerable amount of experience and significant number of solutions, considering our geographic contexts alongside this continuously morphing pandemic, validating many techniques that might help other laboratories find a better and more precise workflow.

10.
Middle East Fertil Soc J ; 25(1): 31, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential of COVID-19 severe pandemic necessitates the development of an organized and well-reasoned plan for the management of embryology/andrology laboratories while safeguarding the wellbeing of patients and IVF staff. MAIN BODY: A COVID-19 pandemic response plan was proposed for embryology and andrology laboratories for pre-pandemic preparedness and pandemic management in anticipation of a possible second coronavirus wave. Preparation involves many plans and logistics before a pandemic risk rises. Many operational changes can be considered during the pandemic. This plan includes logistical arrangements, reducing labor needs, conserving supplies, and protective measures for embryologists and gametes/embryos. CONCLUSION: The unpredictable emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic dictates the need for a preparedness plan for embryology/andrology laboratories, which includes an action-oriented plan to secure the safety of all stakeholders.

11.
Microbiological Research ; : 127249, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095797

ABSTRACT

Summary Bacterial drug resistance has become a global public health threat, among which the infection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) is one of the top noticeable issues in the global anti-infection area due to limited therapy options. In recent years, the prevalence of CRE transmission around the world has increased, and the transmission of COVID-19 has intensified the situation to a certain extent. CRE resistance can be induced by carbapenemase, porin, efflux pump, penicillin-binding protein alteration, and biofilm production. Deletion, mutation, insertion, and post-transcriptional modification of corresponding coding genes may affect the sensitivity of Enterobacterales bacteria to carbapenems. Clinical and laboratory methods to detect CRE and explore its resistance mechanisms are being developed. Due to the limited options of antibiotics, the clinical treatment of CRE infection also faces severe challenges. The clinical therapies of CRE include single or combined use of antibiotics, and some new antibiotics and treatment methods are also being developed. Hence, this review summarizes the epidemiology, resistance mechanisms, screening and clinical treatments of CRE infection, to provide references for clinical prevention, control and treatment of CRE infection.

12.
Biochemical Engineering Journal ; : 108713, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095092

ABSTRACT

Increase in the adoption of liquid handling devices (LHD) can facilitate experimental activities. Initially adopted by businesses and industry-based laboratories, the practice has also moved to academic environments, where a wide range of non-standard/non-typical experiments can be performed. Current protocols or laboratory analyses require researchers to transfer liquids for the purpose of dilution, mixing, or inoculation, among other operations. LHD can render laboratories more efficient by performing more experiments per unit of time, by making operations robust and resilient against external factors and unforeseen events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and by remote operation. The present work reviews literature that reported the adoption and utilisation of LHD available in the market and presents examples of their practical use. Applications demonstrate the critical role of automation in research development and its ability to reduce human intervention in the experimental workflow. Ultimately, this work will provide guidance to academic researchers to determine which LHD can fulfil their needs and how to exploit their use in both conventional and non-conventional applications. Furthermore, the breadth of applications and the scarcity of academic institutions involved in research and development that utilise these devices highlights an important area of opportunity for shift in technology to maximize research outcomes.

13.
IJID Reg ; 5: 154-162, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095486

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify clinical and laboratory phenotype distribution patterns and their usefulness as prognostic markers in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town. Methods and results: A latent class analysis (LCA) model was applied in a prospective, observational cohort study. Data from 343 COVID-19 patients were analysed. Two distinct phenotypes (1 and 2) were identified, comprising 68.46% and 31.54% of patients, respectively. The phenotype 2 patients were characterized by increased coagulopathy markers (D-dimer, median value 1.73 ng/L vs 0.94 ng/L; p < 0.001), end-organ dysfunction (creatinine, median value 79 µmol/L vs 69.5 µmol/L; p < 0.003), under-perfusion markers (lactate, median value 1.60 mmol/L vs 1.20 mmol/L; p < 0.001), abnormal cardiac function markers (median N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) 314 pg/ml vs 63.5 pg/ml; p < 0.001 and median high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (Hs-TropT) 39 ng/L vs 12 ng/L; p < 0.001), and acute inflammatory syndrome (median neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio 15.08 vs 8.68; p < 0.001 and median monocyte value 0.68 × 109/L vs 0.45 × 109/L; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The identification of COVID-19 phenotypes and sub-phenotypes in ICU patients could help as a prognostic marker in the day-to-day management of COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU.

14.
Drug Test Anal ; 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094164

ABSTRACT

Doping analysis with a fast-turnaround-time reporting of 24/48 h is a "traditional" requirement for major competitions such as the Olympic Games, which require tremendously increased allocation of resources, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The "Closed-Loop" concept and operation mode established by the Beijing Organizing Committee for the 2022 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (BOCOG) provided a relatively isolated environment to non-Games-related civilians. To maintain this system, more than 200 persons were included as supporting crew of the laboratory with massive logistic resources allocated. The National Anti-Doping Laboratory in Beijing carried out the analysis mission of the Beijing 2022 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. During the Winter Olympics, 3165 samples were analyzed, whereas during the Paralympics, 679 samples were analyzed. The workforce accomplishing this work was composed of 36 domestic analysts, 20 international experts from other World Anti-Doping Agency-accredited laboratories, 61 university students with suitable majors, and 12 on-site instrumental engineers. This article summarizes the achievements from the laboratory's preparation phase; in-Game operational details such as instruments, methods, workforces, and facility; and the Quality Assurance measures to maintain the integrity and correctness of results reported to the Result Management Authority, with the effect of the pandemic and "Closed-Loop" situation during the whole process highlighted.

15.
EJIFCC ; 33(2): 75-78, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092798
16.
EJIFCC ; 33(2): 105-120, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092464

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To date, more than 550 million cases and 6 million deaths have been reported worldwide. This study investigated the laboratory features in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and determined risk factors for in-hospital mortality. This retrospective observational study included laboratory results of confirmed cases of hospitalised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Jersey (UK) between March-December 2020 (subject to inclusion criteria), and a control group. Furthermore, COVID-19 patients were split into two sub-groups, based on outcome (non-survivors vs. survivors). Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for in-hospital mortality. A total of 81 COVID-19 cases and 100 controls were included in this study. In the COVID-19 group, 59.3% of subjects were male, and the overall mortality was 33.3%. The main laboratory changes were the following: 95.1% of patients presented with raised C-reactive protein (p<0.001), 85% showed increased fibrinogen (p<0.001), 70% had prolonged prothrombin time (p=0.014), 51.9% suffered from lymphopenia (p<0.001), 42% had elevated gamma glutamyl transferase (p=0.011) and 35.8% demonstrated raised creatinine concentration (p=0.002). Non-survivors were older than survivors (median age: 82 vs. 74 years, p=0.003) with substantial lymphopenia (p=0.018), high creatinine level (p=0.009), and leukocytosis (p=0.018). Increased in-hospital mortality risk was 6.7-fold in patients presenting with a lymphocyte count <0.85 x109/L, 5.3-fold with red blood cell distribution width >14%, 4.9-fold with white cell count >9.5 x109/L, and 3.3-fold for those presenting with creatinine >100 µmol/L. Age ≥82 years was significantly associated with death, and male gender a risk factor for hospital admission in COVID-19. These results demonstrate that routine haematology and biochemistry tests may allow for risk-stratification of hospitalised patients with COVID-19.

17.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; 38(5):1443-1457, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2092298

ABSTRACT

We explored whether a project-based approach and experiential-learning activity would improve learning of complex concepts related to concrete manufacturing in the workplace. We designed a group-based laboratory activity, followed by student-peer teaching and marking and a final report writing task, based on the job of a concrete technician/engineer in a concrete production plant. An action research approach was used to assess student satisfaction (N = 269), their perception of the learning experience, and the impact on their grades. There were four data sources: Observations made by lecturers and TAs, standardised student evaluations, a targeted survey, and course grades. We correlated measures of student peer -teaching with academic output. Students were satisfied overall with the activity and their perceptions of experiential-learning were positive. The student peer-teaching activity needs improvements. Despite extra online-learning resources provided to compensate for Covid disruptions, students were more satisfied with the in-person activity than with the on-line counterpart. Our positive results suggest that student learning about concrete manufacturing improves when complex theory is integrated with practical learning activities using a project-based approach. We will further modify and integrate learning activities based on these results in our new multi-disciplinary learning spaces.

18.
Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul ; 56(3): 334-342, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091038

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Our aim is to determine prevalence, severity, duration of otorhinolaryngologic symptoms related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and correlation between the test results obtained by oronasopharyngeal swab and the symptoms of these regions by evaluating differences in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) symptoms between laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients and clinically and computed tomography (CT)-diagnosed COVID-19 patients. Methods: The study enrolled patients with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test diagnosed with COVID-19 that grouped as PCR (+), and those with repeated negative PCR tests but COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) chest CT findings with high (CO-RADS 5) or very high (CO-RADS 6) similarity to COVID-19 that grouped as PCR(-)/CT(+). Demographic features, general symptoms, and otorhinolaryngological symptoms and severity of disease were evaluated and compared. Results: The most common ENT symptoms in the PCR(+) group were loss of taste (n=77), loss of smell, and sore throat with respective frequencies of 34.5%, 31.8%, 26.0%, and in PCR(-) CT (+) group loss of taste, loss of smell, and sore throat with respective frequencies 24.6%, 21.1%, and 18.4%. ENT symptom rates were found higher in PCR (+) group (65.0%) according to PCR(-)/CT(+) group (49.1%) with statistically significant difference (p=0.008). Loss of smell rates were found higher in PCR (+) group according to PCR(-)/CT(+) group with statistically significant difference (p=0.037). Conclusion: Loss of smell and taste were most common ENT symptoms in laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. The presence of COVID-19 should definitely be considered in patients presenting with sudden loss of smell or taste. In addition, loss of smell and otolaryngologic symptoms were more common in laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 according to clinically and computed tomograpy diagnosed COVID-19 cases. There can be a correlation between positive sample region and symptom region. Location of symptoms must be considered for decision of sampling location.

19.
Lab Med ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087813

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our New York City Municipal Public Health System-based multisite ambulatory and school-based Gotham Health clinics offer waived point-of-care tests and provider-performed microscopy to the local communities. Our Gotham Health laboratory service conducts system-wide centralized implementation, monitoring, and oversight of the POCT operations. Laboratory staffing has always been an issue for us as there is a decades-long shortage of laboratory staff, primarily licensed medical technologists and technicians, in New York, like many other states. Our clinical laboratory operations team struggled to hire qualified people even before the COVID-19 pandemic onset. It has faced more significant challenges with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic cases in New York City and across the country since mid-March 2020. METHODS: As staffing continues to be a struggle, it directly affected the POCT performances and a system-wide reduction in the test numbers during the pandemic. We investigated to identify the factors that made staffing more challenging. RESULTS: The impact on our POCT started after laboratory staff relocated to the acute care hospital laboratories to provide testing support during the pandemic's peak. That caused significant delays or complete cessation of POCT operations in the clinics due to a lack of oversight support. We also experienced the risk of more vacated positions where staff already feel overworked, overwhelmed, and emotionally drained, causing professional burnout. The significant challenges identified are noncompliance with vaccine mandates resulting in job dismissal and voluntary resignations in exchange for higher-paying laboratories. Finally, the other challenges identified were frequent sick calls due to mental fatigue, retirement of seasoned staff, and inability to attract qualified technologists to meet the demands of increasing test-ordering patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Determining the factors that culminated in the staffing issues becoming more challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic in our ambulatory care clinic laboratory operations will help us in future crisis planning and mitigation.

20.
Cureus ; 14(8): e28530, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082400

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of Coronavirus infection called COVID-19, testing is essential for containment and mitigation purposes. In a pandemic, control is essential to limit the spread of any virus. Initially, contact tracing was not available which ultimately led to the 2020 pandemic. However, with the development of COVID-19 rapid testing, the rate of infections has lessened and has allowed for some return to normalcy. In this review, we discuss the various antibody, antigens, and molecular tests that have been given emergency authorization (EA) from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Moreover, we will discuss the various point-of-care tests as well as the specificity and sensitivity that are associated with each testing kit. With appropriate testing, we can be aware of how the virus spreads and how prevalent it remains.

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